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Horticulturae, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 127 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dahlias have become popular cut flowers, but the vase life of cut dahlia flowers is short. The petal senescence is divided into petal wilting, withering, and abscission. The pulse treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS) followed by continuous treatment with GLA, which consisted of glucose, isothiazolinone germicide, and aluminum sulfate, extends the vase life of cut dahlias, irrespective of the senescence types. The background photograph shows the dahlia production greenhouse, and the foreground photographs show the effect of STS and GLA on the vase life of cut dahlia ‘Micchan’. STS delays the wilting of outer petals (left), whereas GLA promotes the growth of inner petals (right). View this paper
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Article
Assessing the Reliability of Treated Grey Water Irrigation on Soil and Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100981 - 21 Oct 2022
Abstract
Under a water scarcity situation, it is expected to manage water more efficiently. This study aims to evaluate the effect of treated grey water (from laundry and tableware), pre-treated through a wetland mini-reactor with a horizontal underground flow, on soil and tomatoes. The [...] Read more.
Under a water scarcity situation, it is expected to manage water more efficiently. This study aims to evaluate the effect of treated grey water (from laundry and tableware), pre-treated through a wetland mini-reactor with a horizontal underground flow, on soil and tomatoes. The experiment included two tomato cultivars (Dart and Firenze), planted in completely randomized bloc design, and irrigated with treated grey water (TGW) vs. ground water (C) as control. Soil, tomato leaves and fruits were assessed for microbial contamination. Tomato yield, physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant contents were studied. Results showed that TGW met the standards for irrigation water for most water quality variables. Irrigation with TGW increased the concentrations of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in the soil. Although, the soil ionic composition was still in the suitable range for agriculture. Opportunely, there was no contamination by fecal coliforms, streptococcus and E. coli in soil and tomatoes. Dart cultivar seems to be more responsive to TGW and had higher fruit number and weight. This response was accompanied by an effective antioxidant response, higher water and juice content. The findings of this study emphasize that TGW may provide a way to preserve water resources and to avoid soil contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation and Solution for Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Effect of Exogenous Calcium on the Heat Tolerance in Rosa hybrida ‘Carolla’
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100980 - 21 Oct 2022
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the tolerance of Rosa hybrida ‘Carolla’ to high-temperature and the physiological mechanisms underlying this response. Leaves of ‘Carolla’ grown under stress were treated by spraying four different concentrations of calcium chloride [...] Read more.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the tolerance of Rosa hybrida ‘Carolla’ to high-temperature and the physiological mechanisms underlying this response. Leaves of ‘Carolla’ grown under stress were treated by spraying four different concentrations of calcium chloride (CaCl2; 50, 100, 150, or 200 μM). The photosynthetic responses, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic substance contents were measured under high-temperature stress at the flowering stage. Temperature-stressed ‘Carolla’ with CaCl2 treatment showed significantly increased chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (An), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), water use efficiency (WUE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities together with proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and soluble protein (SP) concentrations, while malonaldehyde (MDA) content and relative electrical conductivity (REC) were significantly reduced. The damages caused by high-temperature stress were alleviated by applying CaCl2. Among the CaCl2 treatments, 100 μM CaCl2 best minimized the damage caused by high-temperature to ‘Carolla’. This study showed that exogenous calcium could improve the tolerance of Rosa hybrida ‘Carolla’ to high-temperature stress by regulating photosynthesis, the antioxidant system, and osmotic substances. Full article
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Article
Consideration of Maillard Reaction-Based Time–Temperature Indicator (TTI) to Visualize Shelf Life of Cold-Stored Strawberries
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100979 - 21 Oct 2022
Abstract
In this paper, the potential of a Maillard reaction-based time–temperature indicator (TTI) as a device for the visualization of shelf life was evaluated by comparing the quality variations of cold-stored strawberries and the color changes of Maillard reaction solutions. The color variations of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the potential of a Maillard reaction-based time–temperature indicator (TTI) as a device for the visualization of shelf life was evaluated by comparing the quality variations of cold-stored strawberries and the color changes of Maillard reaction solutions. The color variations of the Maillard reaction solutions stored in the same storage environment as the cold-stored strawberries showed suitable characteristics for the visualization of shelf life, such as pronounced color changes, a wide-ranging color variation rate, and activation energy. In particular, the concentrations of the reaction solutions with the combinations of 3.0 M D-xylose, 1.5 M glycine, and 0.3 M Na2HPO4; 2.0 M D-xylose, 1.5 M glycine, and 0.3 M Na2HPO4; and 4.0 M D-xylose, 1.0 M glycine, and 0.3 M Na2HPO4 were suitable for the visualization of the weight loss variation, color difference variation, and appearance damage. These concentrations showed similar color variations and Arrhenius activation energies to the variation of the quality characteristics, such as weight loss and color difference. Additionally, a Maillard reaction-based time–temperature indicator (TTI) has a wide applicability to other agricultural products using the wide range of the color change rate and the activation energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables)
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Article
Phenotypic and Chemotypic Relations among Local Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall Landrace Collection
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100978 - 21 Oct 2022
Abstract
The relationship between the phenotypic and chemical composition of local Andrographis paniculata was evaluated in this study. Five seed collections were sourced from different regions of Thailand, namely Kamphaeng Saen (KS), Udon Thani (UT), Chiang Rai (CR), Chiang Mai (CM), and Ratchaburi (RB). [...] Read more.
The relationship between the phenotypic and chemical composition of local Andrographis paniculata was evaluated in this study. Five seed collections were sourced from different regions of Thailand, namely Kamphaeng Saen (KS), Udon Thani (UT), Chiang Rai (CR), Chiang Mai (CM), and Ratchaburi (RB). They were cultivated in the same conditions, potted, and partially shaded (60%) in an open conventional greenhouse. The phenology and chemical composition of these plants were assessed at the commercial harvesting stage (ca. 90 days after planting). The results indicated that UT was morphologically distinctive, illustrating the highest edible biomass yield (aerial and mature leaf size). The above-ground parts (viz., leaves and stem) were then analyzed for bioactive compounds after maceration with 80% (w/w) ethanol. It was found that the highest lactone content (~14 mg/g extract) was obtained from leaf and stem extracts of all samples except KS. Nonetheless, total phenolics and flavonoids in the stem extract of KS were found to be the highest at 3.22 and 2.42 mg/g, respectively. Phytochemicals from both leaf and stem extracts were capable of high anti-oxidant activity (~70%) as determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Chemically, RB contained the highest 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (156.98 mg/g extract), while UT and CM contained up to 0.68 mg/g extract of neoandrographolide. Classification of the samples indicated a clear relationship between the morphological traits and chemical compositions. In conclusion, our findings suggest the variations in phenotypic and chemotypic relations across the different landraces of A. paniculata. In essence, the quantity of the consumable parts was essentially the marker to describe the quality of the phytochemical constituents. The overall outcome of this study was to select the physiological characteristics that could be used for further breeding programs of the ideal variety with high productivity and higher bioactive(s) content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
A Comparison of IPM and Organic Farming Systems Based on the Efficiency of Oophagous Predation on the Olive Moth (Prays oleae Bernard) in Olive Groves of Southern Iberia
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100977 - 21 Oct 2022
Abstract
The olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lep., Praydidae), is one of the most common insect pests affecting the olives groves of the Mediterranean basin. Current farming practices are largely oriented to optimize the effectiveness of beneficial insects, among which the common green [...] Read more.
The olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lep., Praydidae), is one of the most common insect pests affecting the olives groves of the Mediterranean basin. Current farming practices are largely oriented to optimize the effectiveness of beneficial insects, among which the common green lacewings (Neur., Chrysopidae) stand out. Two different types of management models, organic and IPM, were compared in this study, which was conducted in olive groves in the regions of Andalucía (Spain) and Alentejo (Portugal). During 2020 and 2021, fruit samples were periodically collected, analyzing the population parameters (POP) and potential attack on the fruit (%PA), as well as the predatory impact (%PRED), which has allowed the estimation of the final attack (%FA), and derived fruit recovery rates (%REC). The results show that in organic olive groves of both countries, the infestation parameters (POP, %PA) were significantly higher than in IPM ones. However, predation rates were also higher in organic olive groves, which resulted in REC rates of between 75% and 80%, reducing FA rates to values of approximately 10% and 20% in Portugal and Spain, respectively. In contrast, in the IPM olive groves, significantly lower predation values were recorded, with lower REC rates than in the organic olive groves; the rates were very similar in both countries (ca. 54%), which led to a higher percentage of fruit loss (%FA) equivalent to 22% (Portugal) and to 34% (Spain). This paper discusses potential drivers influencing differences in the population values and percentages of infestation by P. oleae observed, as well as the differences in the final attack rates between olive groves of both countries, subject to the same type of agricultural management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management in Horticulture)
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Article
Abundance and Population Dynamics of the Key Insect Pests and Agronomic Traits of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) Varieties under Different Planting Densities as a Sustainable Pest Control Method
by , and
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100976 - 20 Oct 2022
Abstract
In Saudi Arabia, the tomato is susceptible to a wide range of insect pests that could destroy this valuable vegetable crop, cause yield losses, and affect fruit quality and quantity. Insecticides are widely applied to protect tomatoes and control pests that develop a [...] Read more.
In Saudi Arabia, the tomato is susceptible to a wide range of insect pests that could destroy this valuable vegetable crop, cause yield losses, and affect fruit quality and quantity. Insecticides are widely applied to protect tomatoes and control pests that develop a resistance to pesticides, but these affect human health and have a negative impact on the environment. The application of Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) is a worthwhile sustainable alternative for controlling insect pests in tomato fields. To investigate the population dynamics of the major pests affecting tomato growth and yield, two commercial varieties (Areenez F1 and Tala F1) were cultivated at three plant spacings (30 × 50 cm, 60 × 50 cm, and 90 × 50 cm) under the conditions of the desert climate. The experiments were conducted in the field in 2020 and 2021 and were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with each treatment repeated for 4 times. A total of 14 major insect pests including Empoasca fabae, Bemisia tabaci, Orosius orientalis, Acheta domesticus, and Lasius niger were recorded on a weekly basis. The results showed that the mean abundances of E. fabae, O. orientalis, and B. tabaci were higher in the 30 × 50 cm plant spacing, whereas the 90 × 50 cm plant spacing resulted in a higher abundance of A. domesticus and L. niger. The measured agronomic traits, plant height (cm), plant dry mass (g), and total yield/ha (ton) of both the tomato varieties were significantly increased when the plants were spaced at 60 cm between plants and 50 cm between rows. We recommend that growing tomato plants at 60 cm between plants and 50 cm between rows may reduce the need to apply pesticides given that this plant spacing significantly reduced the abundance of some key insect pests and enhanced the tomato fruit yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest Management)
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Article
Oriental Strawberry Metabolites: LC–MS Profiling, Antioxidant Potential, and Postharvest Changes of Fragaria orientalis Fruits
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100975 - 20 Oct 2022
Abstract
Fragaria orientalis is the most distributed wild strawberry in the North Asia, and it is consumed in large quantities by the local population. However, poor knowledge of the chemical composition, metabolic profiles, and bioactivity leads to the insufficient use of F. orientalis beyond [...] Read more.
Fragaria orientalis is the most distributed wild strawberry in the North Asia, and it is consumed in large quantities by the local population. However, poor knowledge of the chemical composition, metabolic profiles, and bioactivity leads to the insufficient use of F. orientalis beyond the region. The aim of our study was to investigate the nutritional value, chemical composition, and sensory parameters of wild and cultivated F. orientalis fruits, before and during postharvest storage. Sixty-five compounds were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Wild and cultivated fruits have the same LC–MS profiles, but quantitative levels varied, in favor of the wild samples. The extracts of F. orientalis fruit demonstrated high radical-scavenging potential, and ascorbic acid and various phenolics were identified as principal antioxidants. Significant variation in ascorbic acid, phenolic content, and total antioxidant potential was found during storage of the fresh F. orientalis fruit at cold and room temperatures and in defrosted fruits; storage of the dried fruits at cold temperature showed the lowest loss of bioactive compounds. The new information on postharvest changes in the phytochemicals and bioactivities provide a better understanding of the processes occurring in fresh, frozen, and dried strawberry fruits during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables)
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Review
Seed Silhouettes as Geometric Objects: New Applications of Elliptic Fourier Transform to Seed Morphology
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100974 - 20 Oct 2022
Abstract
Historically, little attention has been paid to the resemblance between seed silhouettes to geometric figures. Cardioid and derivatives, ellipses, heart curves, lemniscates, lenses, lunes, ovals, superellipses, waterdrops, and other figures can be used to describe seed shape, as well as models for quantification. [...] Read more.
Historically, little attention has been paid to the resemblance between seed silhouettes to geometric figures. Cardioid and derivatives, ellipses, heart curves, lemniscates, lenses, lunes, ovals, superellipses, waterdrops, and other figures can be used to describe seed shape, as well as models for quantification. Algebraic expressions representing the average silhouettes for a group of seeds are available, and their shape can be described and quantified by comparison with geometric models. Bidimensional closed-plane figures resulting from the representation of Fourier equations can be used as models for shape analysis. Elliptic Fourier Transform equations reproduce the seed silhouettes for any closed-plane curve corresponding to the contour of the image of a seed. We review the geometric properties of the silhouettes from seed images and discuss them in the context of seed development, plant taxonomy, and environmental adaptation. Silene is proposed as a model for the study of seed morphology. Three groups have been recently defined among Silene species based on the structure of their seed silhouettes, and their geometric properties are discussed. Using models based on Fourier Transform equations is useful in Silene species where the seeds are homogenous in shape but don’t adjust to described figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Propagation and Seeds)
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Article
In Vitro Floral Emergence and Improved Formation of Saffron Daughter Corms
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100973 - 20 Oct 2022
Abstract
In vitro cormogenesis is a potential tool for improving saffron production under controlled conditions. In this study, the effects of explant type, culture type, and medium supplements on saffron daughter corm formation in vitro were assessed. Saffron flowers emerged 30 days after culture, [...] Read more.
In vitro cormogenesis is a potential tool for improving saffron production under controlled conditions. In this study, the effects of explant type, culture type, and medium supplements on saffron daughter corm formation in vitro were assessed. Saffron flowers emerged 30 days after culture, and the sizes of in-vitro- and ex-vitro-produced flowers and stigmas were similar. In vitro daughter corm formation and the saffron life cycle was completed after 10 and 14 weeks of culture, respectively. Using in vitro intact corms was more effective for corm production than using apical buds. Compared with apical bud explants, mother corm explants produced more corms with a higher fresh weight and diameter. Compared with solid culture, liquid cultures using bioreactors provided corms with a higher fresh weight and diameter, regardless of explant type. An ebb and flow system provided the highest cormlet fresh weight and diameter but the fewest cormlets, whereas an immersion system provided more cormlets with a smaller size. Saffron apical buds cultured with salicylic acid at 75 mg L−1 or glutamine at 600 mg L−1 exhibited the highest cormlet diameter and fresh weight. These findings will improve the process of in vitro cormogenesis and the production of saffron under controlled conditions. Full article
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Communication
Research on the Use of Thermal Imaging as a Method for Detecting Fungal Growth in Apples
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100972 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study assesses whether thermal imaging can be utilized for detecting and monitoring the level of plant product contamination with apples used as an example. The growth of Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer on apples contaminated with these fungi [...] Read more.
This study assesses whether thermal imaging can be utilized for detecting and monitoring the level of plant product contamination with apples used as an example. The growth of Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer on apples contaminated with these fungi was investigated by measuring temperature changes using a thermovision camera. The results showed a significant relationship between the temperature of apples and the growth of microorganisms, as well as that the temperature changes occurred in two stages (temperature of the contaminated apples increased on the first day but then decreased). Significant differences were found between the temperature of the apples showing microbial growth and the noncontaminated control sample, which indicates that the thermal imaging technique has a potential application in microbial quality control. Automation of the production process and attempts on the intensification of production capacity have resulted in the need to improve individual stages of product quality control. Thermovision-based methods have a high potential in this field, as they represent an innovative and noninvasive alternative to conventional microbiological diagnostic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storage and Quality Management of Horticultural Products)
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Article
Effect of Biostimulant Application on Plant Growth, Chlorophylls and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Activity of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Grown under Saline Stress
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100971 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Irrigated agricultural lands are prone to salinity problems which may imperil horticultural crops by reducing growth, yield and even qualitative traits. Eco-friendly approaches such as biostimulant application and in particular protein hydrolysates from vegetal origin are implemented to mitigate salinity stress effects on [...] Read more.
Irrigated agricultural lands are prone to salinity problems which may imperil horticultural crops by reducing growth, yield and even qualitative traits. Eco-friendly approaches such as biostimulant application and in particular protein hydrolysates from vegetal origin are implemented to mitigate salinity stress effects on crops. For this reason, a greenhouse experiment on spinach irrigated with increasing concentrations of saline water (EC = 3 dS m−1 (EC3), 6 dS m−1 (EC6) and 9 dS m−1 (EC9), in addition to non-saline treatment (EC0)) was organized, while plants were subjected to foliar applications of a protein hydrolysate from vegetal origin on a weekly basis. The application of this biostimulant helped mitigate the adverse effects of saline stress, by increasing the SPAD index and total chlorophylls of spinach plants. Yield was significantly boosted under biostimulant treatment in saline conditions and reached the value obtained in control treatment (no biostimulants added) × EC0 in the case of EC 3 and 6 dS m−1. In addition, the number of leaves and plants m−1 was increased under biostimulant treatment, and most importantly the hydrophilic antioxidant activity of spinach, thus a qualitative aspect of great importance was also increased. Such results increase the knowledge on the effects of protein hydrolysates application on an important leafy vegetable and may help growers mitigate saline conditions and maintain high crop yield and high quality of the final product when no other source of irrigation water is available. Full article
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Article
Effects of Molybdenum Fertilizer Combined with Bacillus subtilis Strain on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage and the Content of Nitrate in Soil
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100970 - 19 Oct 2022
Abstract
With increasing nitrogen application in soil, the problem of nitrate accumulation in soil and vegetable bodies has become increasingly serious. In this study, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) Strain11 was isolated and studied for its effects in combination with Molybdenum (Mo) on [...] Read more.
With increasing nitrogen application in soil, the problem of nitrate accumulation in soil and vegetable bodies has become increasingly serious. In this study, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) Strain11 was isolated and studied for its effects in combination with Molybdenum (Mo) on the growth of Chinese cabbage and soil nitrate content. The results showed that the strain effectively increased the growth, height, and moisture content of Chinese cabbage by 27% and 2.5%, respectively, compared to the control. Mo application alone reduced soil nitrate accumulation and increased root length, height, chlorophyll content, and moisture content of Chinese cabbage, with an optimal rate of 0.8–1.2 mg/kg soil. The application of Mo fertilizer in combination with the Bacillus strain was the most effective in increasing plant height and root length of Chinese cabbage, which were 1.49 times and 1.68 times that of the control, respectively. The proportion of dry matter, the average fresh weight, and the dry weight under this treatment were 9.01%, 5.83 g/plant, and 0.53 g/plant, respectively, higher than the rest. At harvest, the highest ammonium-nitrogen content in this treatment group was 8.56 mg/kg, and the soil nitrate reduction reached 40.68%. In conclusion, Mo fertilizer at a rate of 0.8 mg Mo/kg soil, in combination with B. subtilis Strain11, was recommended for the remediation of nitrate-contaminated soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Nutrition)
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Article
Insecticidal Activity against Myzus persicae of Terpinyl Acetate and Bornyl Acetate in Thuja occidentalis Essential Oil
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100969 - 19 Oct 2022
Abstract
Essential oils have insecticidal activity against several insects and are composed of numerous compounds. This study investigated the insecticidal effects of the Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae) essential oil, terpinyl acetate, and bornyl acetate against the peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)]. The insecticidal [...] Read more.
Essential oils have insecticidal activity against several insects and are composed of numerous compounds. This study investigated the insecticidal effects of the Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae) essential oil, terpinyl acetate, and bornyl acetate against the peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)]. The insecticidal effect of essential oils on three Cupressaceae plants was highest in T. occidentalis. The Thuja occidentalis essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, and the optimum conditions were found. The GC-MS profiling of essential oil components extracted from T. occidentalis leaves identified 16 volatile compounds. The main components were α-thujone (16.58%), β-myrcene (14.62%), bornyl acetate (9.31%), and terpinyl acetate (8.52%). As a result of the metabolite profiling of three Cupressaceae plants, terpinyl acetate and bornyl acetate were present in large amounts in all of the essential oils, and they had an acetate structure, so it was estimated that they had insecticidal activity. The insecticidal activity of these two compounds was stronger than the other individual monoterpene compounds. The addition of surfactants to the terpinyl acetate and bornyl acetate showed strong insecticidal activity. Terpinyl acetate and bornyl acetate can be used as environmentally friendly insecticidal-active compounds. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) chalcone synthase (CHS) Genes in Response to Light
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100968 - 19 Oct 2022
Abstract
Light is one the most important environmental factors regulating the accumulation of specific metabolites in plants, such as flavonoid. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, while little is known about the CHS genes in mango ( [...] Read more.
Light is one the most important environmental factors regulating the accumulation of specific metabolites in plants, such as flavonoid. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, while little is known about the CHS genes in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Therefore, the aim of the study was to obtain the genome-wide identification of the CHS genes in mango and screen the light-responsive family members. In this study, a total of 21 CHS genes were identified from the mango genome, and most of the members contained the Cys-His-Asn triad and the CHS/STS signature motif. Most of the MiCHS genes were located on chromosomes 2 and 4, and seven pairs of tandem duplication genes and five pairs of segmental duplication genes were detected among the MiCHS members. The expression of MiCHSs showed a tissue-specific pattern and was not correlated with the flavonoid or anthocyanin accumulation in cultivars with different peel colors. MiCHS4, MiCHS16 and MiCHS17 were found to respond to preharvest and postharvest UV-B plus visible light treatments, which exhibited no significant relationship with the light-responsive cis-acting element distribution in the promoter region. Our results are helpful and can be used to further study the function of MiCHS genes in light-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in mango. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights in Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Fruit Trees)
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Article
Metabolomics Data Revealed Metabolite Changes during Endocarp Lignification in Kernel-Using Apricot
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100967 - 19 Oct 2022
Abstract
To understand the metabolite dynamics and genetic regulatory mechanism of apricot shell, a typical endocarp, before and after lignification are unknown, we investigated the metabolite differences of the endocarp of ‘Youyi,’ a popular kernel-using apricot cultivar, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
To understand the metabolite dynamics and genetic regulatory mechanism of apricot shell, a typical endocarp, before and after lignification are unknown, we investigated the metabolite differences of the endocarp of ‘Youyi,’ a popular kernel-using apricot cultivar, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy. The endocarp thickness increased rapidly from 8 to 37 days after flowering (DAF) and lignin deposition began at 37 DAF. In total, 626 non-volatile metabolites were obtained from the endocarp tissues before (33 DAF) and after (41 and 45 DAF) lignification. The relative sugar and organic acid contents decreased continuously and those of L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine increased after lignification. In the non-lignified endocarp, the phenylpropanoid metabolites were mainly in the form of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, neochlorogenic acid, dicumarol, coniferin, and some lignans. After lignification, the metabolites were mainly in the form of glycoside lignin or lactone coumarins, and the relative contents of L-asarinin and forsythin increased. The results of transcriptome confirmed the upregulation of genes related to lignin biosynthesis, including β-glucosidase and coniferyl-alcohol glucosyltransferase and laccases, accelerated lignification. This study provides insights into the formation of lignified endocarp in a kernel-using apricot and clarifies the role of monolignin transport and oxidative polymerization. Full article
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Article
Yield, Antioxidant Activity and Total Polyphenol Content of Okra Fruits Grown in Slovak Republic
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100966 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
Climate change, linked with an increase in temperature, contributes to the possibility growing of non-typical and lesser-known vegetable species in the Slovak Republic, including okra. Seven okra cultivars were tested as part of this study, which focused on the basic yield parameters, antioxidant [...] Read more.
Climate change, linked with an increase in temperature, contributes to the possibility growing of non-typical and lesser-known vegetable species in the Slovak Republic, including okra. Seven okra cultivars were tested as part of this study, which focused on the basic yield parameters, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in okra fruits. The statistical analysis of obtained results revealed significant differences in all monitored parameters of okra. The selection of “plastic” crop cultivars that can produce a steadier yield in each growing year is required due to the significant climate variations between growing seasons. In this regard, the okra cultivar ‘Baby Bubba’ can be recommended. The results also showed the high antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of okra pulp and seeds. Okra has a higher nutritional quality than other vegetable species frequently grown in the Slovak Republic. Okra cultivars ‘Burgundy’, ‘Pure Luck F1′ and ‘Jing Orange’ can be suggested from a nutritional perspective. Finally, it is possible to state that okra cultivars showed good yield potential and nutritional quality compared to the studies realized in countries in which okra is known and commonly used by the human population. Full article
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Article
Transfer of Self-Fruitfulness to Cultivated Almond from Peach and Wild Almond
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100965 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
The almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] is normally self-sterile, requiring orchard placement of pollinizer cultivars and insect pollinators. Honeybees are the primary insect pollinators utilized, but climate change and the higher frequency of extreme weather events have reduced their availability to [...] Read more.
The almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] is normally self-sterile, requiring orchard placement of pollinizer cultivars and insect pollinators. Honeybees are the primary insect pollinators utilized, but climate change and the higher frequency of extreme weather events have reduced their availability to levels insufficient to meet the demands of current and anticipated almond acreage. The incorporation of self-fruitfulness may eliminate the need for both pollinizers and pollinators and allow the planting of single cultivar orchards that facilitate orchard management and reduce agrochemical inputs. Self-fruitfulness requires self-compatibility of self-pollen tube growth to fertilization, as well as a high level of consistent self-pollination or autogamy over the range of anticipated bloom environments. The Italian cultivar Tuono has been the sole source of self-compatibility for breeding programs world-wide, leading to high levels of inbreeding in current almond improvement programs. Both self-compatibility and autogamy have been successfully transferred to commercial almonds from cultivated peaches (Prunus persica L.), as well as wild peach and almond species. Self-compatibility was inherited as a novel major gene, but was also influenced by modifiers. Molecular markers developed for one species source often failed to function for other species’ sources. Autogamy was inherited as a quantitative trait. Breeding barriers were more severe in the early stages of trait introgression, but rapidly diminished by the second to third backcross. Increasing kernel size, which was similarly inherited as a quantitative trait, was a major regulator of the introgression rate. Self-fruitfulness, along with good commercial performance of tree and nut traits, was recovered from different species sources, including Prunus mira, Prunus webbii, P. persica, and the P. webbii-derived Italian cultivar Tuono. Differences in expression of self-fruitfulness were observed, particularly during field selection at the early growth stages. Introgression of self-fruitfulness from these diverse sources also enriched overall breeding germplasm, allowing the introduction of useful traits that are not accessible within traditional germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nut Crop Genetic and Germplasm Diversity)
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Article
In Vitro Propagation of Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C.K. Schneid.
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100964 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
Narrow-leaf firethorn or pyracantha (Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C.K. Schneid.), from the family Rosaceae, is a species of large and thorny evergreen shrub. In this study, a procedure is presented for efficient axillary shoot multiplication and root induction in P. angustifolia using Murashige [...] Read more.
Narrow-leaf firethorn or pyracantha (Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C.K. Schneid.), from the family Rosaceae, is a species of large and thorny evergreen shrub. In this study, a procedure is presented for efficient axillary shoot multiplication and root induction in P. angustifolia using Murashige and Skoog (MS), woody plant (WPM), and Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) culture media supplanted with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The disinfection of the axillary buds was performed with a 70.23% success rate on a basal MS medium augmented with 0.5 mg·L−1 gibberellic acid (GA3). Uniform and axenic explants were then cultured on MS, WPM, and LS media enriched with different concentrations of BAP, 0.3 mg·L−1 GA3, and 0.1 mg·L−1 IBA. The highest multiplication coefficient (2.389) was obtained for the MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg·L−1 BAP. After one month, newly formed micro-shoots were transferred to rooting media (MS, WPM, and LS) containing different concentrations of IBA, together with a constant concentration of 0.1 mg·L−1 BAP. The micro-shoots were kept in the dark for one week and then cultured in a 16/8 h light/dark regime. The MS medium supplemented with 1 mg·L−1 IBA was the most effective in stimulating rooting (88.76% of micro-shoots). The highest number of roots (3.5 per micro-shoot) was produced in the MS medium enriched with 1.5 mg·L−1 IBA. The rooted plantlets were transferred into pots filled with perlite and peat moss in a 2:1 proportion and acclimatized to ambient greenhouse conditions, with a resultant mean 92.84% survival rate. Thus, this protocol can be successfully applied for the in vitro mass propagation of P. angustifolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Technology and Micropropagated Plants)
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Article
Regrowth Response and Nutritional Composition of Moringa oleifera to Cutting Back in Three Agro-Ecological Zones in South Africa
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100963 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 3 m when left to grow naturally. Cutting-back management can enhance lateral branching, water use efficiency, regrowth, and leaf biomass production. Although M. oleifera can thrive in diverse [...] Read more.
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 3 m when left to grow naturally. Cutting-back management can enhance lateral branching, water use efficiency, regrowth, and leaf biomass production. Although M. oleifera can thrive in diverse ecological environments, including areas with high temperatures and drought where most crops cannot survive, the prevailing agro-ecological conditions can influence the tree’s response to cut-back and nutritional composition. An observation trial on the re-sprouting of M. oleifera after cutting back was conducted in three agro-ecological zones, including arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions. The soil analysis from the three agro-ecological zones showed variations, with the soil collected from the arid area recording the highest clay content (24.4%), nitrogen (8.14%), and phosphorus (168.2 mg/kg). The nutritional composition of the M. oleifera leaves in response to the cutting back was assessed. The trees planted in the arid region responded well to the cutting back by producing considerable new vegetative growth in the spring (13.4 sprouts averaging 21.50 cm in length) compared to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions. The region’s climatic conditions favoured M. oleifera re-sprouting, and the stems did not die after cutting back. During the winter, the stems die back, sprout from the root collar area during more favourable weather conditions, and take longer to reach the harvestable stage. The leaves of M. oleifera harvested from the arid and dry sub-humid regions exhibited increased total fat, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc content when compared to the semi-arid agro-ecological zone. In contrast, the calcium content of the leaves was higher in the semi-arid region than in the other agro-ecological zones. The influence of cutting back M. oleifera trees on biomass production and quality in varying agro-ecological zones requires further investigation to ensure that smallholder farmers use appropriate crop management practices in those regions for long-term, economically viable tree production. Full article
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Communication
Global Methylation Analysis Using MSAP Reveals Differences in Chilling-Associated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy Release in Contrasting Sweet Cherry Varieties
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100962 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
Dormancy is an adaptive strategy developed by temperate perennial crops to protect overwinter tissues from unfavorable environmental conditions. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), a member of the Rosaceae family, requires chilling to overcome dormancy. The time of harvest is directly correlated with [...] Read more.
Dormancy is an adaptive strategy developed by temperate perennial crops to protect overwinter tissues from unfavorable environmental conditions. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), a member of the Rosaceae family, requires chilling to overcome dormancy. The time of harvest is directly correlated with chilling requirements in sweet cherries. Consequently, early and late season varieties have low and high chilling requirements, respectively. There is evidence that the expression of dormancy-related genes is regulated by DNA methylation. In this work, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) was applied to study genome-wide DNA methylation changes associated with dormancy in two low-chill varieties, ‘Royal Dawn’ and ‘Glen Red’, and one high-chill variety, ‘Kordia’. Our primary results suggest that the occurrence of progressive DNA demethylation is associated with chilling accumulation during dormancy in the three varieties, independent of their chilling requirements. Genes were identified with different methylation status changes, detected by MSAP, related to cell wall remodeling and energy metabolism. Several MSAP profiles among the varieties were observed, suggesting that fine epigenetic control is required to coordinate hormonal and environmental signals that induce dormancy and its release. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution, and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100961 - 18 Oct 2022
Abstract
Roses have not only high ornamental and economic values but also cultural importance worldwide. As a plant-specific transcription factor gene family, the TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR LAND 2) genes have been indicated to be involved [...] Read more.
Roses have not only high ornamental and economic values but also cultural importance worldwide. As a plant-specific transcription factor gene family, the TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR LAND 2) genes have been indicated to be involved in various aspects of plant biological processes, such as leaf morphogenesis and senescence, lateral branching, flower development, stress response and hormone signaling. Currently, TCP genes have been identified and analyzed in many plants, yet there is no systematic analysis in Rosa chinensis. Here, we identified 16 RcTCP genes from R. chinensis genome, which were unevenly distributed in five out of all seven chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses showed that RcTCP family could be classified into two classes, I (namely PCF) and II, and class II genes can be further divided into CIN and CyC/TB1 subclasses. The different classes of TCP genes were showed to have undergone different evolutionary processes, and genes in the same branch shared similar motifs, gene structures and conserved structural domains. Promoter analysis showed that RcTCPs had many cis-acting elements that are mainly associated with plant growth and development, plant hormones and abiotic/biotic stress responses. Furthermore, the expression levels of RcTCPs under vegetative and reproductive growth and drought stress treatments were analyzed based on public RNA-seq dataset, and it was shown that RcTCPs exhibited serious tissue-specific expression, with most of them dominantly expressed in flowers, leaves and stems, with high levels of expression at different stages of flower and bud differentiation, particularly during petal formation and gametophyte development. The high inducement of seven RcTCP genes from PCF class in drought stress indicated their important roles in biological processes against drought stress. Our results provide valuable information for the evolution and functional characterization of TCP genes in R. chinensis. Full article
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Article
New Insights into the Role of Alternating Temperatures and Cyanide in the ROS-Mediated Cardoon Seed Dormancy Termination
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100960 - 17 Oct 2022
Abstract
Physiological dormancy in wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris) can be terminated by achenes exposure to alternating temperatures, likely with the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cyanide is a natural compound that mediates seed dormancy removal in some plant species [...] Read more.
Physiological dormancy in wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris) can be terminated by achenes exposure to alternating temperatures, likely with the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cyanide is a natural compound that mediates seed dormancy removal in some plant species in association with oxidative signalling exerted by ROS. To date, no study has been conducted on the cyanide effect on ROS homeostasis during the germination of cardoon. Here, we showed that the addition of cyanide at low concentrations in dormant cardoon achenes promotes dormancy breakage at a constant temperature, speeds up germination to alternating temperatures and promotes ROS accumulation in embryonic axes of dormant achenes. The in-silico transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of transcripts of genes associated with ROS signalling and production, calcium signalling, gibberellins biosynthesis and cell wall loosening were significantly up-regulated at the alternating temperatures imbibition condition. In contrast, the expression of gene transcripts associated with the inhibition of germination, ABA biosynthesis and signalling were up-regulated at the constant temperature imbibition. However, no significant difference in lipid peroxidation or protein carbonylation levels was observed when achenes were imbibed at constant or alternating temperature conditions. These results suggest that dormancy termination triggered by alternating temperatures or cyanide could be mediated by ROS production and signalling in the cardoon embryonic axis, but this does not determine extensive protein carbonylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Dormancy and Germination of Horticultural Plants)
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Article
The Effect of Harvest Date on Temporal Cannabinoid and Biomass Production in the Floral Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars BaOx and Cherry Wine
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100959 - 17 Oct 2022
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to model the temporal accumulation of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in field-grown floral hemp in North Carolina and establish harvest timing recommendations to minimize non-compliant crop production. Field trials were conducted in 2020 and 2021 with [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to model the temporal accumulation of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in field-grown floral hemp in North Carolina and establish harvest timing recommendations to minimize non-compliant crop production. Field trials were conducted in 2020 and 2021 with BaOx and Cherry Wine cultivars. Harvest events started two weeks after floral initiation and occurred every two weeks for 12 weeks. Per-plant threshed biomass accumulation exhibited a linear plateau trend. The best fit model for temporal accumulation of THC was a beta growth curve. As harvest date was delayed, total THC concentrations increased until concentrations reached their maximum, then decreased as plants approached senescence. Logistic regression was the best fit model for temporal accumulation of CBD. CBD concentrations increased with later harvest dates. Unlike THC concentrations, there was no decline in total CBD concentrations. To minimize risk, growers should test their crop as early as possible within the USDA’s 30-day compliance window. We observed ‘BaOx’ and ‘Cherry Wine’ exceeding the compliance threshold 50 and 41 days after flower initiation, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
A New Promising Plant Defense Stimulator Derived from a By-Product of Agar Extraction from Gelidium sesquipedale
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100958 - 16 Oct 2022
Abstract
Stimulation of plant defenses by elicitors is an alternative strategy to reduce pesticide use. In this study, we examined the elicitor properties of a by-product of the industrial extraction of agar from the red alga Gelidium sesquipedale. Agar extraction process leads to [...] Read more.
Stimulation of plant defenses by elicitors is an alternative strategy to reduce pesticide use. In this study, we examined the elicitor properties of a by-product of the industrial extraction of agar from the red alga Gelidium sesquipedale. Agar extraction process leads to the formation of an alkaline residue which is poorly valorized. This by-product has been analyzed for its chemical composition. It contains 44% minerals and, among the organic compounds, sugars are the most represented and encompass 12.5% of the dry matter. When sprayed on tomato plants, this by-product enhanced the levels of defense markers such as peroxidase or phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities. Furthermore, this treatment increased the expression levels of the pathogenesis-related gene, PR9 encoding peroxidase. A field trial conducted on grapevine revealed that spraying treatment with this by-product resulted in a reduction of the macroscopic disease symptoms induced by Plasmospora viticola, with 40 to 60% efficacy. These results indicate that this agar extraction by-product could be used as a plant defense stimulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Control Strategies of Plant Pathogens in Horticulture)
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Article
Functional Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Translocator PoGPT1 in Embryogenic Callus Formation of Tree Peony
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100957 - 16 Oct 2022
Abstract
Tree peony (Paeonia ostii) is an ornamental flowering plant that is generally recalcitrant to establishment of a mature somatic embryo regeneration system in vitro. Glucose-6-phosphate translocator (GPT) plays an important regulatory role in embryogenesis of plants. In this study, PoGPT1 was [...] Read more.
Tree peony (Paeonia ostii) is an ornamental flowering plant that is generally recalcitrant to establishment of a mature somatic embryo regeneration system in vitro. Glucose-6-phosphate translocator (GPT) plays an important regulatory role in embryogenesis of plants. In this study, PoGPT1 was cloned, and a bioinformatic analysis and functional verification of the gene were performed. The results showed that PoGPT1 encoded a polypeptide of 392 amino acids, which was a basic non-secreted hydrophobic transmembrane protein, and was mainly localized in the plastids. PoGPT1 was highly expressed in tree peony leaves, and its transcript abundance increased with the progression of zygotic embryo development. Overexpression of PoGPT1 caused up-regulation of leafy cotyledon 1 (PoLEC1), somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (PoSERK), and agamous-like15 (PoAGL15) in tree peony callus. In addition, PoGPT1 overexpression promoted the increase in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 5-deoxystrigol (5DS), and brassinolide (BL) contents, especially of IAA, but reduced the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), 6-benzyladenosine (BARP), and 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC). The present research showed that PoGPT1 synergistically regulated the contents of endogenous hormones and expression levels of embryogenesis-related genes to promote the embryonic development of tree peony. The results provide theoretical and technical support for the establishment of a tree peony embryogenic callus formation and subsequent research on somatic embryogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Floriculture, Nursery and Landscape, and Turf)
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Article
Chemical Composition and Polyphenol Compounds of Vaccinium floribundum Kunth (Ericaceae) from the Volcano Chimborazo Paramo (Ecuador)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100956 - 16 Oct 2022
Abstract
Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth) is considered a “superfruit” due to its antioxidant capacity and possible health benefits. To date, there is no known study that addresses the biochemical characterization of mortiño berries from the paramo of the Chimborazo volcano (Ecuador). So, the [...] Read more.
Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth) is considered a “superfruit” due to its antioxidant capacity and possible health benefits. To date, there is no known study that addresses the biochemical characterization of mortiño berries from the paramo of the Chimborazo volcano (Ecuador). So, the aim of this research was to evaluate for the first time the effect of the stage of development of the mortiño berries (two stages) and environment of origin (three sampling areas) on fruit quality. Polyphenol compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MSn) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Moreover, antioxidant properties (ABTS•+, and DPPH), sugar and organic acids, and minerals were examined. The main organic acids were quinic and citric acid, while glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannose, and sorbitol were the main sugars determined in the mortiño fruits. The main constituents of the mortiño berries included hydroxycinnamic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), flavonols (quercetin 3-hexoside, quercetin 5-hexoside, quercetin 3-pentoside, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) and anthocyanins. Seven anthocyanins were identified: glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin. The research confirms that the mortiño berries produced in the Ecuadorian paramo area are a valuable source of polyphenolics, rich in sugars and organic acids, and can be classified as a good source of microelements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruits Quality and Sensory Analysis)
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Article
Environmental and Health Factors as Organic Fruit Purchase Drivers and the Mediating Role of Price and Effort
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100955 - 15 Oct 2022
Abstract
This article analyzes the organic fruit consumption behavior associated with environmental and health care. The literature review focused on the relationship between attitudes and perceptions of health care through the organic food consumption, and on the other hand, the association between the organic [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the organic fruit consumption behavior associated with environmental and health care. The literature review focused on the relationship between attitudes and perceptions of health care through the organic food consumption, and on the other hand, the association between the organic products consumer behavior and environmental care. The methodology included a theoretical relationship model proposed, considering different constructs provided by previous literature to measure motivations, fears and attitudes associated with the intention to purchase organic fruit, once the methods that confirm their validity and reliability were applied to evaluate seven direct relationship hypotheses, three indirect relationship hypotheses and two moderation hypotheses. As result, nine hypotheses are supported, being health and environmental motivations drivers of the attitude towards organic fruit and the intention to purchase organic fruit, intention that is reinforced by the positive attitude towards these foods but is moderated by the perceived price and the purchase effort. Full article
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Article
Effects of 1−MCP on Storage Quality and Enzyme Activity of Petals of Edible Rose Cultivar ‘Dianhong’ at Low Temperatures
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100954 - 15 Oct 2022
Abstract
To explore the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1−MCP) on the storage quality of edible roses, flowers of the edible rose variety ‘Dianhong’ were used as materials to study the effect of post-harvest 1−MCP fumigation (concentration of 30 μL/L). The measures included respiration intensity, water [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1−MCP) on the storage quality of edible roses, flowers of the edible rose variety ‘Dianhong’ were used as materials to study the effect of post-harvest 1−MCP fumigation (concentration of 30 μL/L). The measures included respiration intensity, water loss rate, antioxidant-related substance content (soluble sugar, crude fibre, AsA, anthocyanin, total phenols and MDA), enzyme activity (SOD, CAT, APX, PAL and PPO) and petal appearance quality in different storage periods, which could provide a theoretical reference for research and development on storage and preservation technology for edible rose petals. The results showed that, compared with the control, 1−MCP treatment reduced the initial respiration intensity of petals by more than 80%, slowed the water loss rate, increased the crude fibre content and effectively maintained the contents of soluble sugars, AsA, anthocyanins and total phenols. For the petals in the treatment group at the end of storage, the rate of water loss was 3.73%, the content of soluble sugar was only 17% (62.27 μg/g)—lower than that of fresh petals—and the content of AsA (0.33 mg/g) was the same as that of pre-storage (0.34 mg/g). The contents of total phenols and anthocyanins were 30.60% and 11.63% higher than those of the control group, respectively. In addition, 1−MCP treatment increased the activity of SOD, CAT, APX and PAL and inhibited the activity of PPO. The MDA content at the end of storage was 14.36% lower than that of the control, which reduced the rate of membrane lipid peroxidation. Correlation analysis showed that sensory quality of petals in the 1−MCP treatment group was positively correlated with respiratory intensity and soluble sugar content and negatively correlated with water loss rate, MDA and crude fibre content (p < 0.05) among the four antioxidant enzymes. APX and PAL were positively correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenols content, respectively. These results confirmed that 1−MCP could effectively maintain the storage quality of edible rose petals by increasing the antioxidant capacity of petals and prolong the storage period of fresh petals to 49 days. Full article
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Article
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm and Anti-Insect Activities of Jasminum grandiflorum Essential Oil
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100953 - 14 Oct 2022
Abstract
The essential oil of Jasminum grandiflorum has very good biological activity. The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of J. grandiflorum. The main constituents of J. grandiflorum essential oil were benzyl acetate (37%), benzyl benzoate (34.7%) and [...] Read more.
The essential oil of Jasminum grandiflorum has very good biological activity. The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of J. grandiflorum. The main constituents of J. grandiflorum essential oil were benzyl acetate (37%), benzyl benzoate (34.7%) and linalool (9.6%). The antioxidant activity was 58.47%, which corresponds to 220.93 TEAC. The antimicrobial activity was weak to moderate, with inhibition zones ranging from 2.33 to 5.33 mm. The lowest MIC value was against Candida glabrata. The antimicrobial activity of the vapor phase of the essential oil was significantly stronger than that of the contact application. Biofilm analysis using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper showed changes in the protein profile of Pseudomonas fluorescens that confirmed the inhibitory effect of J. grandiflorum. The insecticidal potential of the essential oil against Oxycarenus lavatera and Brassicogethes aeneus was also demonstrated. Due to the properties of J. grandiflorum essential oil, it could find application as a biofilm control agent for the shelf-life extension and storage of fruits and vegetables and as a possible insecticidal agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Postharvest Biology, Quality, Safety, and Technology)
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Article
Volatile Compounds and Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Bud and Needle Extracts from Three Populations of Pinus mugo Turra Growing in Romania
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100952 - 14 Oct 2022
Abstract
Pinus mugo Turra is a shrub-like conifer with multiple healing properties. P. mugo extracts are rich in active ingredients such as volatile compounds, tannin, higher alcohols, vitamins, and minerals. In this study, we identified and quantified the secondary metabolites from buds and needles [...] Read more.
Pinus mugo Turra is a shrub-like conifer with multiple healing properties. P. mugo extracts are rich in active ingredients such as volatile compounds, tannin, higher alcohols, vitamins, and minerals. In this study, we identified and quantified the secondary metabolites from buds and needles of P. mugo harvested from three different mountain areas in Romania. The main volatile compounds contained in the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and the most significant were pinene, germacrene, limonene, and caryophyllene. The total polyphenol content (TPC) was in the range of 46.77 ± 0.3 and 77.99 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g and the total flavonoid content (TFC) 24.90 ± 0.1 and 54.78 ± 0.3 mg QE/g. The content of ascorbic acid ranged between 12.21 mg/100 g and 27.34 mg/100 g, concentrations that are recommended for natural sources of ascorbic acid. Moderate antimicrobial activity on yeasts and molds was not dependent on plant origin. By highlighting the rich content of active compounds, and moderate antioxidant and antifungal activity, this study is an argument for the beneficial use of P. mugo bud and needle extracts, regardless of the habitat of origin on the Romanian territory, in the fields of medicine and the food industry or in the implementation of eco-friendly practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Horticultural Plants)
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