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Fermentation, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 102 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sourdough bread has increased popularity due to health benefits and higher interest in artisan breadmaking due to social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, quality traits and consumer assessment are still limited to complex laboratory analysis and sensory trials. In this research, new and emerging digital technologies were tested to assess quality traits of sourdough bread made from six different flour sources. The digital technologies used in this study, coupled with machine learning modeling, could make it possible to implement artificial intelligence technology for the breadmaking industry and artisan bread-makers. These models can also be implemented to assess the type of wheat used for traceability. View this paper
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Article
Dynamics of Microbiota in Three Backslopped Liquid Sourdoughs That Were Triggered with the Same Starter Strains
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100571 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The preparation of sourdough may include the use of starter microorganisms to address the fermentation process toward specific conditions. The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem in three liquid sourdoughs (SD1, SD2 and SD3) triggered with [...] Read more.
The preparation of sourdough may include the use of starter microorganisms to address the fermentation process toward specific conditions. The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem in three liquid sourdoughs (SD1, SD2 and SD3) triggered with the same microbial strains. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (formerly known as Lactobacillus plantarum), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lambica strains were inoculated as starters, and sourdoughs were differentiated for the fermentation conditions and for the method of starter inoculation. The analyses were performed on the three sourdoughs propagated in the laboratory for 22 days and on the sample SD1, which was transferred to a bakery and refreshed over many months. The dynamics of microbial communities were studied by plate-count analysis and metataxonomic approach. The acidity of sourdough was evaluated over time. Metataxonomic analysis highlighted a large heterogeneity of fungi microbiota in all sourdough preparations, many of them probably originated from the flour, being pathogens of plants. Few yeast species were found, and S. cerevisiae was plentiful but did not predominate over the other species, whereas the C. lambica species decreased over time and then disappeared in all preparations. The bacterial microbiota was less heterogeneous than the fungi microbiota; the species L. plantarum, Leuconostoc citreum and Levilactobacillus brevis (formerly known as Lactobacillus brevis) were always present in all sourdoughs, whereas Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly known as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) became the dominant species in bakery-propagated SD1 and in SD2 at the end of the propagation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Starter Cultures)
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Review
Methods for Intensifying Biogas Production from Waste: A Scientometric Review of Cavitation and Electrolysis Treatments
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100570 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 390
Abstract
This article presents future trends in research using microbiological methods to intensify bioprocesses for biogas production. The pretreatment by combinations of physical and chemical methods, such as cavitation and electrolysis, is considered. The approach of the article involved reviewing the residual area on [...] Read more.
This article presents future trends in research using microbiological methods to intensify bioprocesses for biogas production. The pretreatment by combinations of physical and chemical methods, such as cavitation and electrolysis, is considered. The approach of the article involved reviewing the residual area on the intensification technologies of anaerobic digestion with current methods to improve the quality and quantity of biogas. The most valuable reported positive results of the pretreatment of biological raw materials in the cavitation process were reviewed and are presented here. A model of the effect of electrolysis on the species diversity of bacteria in anaerobic digestion was developed, and changes in the dominance of the ecological and trophic systems were revealed on the basis of previous studies. The stimulating effect on biogas yield, reduction in the stabilization period of the reactor, and inactivation of microorganisms at lower temperatures is associated with different pretreatment methods that intensify anaerobic digestion. More research is recommended to focus on the electrolysis treatment of different types of waste and their ratios with optimization of regime parameters, as well as in combination with other pretreatments to produce biomethane and biohydrogen in larger quantities and in better qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Biomass and Waste Valorization)
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Article
Sexually-Driven Combinatorial Diversity in Native Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100569 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Natural diversity represents an inexhaustible source of yeasts for the diversification of wines and the improvement of their properties. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts in the Aljarafe of Seville, one of the warmest winemaking [...] Read more.
Natural diversity represents an inexhaustible source of yeasts for the diversification of wines and the improvement of their properties. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts in the Aljarafe of Seville, one of the warmest winemaking regions of Spain. Through multiplex-PCR analysis of five microsatellite markers and RT-PCR determination of the killer genotype, we found 94 different patterns among 150 S. cerevisiae yeast strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grape must, thereby representing a highly diverse population. Remarkably, 92% of the isolated strains exhibited high sporulation capacity. Tetrad analysis of sporulating strains rendered a microsatellite marker’s combinatory that mimics patterns observed in the native population, suggesting that the high polymorphism of microsatellite markers found in these wild yeasts might result from sexual reproduction in their natural environment. The identification of unconventional M2/L-A-lus totivirus combinations conferring the killer phenotype also supports this suggestion. One idea behind this study is to determine to what extent the vineyards microbiota in areas with warm climates can provide useful natural yeasts to adapt fermentation processes to the needs imposed by global warming. Analysis of traits of oenological interest in regions potentially affected by global climate changes, such as growth tolerance to ethanol and to sugar stress in the analysed strains, indicated that this broad combinatorial diversity of natural S. cerevisiae yeasts provides a wide range of autochthonous strains with desirable profiles for quality winemaking in warm regions. This combinatorial diversity renders strains with diverse oenological performing abilities. Upon microvinification assays and organoleptic attests, a S. cerevisiae strain with interesting oenological properties has been identified. This result can be considered a successful outcome in industry–academia collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Molecular Characterization of a Stable and Robust L-Asparaginase from Pseudomonas sp. PCH199: Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Acrylamide Mitigation Potential
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100568 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 351
Abstract
L-asparaginase is an important industrial enzyme widely used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to reduce acrylamide formation in food products. In the current study, a stable and robust L-asparaginase from Pseudomonas sp. PCH199, with a high affinity for L-asparagine, was cloned [...] Read more.
L-asparaginase is an important industrial enzyme widely used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to reduce acrylamide formation in food products. In the current study, a stable and robust L-asparaginase from Pseudomonas sp. PCH199, with a high affinity for L-asparagine, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Recombinant L-asparaginase (Pg-ASNase II) was purified with a monomer size of 37.0 kDa and a native size of 148.0 kDa. During characterization, Pg-ASNase II exhibited 75.8 ± 3.84 U/mg specific activities in 50.0 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5) at 50 °C. However, it retained 80 and 70% enzyme activity at 37 °C and 50 °C after 60 min, respectively. The half-life and kd values were 625.15 min and 1.10 × 10−3 min−1 at 37 °C. The kinetic constant Km, Vmax, kcat, and kcat/Km values were 0.57 mM, 71.42 U/mg, 43.34 s−1, and 77.90 ± 9.81 s−1 mM−1 for L-asparagine, respectively. In addition, the enzyme has shown stability in the presence of most metal ions and protein-modifying agents. Pg-ASNase II was cytotoxic towards the MCF-7 cell line (breast cancer) with an estimated IC50 value of 0.169 U/mL in 24 h. Further, Pg-ASNase II treatment led to a 70% acrylamide reduction in baked foods. These findings suggest the potential of Pg-ASNase II in therapeutics and the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Enzymes in Biotechnology)
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Review
Considerations When Brewing with Fruit Juices: A Review and Case Study Using Peaches
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100567 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Beer is traditionally brewed using barley, hops, water, and yeast. Historically, fruit has been utilized in brewing operations as a source of carbohydrates, color, and/or flavor. This practice has been increasing in recent years due to economic and market factors. While many scientific [...] Read more.
Beer is traditionally brewed using barley, hops, water, and yeast. Historically, fruit has been utilized in brewing operations as a source of carbohydrates, color, and/or flavor. This practice has been increasing in recent years due to economic and market factors. While many scientific studies have shown that it is both possible and desirable to include fruits in brewing operations, there is little research published on how to properly evaluate their potential for use in brewing. This review aims to introduce and discuss the ways in which fermented products are impacted by the addition of fruit with respect to the following characteristics of the fruit and final product: sugars, volatiles, color, product identity, and microbial factors. To support this review, a case study is included in which peaches were evaluated for potential use as a fruit additive in a commercial brewing application. The peach juice, pre-addition beer, and final product were assessed based upon processing characteristics, sugar content and composition, color, volatile profile, and economic suitability for various applications in fermented beverages. This paper details the methods used to evaluate fruit as a guide for considering fruit as an addition to brewing formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Beverages, Food, Yeast and Brewing Research 2.0)
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Article
Food Waste Treatments and the Impact of Composting on Carbon Footprint in Canada
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100566 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Forty percent of the food generated in Canada is wasted, making it the most significant component of municipal solid waste. Food waste characteristics, such as high moisture and oil content, and variable composition, make it difficult to manage with conventional waste treatment methods. [...] Read more.
Forty percent of the food generated in Canada is wasted, making it the most significant component of municipal solid waste. Food waste characteristics, such as high moisture and oil content, and variable composition, make it difficult to manage with conventional waste treatment methods. Part of food waste is disposed of in landfills, generating greenhouse gases and significantly increasing the carbon footprint. Various treatment methods such as composting and anaerobic digestion have been employed to treat and manage the remaining waste efficiently. This study provides an overview of the impact of composting as a food waste treatment method in Canada and paves way for the research of the usefulness of composting in addition to other food waste treatment methods such as anaerobic digestion. Average composting data for Canada was used to determine the change in the carbon footprint by the diversion of food waste using CCaLC2 software. It was determined that the overall carbon footprint of 1.38 and 1.33 mega-tons of CO2 was reduced from the composting of food waste in the years 2014 and 2016, which were approximately 18% and 20% of the total footprint of Canada municipal solid waste, respectively. The carbon footprint data collected herein were compared to the data from England, Sweden, and the USA to reveal the high effectiveness of composting in Canada. Full article
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Article
Micro-Aerobic Pre-Treatment vs. Thermal Pre-Treatment of Waste Activated Sludge for Its Subsequent Anaerobic Digestion in Semi-Continuous Digesters: A Comparative Study
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100565 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 257
Abstract
This article investigates methane production, organic matter removal, and energy by comparing micro-aerobic pre-treatment and thermal pre-treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS). For micro-aerobic pre-treatment, WAS was pre-treated at 0.35 vvm (volume of air per volume of medium per minute) for 48 h. The [...] Read more.
This article investigates methane production, organic matter removal, and energy by comparing micro-aerobic pre-treatment and thermal pre-treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS). For micro-aerobic pre-treatment, WAS was pre-treated at 0.35 vvm (volume of air per volume of medium per minute) for 48 h. The data showed over a 30% increase in soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and soluble proteins when this pre-treatment was applied. Then, the micro-aerobically pre-treated sludge was mixed with primary sludge and anaerobically digested in semi-continuous digesters with Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT) of 20, 15, and 10 days at 35 °C. We used two digesters as a control: one fed with a mixture of primary sludge (PS) and raw WAS; another fed with a mixture of PS and thermally pre-treated WAS. The results showed a better performance for the digester fed with micro-aerobically pre-treated sludge than the other two at all the HRT tested. The better performance is because of the solubilization of particulate organic matter, as shown at the reactor outlet. Energy consumption analysis showed that micro-aerobic pre-treatment required 32% more energy in a year than thermal pre-treatment. However, if sludge is pre-thickened in a similar way as performed for thermal pre-treatment, then the energy demand required by micro-aerobic pre-treatment is reduced by 41% concerning the thermal pre-treatment; nevertheless, more studies should be performed to verify that methane production and solid reduction advantages are maintained. Full article
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Review
Advances of Rumen Functional Bacteria and the Application of Micro-Encapsulation Fermentation Technology in Ruminants: A Review
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100564 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Rumen functional bacteria are crucial for the homeostasis of rumen fermentation and micro-ecology. Cellulolytic bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, protein- and fat-degrading bacteria, lactic acid-producing bacteria, lactic acid-consuming bacteria, methanogens, and others can all be found in the rumen flora and help the host and [...] Read more.
Rumen functional bacteria are crucial for the homeostasis of rumen fermentation and micro-ecology. Cellulolytic bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, protein- and fat-degrading bacteria, lactic acid-producing bacteria, lactic acid-consuming bacteria, methanogens, and others can all be found in the rumen flora and help the host and other microorganisms convert feed into energy. For instance, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, and Fibrobacter succinogenes are the three most prevalent fiber-degrading bacteria. The digestion and metabolism of various nutrients and the absorption in rumen epithelium can greatly enhance host defense mechanisms and health production in ruminants. However, directly feeding live bacteria is prone to negative environmental effects. Therefore, the micro-encapsulation of film-forming and acid-resistant wall materials can become a great means of encapsulating naked bacteria into tiny particles. It can maintain the activity of functional flora, boost the function of the intestinal barrier, and improve its capacity for colonization on the surface of the rumen and colon mucosa. Therefore, the present review evaluates the latent progress of main functional bacteria and the applied techniques of micro-encapsulation in the rumen, in order to provide more references for the development and application of rumen-functional bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Fermentation)
Article
The Potential of Traditional ‘Gaja’ and New Breed Lines of Waxy, Blue and Purple Wheat in Wholemeal Flour Fermentation
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100563 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the acidity, microbiological and colour characteristics, fatty (FA) and amino (AA) acid profiles, biogenic amine (BA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, and macro- and microelement contents in non-treated (non-fermented) and fermented wholemeal cereal [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the acidity, microbiological and colour characteristics, fatty (FA) and amino (AA) acid profiles, biogenic amine (BA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, and macro- and microelement contents in non-treated (non-fermented) and fermented wholemeal cereal flours of ‘Gaja’ (traditional wheat) and new breed lines DS8888-3-6 (waxy wheat), DS8548-7 (blue wheat) and DS8535-2 (purple wheat). Independent fermentations were undertaken with selected strains of Pediococcus acidilactici, Liquorilactobacillus uvarum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. The results revealed that all the wholemeal cereal flours of the analysed wheat varieties are suitable for fermentation with the selected strains because all the fermented samples showed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viable counts higher than 8.00 log10 CFU/g and desirable low pH values. In most of the cases, fermentation increased the concentration of essential amino acids in the wholemeal cereal samples, and the LAB strain used for fermentation proved to be a significant factor in all the essential amino acid content of wholemeal wheat (p ≤ 0.0001). When comparing the non-fermented samples, the highest GABA content was found in ‘Gaja’ and waxy wheat samples (2.47 µmol/g, on average), and, in all the cases, fermentation significantly increased GABA concentration in the wholemeal cereals. On the other hand, total levels of biogenic amines in wholemeal samples ranged from 22.7 to 416 mg/kg. The wheat variety was a significant factor in all the analysed macro- and microelement contents (p ≤ 0.0001) in the wholemeal cereals. Furthermore, fermentation showed to be a significant factor in most of the FA content of the wholemeal cereal samples. Finally, fermentation can also contribute to improving the biological and functional value of wholemeal wheat flours (by increasing essential amino acids and GABA concentrations); however, safety parameters (e.g., biogenic amines) also should be taken into consideration when optimizing the most appropriate technological parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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Review
Low-Temperature Pretreatment of Biomass for Enhancing Biogas Production: A Review
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100562 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Low-temperature pretreatment (LTPT, Temp. < 100 °C or 140 °C) has the advantages of low input, simplicity, and energy saving, which makes engineering easy to use for improving biogas production. However, compared with high-temperature pretreatment (>150 °C) that can destroy recalcitrant polymerized matter [...] Read more.
Low-temperature pretreatment (LTPT, Temp. < 100 °C or 140 °C) has the advantages of low input, simplicity, and energy saving, which makes engineering easy to use for improving biogas production. However, compared with high-temperature pretreatment (>150 °C) that can destroy recalcitrant polymerized matter in biomass, the action mechanism of heat treatment of biomass is unclear. Improving LTPT on biogas yield is often influenced by feedstock type, treatment temperature, exposure time, and fermentation conditions. Such as, even when belonging to the same algal biomass, the response to LTPT varies between species. Therefore, forming a unified method for LTPT to be applied in practice is difficult. This review focuses on the LTPT used in different biomass materials to improve anaerobic digestion performance, including food waste, sludge, animal manure, algae, straw, etc. It also discusses the challenge and cost issues faced during LTPT application according to the energy balance and proposes some proposals for economically promoting the implementation of LTPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Waste as a Renewable Source of Biogas Production)
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Communication
Effect of Different Inducer Sources on Cellulase Enzyme Production by White-Rot Basidiomycetes Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium under Submerged Fermentation
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100561 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Cellulase enzymes attract a lot of research due to their industrial application. Diverse cellulase-producing organisms and substances that induce cellulase are highly sought after. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different inducer sources on cellulase production by white rot fungi P [...] Read more.
Cellulase enzymes attract a lot of research due to their industrial application. Diverse cellulase-producing organisms and substances that induce cellulase are highly sought after. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different inducer sources on cellulase production by white rot fungi P. ostreatus CGMCC 3.7292 and P. chrysosporium CGMCC 3.7212 under submerged fermentation employing a completely randomized experimental design. The different inducer sources tested were nitrogen (yeast, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, aqueous ammonia and urea), carbon (malt extract, glucose, fructose, carboxymethylcellulose, starch and xylose) and agro-biomass (stevia straw, wheat straw, oat straw, alfalfa straw, corn cobs and corn stover). These inducer sources strongly impacted enzyme activities by P. ostreatus CGMCC 3.7292 and P. chrysosporium CGMCC 3.7212. The suitable nitrogen and carbon inducer sources for cellulase activity by P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium were yeast (1.354 U/mL and 1.154 U/mL) and carboxymethylcellulose (0.976 U/mL and 0.776 U/mL) while the suitable agro-biomass were wheat straw (6.880 U/mL) and corn stover (6.525 U/mL), respectively. The least inducer sources in terms of nitrogen, carbon and agro-biomass for cellulase activity by P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium were urea (0.213 U/mL and 0.081 U/mL), glucose (0.042 U/mL and 0.035), xylose (0.042 U/mL and 0.035 U/mL) and stevia straw (1.555 U/mL and 0.960 U/mL). In submerged fermentation, the cellulase enzyme activity of P. ostreatus in response to various inducer sources was relatively higher than P. chrysosporium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotransformation of Plant Materials by Molds and Higher Fungi)
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Article
A Molecular Dynamic Model of Tryptophan Overproduction in Escherichia coli
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100560 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Several deterministic models simulate the main molecular biology interactions among the numerous mechanisms controlling the dynamics of the tryptophan operon in native strains. However, no models exist to investigate bacterial tryptophan production from a biotechnological point of view. Here, we modified tryptophan models [...] Read more.
Several deterministic models simulate the main molecular biology interactions among the numerous mechanisms controlling the dynamics of the tryptophan operon in native strains. However, no models exist to investigate bacterial tryptophan production from a biotechnological point of view. Here, we modified tryptophan models for native production to propose a biotechnological working model that incorporates the activity of tryptophan secretion systems and genetic modifications made in two reported E. coli strains. The resultant deterministic model could emulate the production of tryptophan in the same order of magnitude as those quantified experimentally by the genetically engineered E. coli strains GPT1001 and GPT1002 in shake flasks. We hope this work may contribute to the rational development of biological models that define and include the main parameters and molecular components for designing and engineering efficient biotechnological chassis to produce valuable chemicals. Full article
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Article
Application of Immobilized Yeasts for Improved Production of Sparkling Wines
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100559 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Verdejo sparkling wines from two consecutive vintages were elaborated following the “champenoise” method. The second fermentation was developed with the same free or immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus yeast strain, carrying out four batch replicates each year. The sparkling wines were analyzed after 9 [...] Read more.
Verdejo sparkling wines from two consecutive vintages were elaborated following the “champenoise” method. The second fermentation was developed with the same free or immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus yeast strain, carrying out four batch replicates each year. The sparkling wines were analyzed after 9 months of aging, showing no significant differences among the two typologies in the enological parameters (pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, reducing sugars, and alcoholic strength), the effervescence, or the spectrophotometric measurements. The free amino nitrogen content was significantly higher in the sparkling wines obtained from immobilized yeasts, nevertheless, the levels of neutral polysaccharides and total proteins were lower. No significant differences in the volatile composition were found, except for only two volatile compounds (isobutyric acid and benzyl alcohol); however, these two substances were present at levels below their respective olfactory thresholds. The sensory analysis by consumers showed identical preferences for both types of sparkling wines, except for the color acceptability. The descriptive analysis by a tasting panel revealed that sensorial differences between both sparkling wines were only found for the smell of dough. Therefore, the use of immobilized yeasts for the second fermentation of sparkling wines can reduce and simplify some enological practices such as the procedure of riddling and disgorging, with no impact on the so-mentioned quality parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 6.0)
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Review
Improve Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass by Modifying Lignin Structure via Sulfite Pretreatment and Using Lignin Blockers
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100558 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Even traditional pretreatments can partially remove or degrade lignin and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic biomass for enhancing its enzymatic digestibility, the remaining lignin in pretreated biomass still restricts its enzymatic hydrolysis by limiting cellulose accessibility and lignin-enzyme nonproductive interaction. Therefore, many pretreatments that can [...] Read more.
Even traditional pretreatments can partially remove or degrade lignin and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic biomass for enhancing its enzymatic digestibility, the remaining lignin in pretreated biomass still restricts its enzymatic hydrolysis by limiting cellulose accessibility and lignin-enzyme nonproductive interaction. Therefore, many pretreatments that can modify lignin structure in a unique way and approaches to block the lignin’s adverse impact have been proposed to directly improve the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated biomass. In this review, recent development in sulfite pretreatment that can transform the native lignin into lignosulfonate and subsequently enhance saccharification of pretreated biomass under certain conditions was summarized. In addition, we also reviewed the approaches of the addition of reactive agents to block the lignin’s reactive sites and limit the cellulase-enzyme adsorption during hydrolysis. It is our hope that this summary can provide a guideline for workers engaged in biorefining for the goal of reaching high enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biorefineries and Downstream Processing)
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Article
Effects of Solid-State Fermentation Pretreatment with Single or Dual Culture White Rot Fungi on White Tea Residue Nutrients and In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100557 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Fermentation of agricultural by-products by white rot fungi is a research hotspot in the development of ruminant feed resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the nutritional value and rumen fermentation properties of white tea residue fermented at [...] Read more.
Fermentation of agricultural by-products by white rot fungi is a research hotspot in the development of ruminant feed resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the nutritional value and rumen fermentation properties of white tea residue fermented at different times, using single and dual culture white rot fungal species. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium + Pleurotus ostreatus (dual culture) solid-state fermented white tea residue was used for 4 weeks, respectively. The crude protein content increased significantly in all treatment groups after 4 weeks. Total extractable tannin content was significantly decreased in all treatment groups (p < 0.01). P. chrysosporium and dual culture significantly reduced lignin content at 1 week. The content of NH3-N increased in each treatment group (p < 0.05). P. chrysosporium treatment can reduce the ratio of acetic to propionic and improve digestibility. Solid state fermentation of white tea residue for 1 week using P. chrysosporium was the most desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotransformation of Plant Materials by Molds and Higher Fungi)
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Article
From Agri-Food Wastes to Polyhydroxyalkanoates through a Sustainable Process
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100556 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 430
Abstract
The biologically-derived polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and can be considered a valuable alternative to conventional fossil-based plastics. However, upstream and downstream processes for PHA production are characterized by high energy and chemical consumption and are not economically competitive with petroleum-based polymers. Aiming [...] Read more.
The biologically-derived polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and can be considered a valuable alternative to conventional fossil-based plastics. However, upstream and downstream processes for PHA production are characterized by high energy and chemical consumption and are not economically competitive with petroleum-based polymers. Aiming to improve both the environmental and economical sustainability of PHAs production, in this work, corn straw was used as raw material to obtain a mixture of fermentable sugars after microwave-assisted flash hydrolysis (2 min, 0.01 g/L, 50.7% yield). A mixed microbial culture enriched from dairy industry waste was used for fermentation in a shake flask, allowing us to achieve good poly(hydroxy-butyrate-co-hydroxy-valerate) yields (41.4%, after 72 h of fermentation). A scale-up in a stirred tank bioreactor (3 L) gave higher yields (76.3%, after 96 h), allowing in both cases to achieve a concentration of 0.42 g/L in the fermentation medium. The possibility of producing PHAs from agricultural waste using a mixed microbial culture from the food industry with enabling technologies could make the production of biopolymers more competitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Waste Valorization into Added-Value Products)
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Article
Granulated Cane Sugar as a Partial Replacement for Steam-Flaked Corn in Diets for Feedlot Cattle: Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100555 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of supplemental granulated cane sugar (GCS) levels (0, 13.3, 26.6, and 39.9% on a dry matter basis) in a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet on measures of ruminal fermentation and the site and extent [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of supplemental granulated cane sugar (GCS) levels (0, 13.3, 26.6, and 39.9% on a dry matter basis) in a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet on measures of ruminal fermentation and the site and extent of nutrient digestion. Four Holstein steers (251 ± 3.6 kg live weight) with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the treatments. The experiment lasted 84 d. Replacing steam-flaked corn (SFC) with GCS linearly decreased the flow of ammonia-N (NH3-N) to the small intestine, increasing the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN; quadratic effect, p = 0.02), ruminal N efficiency (linear effect, p = 0.03) and MN efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.04). The ruminal digestion of starch and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (linear effect, p ≤ 0.02) as the level of GCS increased. The postruminal digestion of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch were not affected by the GCS inclusion. However, postruminal N digestion decreased (linear effect, p = 0.02) as the level of GCS increased. There were no treatment effects on total tract OM digestion. However, total tract NDF and N digestion decreased (linear effect, p ≤ 0.02) as the level of GCS increased. The ruminal pH decreased (linear effect, p < 0.01) as the GCS increased in the diet. The ruminal acetate molar proportion decreased (linear effect, p = 0.02) and the ruminal valerate molar proportion tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.08) as the level of GCS increased. It is concluded that replacing as much as 13% of SFC with GCS in a finishing diet will enhance the efficiency of N utilization (g non-ammonia-N entering the small intestine/g N intake) without detrimental effects on total tract OM digestion. The inclusion of GCS decreased the ruminal proportion of acetate linearly without an effect on the acetate-to-propionate ratio or estimated methane production. Some of the effects on N utilization at a high level of GCS inclusion (27 and 40%) can be magnified by the differences in the CP content between diets. A higher level of GCS supplementation in the diet decreased the ruminal pH below 5.5, increasing the risk of ruminal acidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rumen Fermentation Efficiency)
Article
Chlorellaceae Feedstock Selection under Balanced Nutrient Limitation
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100554 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
Microalgae are an attractive source of biomass for fossil fuel alternatives and renewable energy sources. Regardless of their potential, the development of microalgal biofuels has been limited due to the associated economic and environmental costs. We followed and compared the biomass properties of [...] Read more.
Microalgae are an attractive source of biomass for fossil fuel alternatives and renewable energy sources. Regardless of their potential, the development of microalgal biofuels has been limited due to the associated economic and environmental costs. We followed and compared the biomass properties of six Chlorellaceae strains with a specific interest in lipid-based biofuels. The strains were cultivated under balanced nutrient limitation inducing a gradual limitation of nutrients that triggered reserve accumulation. The final biomass of each strain was characterized by its elemental and biochemical composition. Due to its high lipid content and overall composition, Chlorella vulgaris NIES 227 was identified as an ideal feedstock for biofuels with the best energy-content biomass. Its fatty acid profile also showed superior qualities for biodiesel production. Balanced nutrient limitation promoted not only the accumulation of storage compounds in all strains, but also resulted in a low content of heteroatom precursors and ashes for biofuel applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Biomass: From Bioproducts to Biofuels)
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Article
Probiotic Properties of Weissella confusa PP29 on Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Media
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100553 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
To date, there are very few data regarding new efficient probiotics’ development with their own prebiotic substrate. All commercial products contain prebiotic substrate that was previously purified from external sources and added to the final product. The present study describes Weissella confusa strain [...] Read more.
To date, there are very few data regarding new efficient probiotics’ development with their own prebiotic substrate. All commercial products contain prebiotic substrate that was previously purified from external sources and added to the final product. The present study describes Weissella confusa strain fermentations in media with different anthocyanin concentrations from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., in order to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield, leading to augmented probiotic and prebiotic properties. The extracted and purified EPS were characterized by Gel permeation chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; thermal analysis measurements and the whole fermented media’s probiotic properties were evaluated by testing low pH and bile salt resistance, along with hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation capacity. The anthocyanins increased biomass and EPS yields and the high EPS molecular mass improved nutrient access by allowing a good microbial suspension in media. The confirmed dextran structure provides media biocompatibility and very good probiotic properties compared with existing literature. Simultaneously, the anthocyanins in media protected the strain cells against low pH and bile salt compared with the control fermentation. These very good results show that the whole fermented culture media is suitable for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies regarding its probiotic and prebiotic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
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Article
An Alternative to Vermiculite: Composting on Tropical Islands Using Coral Sand to Enhance Nitrogen Retention during Ventilation
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100552 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Reducing nitrogen loss during composting with forced ventilation was comprehensively investigated in this study. Coral sand was tailored in the co-composting in the co-composting of sludge and litters. The physicochemical results revealed that forced ventilation prolonged the thermophilic phase and accelerated the substrate [...] Read more.
Reducing nitrogen loss during composting with forced ventilation was comprehensively investigated in this study. Coral sand was tailored in the co-composting in the co-composting of sludge and litters. The physicochemical results revealed that forced ventilation prolonged the thermophilic phase and accelerated the substrate decomposition. With the addition of 10% native coral sand, the amount of nitrogen loss decreased by 9.2% compared with the original group. The microbial community evaluation revealed that the effect of forced ventilation on colony abundance was significantly greater than that of adding coral sand. This study demonstrated that when composting on a tropical island, adding coral sand under forced ventilation was a viable solution for realizing sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Valorization in Biorefinery)
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Article
The Evaluation of γ-Zein Reduction Using Mass Spectrometry—The Influence of Proteolysis Type in Relation to Starch Degradability in Silages
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100551 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The starch availability and nutritional value of corn (Zea mays L.) are affected by zein proteins. The aim of the study was to see whether the proposed reduction of γ-zeins during the fermentation of silages is a result of either the enzymatic [...] Read more.
The starch availability and nutritional value of corn (Zea mays L.) are affected by zein proteins. The aim of the study was to see whether the proposed reduction of γ-zeins during the fermentation of silages is a result of either the enzymatic proteolytic activity or of the acidic environment, and how this reduction affects starch availability and degradability in high-moisture corn. A mass spectrometry (MS) technique was used to quantify the 16- and 27-kDa γ-zeins. Briefly, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used for γ-zein separation, followed by densitometry for protein quantification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF) for protein identification. The results show that the reduction in γ-zeins induced by the ensiling led to a more pronounced starch availability and in vitro degradation, and this reduction was dependent on the type of proteolysis. More specifically, the results indicate that the reduction of γ-zeins in the ensiled corn was primarily driven by the enzymatic proteolysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 2-DE followed by densitometric quantification and the mass spectrometry analysis for protein identification can be used as a state-of-the-art method for γ-zein evaluation both in fresh and fermented/ensiled corn samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rumen Fermentation)
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Communication
Cecal Reduction of Brachyspira and Lesion Severity in Laying Hens Supplemented with Fermented Defatted ‘Alperujo’
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100550 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance demands the development of therapeutic alternatives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial proprieties of the nutraceutical fermented defatted “alperujo”, derived from olive oil production, in a laying hen farm (n [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance demands the development of therapeutic alternatives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial proprieties of the nutraceutical fermented defatted “alperujo”, derived from olive oil production, in a laying hen farm (n = 122,250) endemic with avian intestinal spirochetosis (Brachyspira spp.). Part of the batch (n = 1440) was divided into six groups of 240 hens each that included 80 or 108-week-old laying hens, supplemented with 0%, 2%, or 6% fermented defatted ‘alperujo’ for a month. At the end of the experiment, eight hens from each group were autopsied and cecal content was subjected to (i) Brachyspira culture and species identification by PCRs, and (ii) direct DNA extraction and Brachyspira qPCR. Furthermore, the ceca were processed for histopathology. Microbiological isolation revealed B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae co-infection in all groups. The 80-week-old hen group 2% supplemented showed a reduction in the cecal Brachyspira content (qPCR) compared with non-supplemented hens. Cecal histopathology showed a diffuse mild infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and heterophils; and hyperplasia of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia which decreased in severity in 80-week-old supplemented hens. The reduction in Brachyspira colonization and the severity of the lesions observed in supplemented hens highlights a potential protective function against avian intestinal spirochetosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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Review
Role of Chitin and Chitosan in Ruminant Diets and Their Impact on Digestibility, Microbiota and Performance of Ruminants
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100549 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The slow progress in the development of the subsector, particularly of alternative feed sources such as agro-industrial byproducts and unconventional feed resources, has deepened the gap in the availability of and accessibility to animal feed. Production of animal feed is highly resource demanding. [...] Read more.
The slow progress in the development of the subsector, particularly of alternative feed sources such as agro-industrial byproducts and unconventional feed resources, has deepened the gap in the availability of and accessibility to animal feed. Production of animal feed is highly resource demanding. Recently, it has been shown that increasing climate change, land degradation, and the recurrence of droughts have worsened the feed gap. In the backdrop of these challenges, there has been attention to food-not-feed components, which have great potential to substitute human-edible components in livestock feeding. Chitosan, a non-toxic polyglucosamine, is widely distributed in nature and used as a feed additive. Chitosan is obtained from the de-acetylation process of the chitin and is mostly present in shrimp, crabs, and insect exoskeletons, and has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antitumor, and immune-stimulatory hypo-cholesterolemic properties. This review article discusses the results of recent studies focusing on the effects of chitosan and chitin on the performance of dairy cows, beef steers, sheep, and goats. In addition, the effects of chitosan and chitin on feed intake, feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbiota are also discussed. Available evidence suggests that chitosan and chitin used as a feed additive for ruminants including dairy cows, beef steers, sheep, goats, and yaks have useful biological effects, including immune-modulatory, antimicrobial, and other important properties. These properties of chitosan and chitin are different from the other feed additives and have a positive impact on production performance, feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and bacterial population in dairy cows, beef steers, sheep, goats, and yaks. There is promising evidence that chitosan and chitin can be used as additives in livestock feed and that well-designed feeding interventions focusing on these compounds in ruminants are highly encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rumen Fermentation)
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Article
Impact of Cationic Polyelectrolyte Addition on Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Content of Sewage Sludge
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100548 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The agricultural spreading of treated sewage sludge is a valid strategy in terms of circular economy for the management of this nutrient-rich waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to stabilize and hygienize sewage sludge, making it suitable for agricultural reuse, while producing [...] Read more.
The agricultural spreading of treated sewage sludge is a valid strategy in terms of circular economy for the management of this nutrient-rich waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to stabilize and hygienize sewage sludge, making it suitable for agricultural reuse, while producing biogas to be utilized as an energy vector. However, the presence of contaminants, including petroleum hydrocarbons, could limit the widespread agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In this context, the impact of dewatering agents, such as cationic polyelectrolytes, on AD efficiency and hydrocarbon biodegradation has been poorly investigated, although it represents a noteworthy aspect when conditioned sludge is digested for agricultural use in centralized biogas plants. This work aims to elucidate the effect of cationic polyelectrolyte addition on biomethanation as well as the degradation and extractability of C10-C40 hydrocarbons during mesophilic AD of sewage sludge. The addition of 26.7 g/kgTS of cationic polyelectrolyte was observed to extend the AD lag phase, although similar methane yields (573–607 mLCH4 per g of degraded volatile solids) were observed for both conditioned and raw sludge. Furthermore, a significant impact on hydrocarbon degradation was observed due to chemical conditioning. Indeed, this work reveals that cationic polyelectrolytes can affect hydrocarbon extractability and suggests moreover that the presence of natural interferents (e.g., biogenic waxes) in sewage sludge may lead to an overestimation of potentially toxic C10-C40 hydrocarbon concentrations, potentially limiting the application of sludge-derived digestates in agriculture. Full article
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Article
Multi-Omics-Based Functional Characterization of Hybrid Fermented Broussonetia papyrifera: A Preliminary Study on Gut Health of Laying Hens
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100547 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
More attention has been paid in recent times to the application of Broussonetia papyrifera (BP) silage in ruminants, owing to its nutritional value. This study aimed to characterize the functionality of fermented BP and preliminarily explore its dietary effects on the gut health [...] Read more.
More attention has been paid in recent times to the application of Broussonetia papyrifera (BP) silage in ruminants, owing to its nutritional value. This study aimed to characterize the functionality of fermented BP and preliminarily explore its dietary effects on the gut health of laying hens. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, bioactive compound profile, and bacterial community in Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented BP (FBP), as well as its dietary effects on intestinal morphology, microbiota and gene expression of laying hens. Improved contents of protein, total polyphenol and flavonoids as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities were found after fermentation of BP. Untargeted metabolomics displayed more abundant apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, and quercetin within the FBP, which may contribute to its functionality. Microbiome demonstrated increased abundance of Firmicutes at the expense of Cyanobacteria phylum, accompanied with raised levels of Lactobacillus genus. The results of a feeding trial showed dietary FBP supplementation increased the serum superoxide dismutase, but down-regulated gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), mucin2, and ZO-2, without obviously affecting the intestinal morphology and colonic microbiota. These findings suggest that FBP warrants further investigation as it may serve as a functional dietary supplement in laying hen feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
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Article
Plant Proteins as an Alternative Nitrogen Source for Chiral Purity L-Lactic Acid Fermentation from Lignocellulose Feedstock
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100546 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
High optical purity lactic acid is in high demand as the precursor for synthesizing polylactic acid (PLA). The costs of expensive carbohydrates and nitrogen source materials accounts for a large portion of the production costs in lactic homo-fermentation. The use of lignocellulosic biomass [...] Read more.
High optical purity lactic acid is in high demand as the precursor for synthesizing polylactic acid (PLA). The costs of expensive carbohydrates and nitrogen source materials accounts for a large portion of the production costs in lactic homo-fermentation. The use of lignocellulosic biomass for lactic acid production reduces the cost of the carbohydrate feedstock, but the cost of nitrogen sources is a big challenge when considering the high prices of general nitrogen sources. Low-cost nitrogen materials are vulnerable to being contaminated by exogenous mixed L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid; thus, their feasibility as nitrogen sources for the production of optically pure lactic acid products is hindered. The available reports focus on cost reduction using agro-industrial byproducts as nutrient sources, with these presenting fewer concerns on the effect of the optical purity of lactic acid-product monomers for polymerization. In this study, commonly used low-cost nutrient sources were characterized and screened for high optical purity L-lactic acid fermentation. Corn steep liquor (CSL), a widely used and cheap nutrient for lactic acid fermentation, was found not to be suitable because of its high content of mixed D-/L-lactic acids (up to 20%, w/w). On the other hand, cottonseed meal was found to be completely free of mixed L-/D-lactic acids. Therefore, the cottonseed meal was hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid and used as a nitrogen source for L-lactic acid fermentation using lignocellulose feedstock as a substitution for yeast extract and peptone. The results showed that the final L-lactic acid titer reached 96.5 ± 0.2 g/L from 25% (w/w)-solids loaded pretreated and biodetoxified wheat straw with a yield of 0.31 g/g feedstock and an optical purity of 99.7%. The techno-economic evaluation indicated that the cost of the cottonseed meal was only USD 0.193/kg of lactic acid product, and the minimum lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was USD 0.813/kg of lactic acid product, which was only 25.1% compared to the use of yeast extract and peptone as the nutrients. Cellulosic L-lactic acid production using cottonseed meal as a complex nutrient source showed competitive performance when compared to starch feedstock from food crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefinery of Lignocellulosic Biomass)
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Article
Fortification of Cow Milk with Moringa oleifera Extract: Influence on Physicochemical Characteristics, Antioxidant Capacity and Mineral Content of Yoghurt
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100545 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Background: Fermented dairy products are known for their many positive effects on human health and are consumed worldwide. The supplementation of food with plant extracts as sources of valuable nutritional compounds has recently gained a lot of attention. Milk and fermented products are [...] Read more.
Background: Fermented dairy products are known for their many positive effects on human health and are consumed worldwide. The supplementation of food with plant extracts as sources of valuable nutritional compounds has recently gained a lot of attention. Milk and fermented products are deficient in bioactive components such as phenolic compounds and iron. Moringa oleifera leaf extract is rich in vitamins, minerals (iron), polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and proteins. Its addition to milk before fermentation might represent an excellent way to enrich fermented milk products. Methods: Yoghurts enriched with moringa extract (ME) (1, 3 and 4-%, v/v) were produced and compared to a control yoghurt without ME. In all samples, acidity, microbiological parameters, syneresis and water holding capacity, rheology parameters, total colour difference, mineral content, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (FRAP method) and sensory properties were determined. Results: The addition of ME to milk before fermentation resulted in a shorter fermentation time, lower yoghurt pH, increased growth of yoghurt bacteria, better rheological properties and an increased total phenols content as well as antioxidant capacity of yoghurts. Moreover, yoghurts with ME addition had a higher mineral content and gained a better sensory score when compared to the control sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Development and Use of Fermented Dairy Products)
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Article
Bio-Electrochemical Performance of a Ceramic Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Kitchen Waste Leachate: Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Anode Electrode Surface Area
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100544 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Performance evaluation of a ceramic microbial fuel cell (CMFC) by varying organic strength, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and anode electrode surface area (AESA) to treat leachate generated from acidogenesis of kitchen waste (KW) was studied by the central composite design of experiment. The [...] Read more.
Performance evaluation of a ceramic microbial fuel cell (CMFC) by varying organic strength, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and anode electrode surface area (AESA) to treat leachate generated from acidogenesis of kitchen waste (KW) was studied by the central composite design of experiment. The increase in organic loading rate (OLR) positively affected power density (PD) while negatively influencing organic removal and coulombic efficiency (CE). This behavior is possible due to substrate inhibition and the coercive effect of low HRT, i.e., substrate washout, biofilm abrasion, and reduced contact period, while at high HRT, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) degradation improved. Since acetic acid is the final product of long-chain VFAs degradation, a pseudo consumption order for VFAs was obtained: butyric > propionic > acetic. The AESA aided organics removal and PD but had a negligible effect on CE. According to ANOVA, the COD removal was linearly modeled, while PD and CE were quadratic. The validation runs (VR) proved efficient as the highest COD removal was for VR2 (83.7 ± 3.6%), while maximum PD and CE values obtained were 0.224 ± 0.02 W/m3 and 2.62 ± 0.33%, respectively, for VR3, supported by the lower anode potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Resource Recovery from Organic Wastes (ARROW))
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Article
An Approach for Incorporating Glycerol as a Co-Substrate into Unconcentrated Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate for Improved Lipid Production in Rhodotorula glutinis
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100543 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Sugarcane bagasse is a potential raw material for microbial lipid production by oleaginous yeasts. Due to the limited sugar concentrations in bagasse hydrolysate, increasing carbon the concentration is necessary in order to improve lipid production. We aimed to increase carbon concentration by incorporating [...] Read more.
Sugarcane bagasse is a potential raw material for microbial lipid production by oleaginous yeasts. Due to the limited sugar concentrations in bagasse hydrolysate, increasing carbon the concentration is necessary in order to improve lipid production. We aimed to increase carbon concentration by incorporating glycerol as a co-substrate into unconcentrated bagasse hydrolysate in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR 5159. Cultivation in hydrolysate without nitrogen supplementation (C/N = 42) resulted in 60.31% lipid accumulation with 11.45 ± 0.75 g/L biomass. Nitrogen source supplementation increased biomass to 26.29 ± 2.05 g/L without losing lipid accumulation at a C/N of 25. Yeast extract improved lipid production in the hydrolysate due to high growth without altering the lipid content of the cells. Mixing glycerol up to 10% v/v into the unconcentrated hydrolysate improved biomass and lipid production. A further increase in glycerol concentrations drastically decreased growth and lipid accumulation by the yeast. By maintaining C/N at 27 using yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source, hydrolysate mixed with 10% v/v glycerol resulted in the highest lipid yield, at 19.57 ± 0.53 g/L with 50.55% lipid content, which was a 2.8-fold increase compared to using the hydrolysate alone. In addition, yeast extracts were superior for promoting growth and lipid production compared to inorganic nitrogen sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
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Article
Effects of Maize Varieties on Biomass Yield and Silage Quality of Maize–Soybean Intercropping in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100542 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Forage deficiency is the bottleneck that restricts the development of plateau animal husbandry. Maize (Zea mays L.)–soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping can improve the forage biomass yield and silage quality. This experiment was conducted in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to explore [...] Read more.
Forage deficiency is the bottleneck that restricts the development of plateau animal husbandry. Maize (Zea mays L.)–soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping can improve the forage biomass yield and silage quality. This experiment was conducted in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to explore the effects of four maize varieties (M1, Rongyu Silage No. 1; M2, Yayu 04889; M3, Demeiya No. 1; M4, Zhenghong 505) on biomass yield, nutritional composition, and silage quality in maize–soybean intercropping. The results showed that M1S had the highest total dry matter yield (18.03 t ha−1), M3S had the highest crude protein (CP) content (8.46% DM), and soybeans had the highest water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content (8.55% DM). After silage, the CP content (13.44% DM) of mixed silage in M3S was higher, and the contents of neutral detergent fiber (39.42% DM) and acid detergent fiber (25.42% DM) were lower than those in maize silage alone. The WSC content (4.45% DM) of mixed silage in M3S was higher and the pH value (4.46) and ammonia–nitrogen to total nitrogen (3.97%) were lower than those of soybean silage alone. The results of membership function analysis showed that M3S was the best in fresh feeding and silage utilization, followed by M1S. Therefore, M3S (Demeiya No 1. intercropped with soybeans) is recommended in high-altitude areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
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