Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Probiotic Strains and Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 55325

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Co. Cork, P61 C996 Fermoy, Ireland
Interests: fermented dairy products; probiotics; postbiotics; dairy technology; protein characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, P61C996 Moorepark West, Ireland
Interests: biotransformation; waste valorization; fermentation technology; circular economy; bacterial strain development; biofuels; bioplastics; anaerobic digestion; molecular biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Eating healthy can be easy, affordable, and delicious. It is all about making smart choices to build an overall healthy dietary pattern. The fermentation of food products has been long applied as a method of preservation; however, there is a growing interest in the positive effect of these foods on human health. Fermented foods, containing beneficial live bacteria, are ideal vehicles to deliver those bacteria (e.g., probiotics) and their functional metabolites (known as postbiotics) to the gut. The main objective of the current Special Issue is to investigate the production, optimization, extraction, health benefits, and gastrointestinal fate of postbiotics in different fermented foods, including fermented dairy foods. It covers various postbiotics, such as:

  • Free amino acids (e.g., GABA);
  • Short chain fatty acids;
  • Lipopolysaccharides;
  • Exopolysaccharides;
  • Enzymes;
  • Cell wall fragments;
  • Bacterial lysates;
  • Cell-free supernatants;
  • Vitamins;
  • Other beneficial products.

Dr. Farhad Garavand
Dr. Eoin Byrne
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Postbiotics
  • Fermentation
  • Dairy products
  • Gastrointestinal fate
  • Biological functions

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG5091 and Lactococcus lactis MG4668 and MG5474 Suppress Muscle Atrophy by Regulating Apoptosis in C2C12 Cells
by Jeong-Yong Park, Ji Yeon Lee, YongGyeong Kim and Chang-Ho Kang
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070659 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Muscular atrophy is a chronic muscle disease characterized by a loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness due to excessive protein breakdown relative to protein synthesis. Apoptosis is a major factor in sarcopenia and the final stage of muscle atrophy that occurs via [...] Read more.
Muscular atrophy is a chronic muscle disease characterized by a loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness due to excessive protein breakdown relative to protein synthesis. Apoptosis is a major factor in sarcopenia and the final stage of muscle atrophy that occurs via various mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in dexamethasone (DEX)-treated C2C12 cells, followed by probiotic properties. We found that Limosilactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) MG4263 and MG5091 and Lactococcus lactis (Lc. lactis) MG4668 and MG5474 inhibited muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1) and muscle-specific RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) in DEX-treated C2C12 cells. In addition, LAB strains inhibited the expression of apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2-associated X (Bax)/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in DEX-treated C2C12 cells. L. fermentum MG5091, Lc. lactis MG4668, and MG5474 showed high survival rates in gastrointestinal (GIT) conditions and high adhesion rate to HT-29 cells. The LAB strains were also assessed for hemolysis and toxicity in HT-29 cells to confirm their stability. The LAB strains showed no hemolytic activity and toxicity to HT-29 cells. Therefore, L. fermentum MG5091, Lc. lactis MG4668, and MG5474 suggest their potential as probiotics to be used as functional foods for the inhibition of muscular atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1388 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Amino Acid Composition and Content of Organic Acids of Complex Postbiotic Substances Obtained on the Basis of Metabolites of Probiotic Bacteria Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ABK and Lactobacillus helveticus H9
by Irina Vladimirovna Rozhkova, Elena Anatolyevna Yurova and Victoria Alexandrovna Leonova
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050460 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
In this article, the probiotic strains of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ABK and Lactobacillus helveticus H9 were cultured in reconstituted skim milk (RSM medium) and MRS broth, and the cell biomass was removed at the end of fermentation in order to obtain postbiotic substances. In [...] Read more.
In this article, the probiotic strains of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ABK and Lactobacillus helveticus H9 were cultured in reconstituted skim milk (RSM medium) and MRS broth, and the cell biomass was removed at the end of fermentation in order to obtain postbiotic substances. In postbiotics, the composition of total amino acids, and also the content of free amino acids and organic acids were analyzed. It was shown that in all RSM-based postbiotic substances the concentration of all free amino acids increased. On the contrary, in the MRS-based postbiotics free amino acids were mostly consumed during fermentation; however, a substantial, two-fold, decrease in methionine concentration was observed in postbiotics obtained with L. paracasei ABK. Both L. paracasei ABK and L. helveticus H9 strains showed change in their fermentation profile from homofermentative in MRS broth to mix-acid fermentation in RSM medium. Both strains produced lactic acid in the investigated media and produced lactate together with acetate in RSM. L. helveticus H9 additionally synthesizes succinic acid on both media. Thus, it has been shown that RSM is more preferable than MRS for fermentation with L. paracasei ABK and L. helveticus H9 for obtaining postbiotics enriched with free amino acids and organic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2480 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Properties, Safety Assessment, and Aroma-Generating Attributes of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Iranian Traditional Cheese
by Zahra Zareie, Ali Moayedi, Farhad Garavand, Kourosh Tabar-Heydar, Morteza Khomeiri and Yahya Maghsoudlou
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040338 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Artisanal cheeses are known as the source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Therefore, this study aimed to isolate and characterize LAB with different proteolytic activities from Iranian artisanal white cheeses. The isolates were classified into low, medium, and high proteolytic activity clusters [...] Read more.
Artisanal cheeses are known as the source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Therefore, this study aimed to isolate and characterize LAB with different proteolytic activities from Iranian artisanal white cheeses. The isolates were classified into low, medium, and high proteolytic activity clusters via K-means clustering and identified as Lactiplantibacillus (Lpb.) pentosus L11, Lpb. plantarum L33, and Enterococcus faecium L13, respectively. Some safety tests (such as resistance to antibiotics, hemolytic activity, and biogenic amine production), probiotic properties (including cell surface hydrophobicity, auto/co-aggregation, and antibacterial activity), and production of volatile compounds were evaluated. These were non-hemolytic and non-biogenic amine producers, and showed no irregular antibiotic resistance. Lpb. plantarum L33 had the highest hydrophobicity (30.55%) and auto-aggregation (49.56%), and the highest co-aggregation was observed for Lpb. pentosus L11 with Staphylococcus aureus (61.51%). The isolates also showed a remarkable antibacterial effect against pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, Lpb. pentosus L11 and Lpb. plantarum L33 with low and medium proteolytic activity produced a wider range of volatile compounds in milk compared to the strain with a high proteolytic effect. The results showed that a probiotic strain with low or medium proteolytic activity could improve the flavor characteristics of fermented milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2587 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Growth Inhibition of Eugenol-Loaded Nano-Emulsions against Beneficial Bifidobacterium sp. along with Resistant Escherichia coli Using Flow Cytometry
by Usman Majeed, Afshan Shafi, Muhammad Shahbaz, Kashif ur Rehman Khan, Khalid Javed Iqbal, Kashif Akram, Irfan Baboo, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Muhammad Mazhar Munir, Rizwana Sultan, Hamid Majeed, Ilaria Cacciotti, Tuba Esatbeyoglu and Sameh A. Korma
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020140 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
The intestinal tract microbiota influences many aspects of the dietary components on colon health and during enteric infections, thus, playing a pivotal role in the colon health. Therefore, the eugenol (EU) nano-emulsion effective concentration reported in our previous study against cancer cells should [...] Read more.
The intestinal tract microbiota influences many aspects of the dietary components on colon health and during enteric infections, thus, playing a pivotal role in the colon health. Therefore, the eugenol (EU) nano-emulsion effective concentration reported in our previous study against cancer cells should be explored for safety against beneficial microbes. We evaluated the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium breve and B. adolescentis against EU-loaded nano-emulsions at 0, 300, 600 and 900 µm, which were effective against colon and liver cancer cells. Both B. breve and B. adolescentis showed comparable growth ranges to the control group at 300 and 600 µm, as evident from the plate count experimental results. However, at 900 µm, a slight growth variation was revealed with respect to the control group. The real-time inhibition determination through flow cytometry showed B. breve viable, sublethal cells (99.49 and 0.51%) and B. adolescentis (95.59 and 0.15%) at 900 µm, suggesting slight inhibition even at the highest tested concentration. Flow cytometry proved to be a suitable quantitative approach that has revealed separate live, dead, and susceptible cells upon treatment with EU nano-emulsion against Escherichia coli. Similarly, in the case of B. breve and B. adolescentis, the cells showed only live cells that qualitatively suggest EU nano-emulsion safety. To judge the viability of these sublethal populations of B. breve and B. adolescentis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy was carried out, revealing no peak shift for proteins, lipids, DNA and carbohydrates at 900 µm EU nano-emulsion compared to the control. On the other hand, EU-loaded nano-emulsions (900 µm)-treated E. coli showed a clear peak shift for a membrane protein, lipids, DNA and carbohydrates. This study provides insights to utilize plant phenols as safe medicines as well as dietary supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Properties of Weissella confusa PP29 on Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Media
by Alexandra Dimofte, Natalia Simionescu, Anca-Roxana Petrovici and Iuliana Spiridon
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100553 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
To date, there are very few data regarding new efficient probiotics’ development with their own prebiotic substrate. All commercial products contain prebiotic substrate that was previously purified from external sources and added to the final product. The present study describes Weissella confusa strain [...] Read more.
To date, there are very few data regarding new efficient probiotics’ development with their own prebiotic substrate. All commercial products contain prebiotic substrate that was previously purified from external sources and added to the final product. The present study describes Weissella confusa strain fermentations in media with different anthocyanin concentrations from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., in order to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield, leading to augmented probiotic and prebiotic properties. The extracted and purified EPS were characterized by Gel permeation chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; thermal analysis measurements and the whole fermented media’s probiotic properties were evaluated by testing low pH and bile salt resistance, along with hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation capacity. The anthocyanins increased biomass and EPS yields and the high EPS molecular mass improved nutrient access by allowing a good microbial suspension in media. The confirmed dextran structure provides media biocompatibility and very good probiotic properties compared with existing literature. Simultaneously, the anthocyanins in media protected the strain cells against low pH and bile salt compared with the control fermentation. These very good results show that the whole fermented culture media is suitable for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies regarding its probiotic and prebiotic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1884 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Assessment of Probiotic and Technological Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Indigenously Fermented Cereal-Based Food Products
by Kamalesh Kumar Meena, Neetu Kumra Taneja, Devendra Jain, Ankur Ojha, Dinesh Kumawat and Vijendra Mishra
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100529 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3755
Abstract
The present study concerns the isolation and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from indigenously fermented cereal-based products commonly produced by tribal people of the Aravali hills region of India and the documentation of their unexplored probiotic attributes. The isolated strains were evaluated [...] Read more.
The present study concerns the isolation and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from indigenously fermented cereal-based products commonly produced by tribal people of the Aravali hills region of India and the documentation of their unexplored probiotic attributes. The isolated strains were evaluated for probiotic attributes, such as bile salt and acid tolerance, lysozyme and phenol tolerance, antagonistic and antifungal activity, cell autoaggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion, antioxidative potential, bile salt hydrolase activity, and H2O2 production. The safety of isolates was assessed by antibiotic sensitivity, hemolytic activity, DNase activity, and biogenic amine production assays, while technological properties, such as fermenting ability, amylolytic activity, and EPS production, were also evaluated. A total of 70 LAB isolates were screened initially, and 6 strains showed good potential as probiotic candidates in in vitro assessments. The efficient strains were identified using phenotyping and biochemical characterization, which results were further confirmed and recognized at the strain level using phylogenetic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The current study has shown that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KMUDR7 isolated from “Makka ki Raab” has excellent probiotic attributes and could be a potential probiotic for product preparation. However, other strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KMUDR1 and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus KMUDR9, showed good properties, while KMUDR14, -17, and -20 also have comparable probiotic attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus as Influenced by Carao (Cassia grandis)
by David Paz, Ricardo S. Aleman, Roberto Cedillos, Douglas W. Olson, Kayanush Aryana, Jhunior Marcia and Charles Boeneke
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100499 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4873
Abstract
Carao is considered a functional ingredient since its bioactive compounds are meaningful in nutritional, pharmacological, and medicinal applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of carao pulp powder on the bacterial viability, acid tolerance, bile tolerance, and protease activity [...] Read more.
Carao is considered a functional ingredient since its bioactive compounds are meaningful in nutritional, pharmacological, and medicinal applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of carao pulp powder on the bacterial viability, acid tolerance, bile tolerance, and protease activity of S. thermophilus STI-06 and L. bulgaricus LB-12. M17 broth with 0.5% lactose and MRS broth were used for S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus, respectively, for determining bacterial viability, acid tolerance, and bile tolerance. Skim milk was used to study the protease activity of both bacteria. The carao was added at 0 (control), 1.3, 2.6, and 5.3 (g/L) into the broths and skim milk. The broths were enumerated for bacterial viability (every 2 h), bile tolerance (every 4 h), and acid tolerance (every 30 min), and the skim milk was analyzed for protease activity (every 12 h). The General Linear Model (PROC GLM) was used to analyze the data. The 2.6 g/L and 5.3 g/L usage level of carao improved the acid tolerance of S. thermophilus. Carao did not affect the acid tolerance of L. bulgaricus. The usage of 5.3 g/L of carao significantly improved the bile tolerance and protease activity of both bacteria. However, carao did not affect the viability of either bacteria. Overall, 5.3 g/L of carao with these probiotics could be recommended in fermentation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Single and Co-Cultures of Proteolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Manufacture of Fermented Milk with High ACE Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities
by Shahram Loghman, Ali Moayedi, Mandana Mahmoudi, Morteza Khomeiri, Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque and Farhad Garavand
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090448 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
In this study, single and co-cultures of proteolytic Lactobacillus delberueckii subsp. bulgaricus ORT2, Limosilactobacillus reuteri SRM2 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BRM3 isolated from different raw milk samples were applied as starter cultures to manufacture functional fermented milks. Peptide extracts from fermented milk [...] Read more.
In this study, single and co-cultures of proteolytic Lactobacillus delberueckii subsp. bulgaricus ORT2, Limosilactobacillus reuteri SRM2 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BRM3 isolated from different raw milk samples were applied as starter cultures to manufacture functional fermented milks. Peptide extracts from fermented milk samples were evaluated after fermentation and 7 days of cold storage for proteolytic, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activity by different methods including 2, 2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), OH-radical scavenging, and total antioxidant (molybdate-reducing activity). The highest proteolysis was found in milk fermented by co-cultures of three strains. Fermentation with the mentioned bacteria increased ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activity of the final products which were dependent on peptide concentration. The crude peptide extract obtained from fermented milk with triple co-culture showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.61 mg/mL) which was reduced after 7 days of cold storage (IC50 = 0.78 mg/mL). Similar concentration-dependent activities were found in antioxidant activity at different antioxidant assays. Overall, high proteolytic activity resulted in increased ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities, but the highest activity was not necessarily found for the samples with the highest proteolytic activity. The results of this study suggest the potential of using co-cultures of L. delberueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. reuteri and L. lactis subsp. Lactis to manufacture antihypertensive fermented milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1218 KiB  
Communication
Improvements in Human Keratinocytes and Antimicrobial Effect Mediated by Cell-Free Supernatants Derived from Probiotics
by Ji Yeon Lee, YongGyeong Kim, Ja-I Kim, Hyang-Yeol Lee, Gi-Seong Moon and Chang-Ho Kang
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070332 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
The skin acts as a physical and physiological barrier, thereby protecting the body from various environmental components and stimuli. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) derived from probiotics can improve skin functions and retain moisture. In this study, to assess the efficacy of CFS derived from [...] Read more.
The skin acts as a physical and physiological barrier, thereby protecting the body from various environmental components and stimuli. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) derived from probiotics can improve skin functions and retain moisture. In this study, to assess the efficacy of CFS derived from Ligilactobacillus salivarius and Limosilactobacillus fermentum, we investigated the barrier strengthening and moisturizing effects of CFS in keratinocytes along with their antibacterial effects. We also determined the adhesive effects of probiotics on colorectal cells. To confirm improvements in moisturization and barrier function mediated by CFS in keratinocytes, hyaluronic acid (HA) production, and mRNA expression of HA synthases (HAS)2, HAS3, and FLG were measured. The results showed that CFS from L. salivarius MG242 and L. fermentum MG901 increased the expression of these genes along with the production of HA (2.40- and 1.95-fold of control). Additionally, CFS derived from L. salivarius MG242 and L. fermentum MG901 inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli, thereby demonstrating inhibitory effects against harmful pathogens observed on the skin. These results indicate that the use of CFS derived from L. salivarius MG242 and L. fermentum MG901 may increase moisturization in the skin and improve barrier function of keratinocytes along with elimination of potential pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 3636 KiB  
Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy Foods: Prime Sources of Antimicrobial Compounds
by Nooshzad Ahansaz, Armin Tarrah, Shadi Pakroo, Viviana Corich and Alessio Giacomini
Fermentation 2023, 9(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9110964 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4630
Abstract
This review presents an in-depth examination of fermented dairy products, highlighting their significance as rich sources of antimicrobial agents. Through a comprehensive study of microbial activities during fermentation, we identify and discuss the rise of bioactive elements with antimicrobial characteristics. Bacteriocins such as [...] Read more.
This review presents an in-depth examination of fermented dairy products, highlighting their significance as rich sources of antimicrobial agents. Through a comprehensive study of microbial activities during fermentation, we identify and discuss the rise of bioactive elements with antimicrobial characteristics. Bacteriocins such as nisin and pediocin play a significant role, as do organic acids such as lactic and acetic acid in providing antimicrobial activity. Challenges, including the enzymes, heat and pH sensitivity of certain compounds, are also touched upon, emphasizing the need for stable delivery for consistent efficacy. Our discussion covers various compounds, including bacteriocins, organic acids, and bioactive peptides, detailing their functions, action mechanisms, and potential applications. Moreover, this review discusses the emerging role of genetic engineering in optimizing lactic acid bacteria strains and exploring the potential of genetically modified organisms in improving the production and efficacy of antimicrobial compounds in dairy products. Additionally, we emphasize the interaction between beneficial microbes and their antimicrobial byproducts and discuss strategies for enhancing the synthesis of these antimicrobial compounds. The review highlights the nutritional significance of fermented dairy items and their potential as a rich source of compounds crucial for improving food safety. Additionally, the review explores challenges and potential solutions related to the stability of these compounds, ensuring their consistent efficacy and contribution to overall well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1156 KiB  
Review
Production, Formulation, and Application of Postbiotics in the Treatment of Skin Conditions
by Alexander da Silva Vale, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Ana Caroline de Oliveira, Dão Pedro de Carvalho Neto, Leonardo Wedderhoff Herrmann, Susan Grace Karp, Vanete Thomaz Soccol and Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030264 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8657
Abstract
The skin microbiome is composed of a complex association of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The maintenance of skin commensal microbes is essential for preventing the overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms or already present opportunistic pathogens. Thus, the development of bioactive compounds capable of modulating [...] Read more.
The skin microbiome is composed of a complex association of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The maintenance of skin commensal microbes is essential for preventing the overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms or already present opportunistic pathogens. Thus, the development of bioactive compounds capable of modulating skin microbiome has become an important topic for both researchers and the cosmetic industry. Increasingly, scientific evidence highlights that metabolites derived from probiotics have a great potential to prevent diseases affecting the skin. These compounds have recently been called postbiotics and are defined as a “preparation of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confers a health benefit on the host”. Postbiotics are obtained from fermentations performed almost exclusively by lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Short-chain fatty acids, bacteriocins, and organic acids are some examples of postbiotics. These compounds exhibit antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, postbiotic production possesses technological advantages, including high stability and increased safety, compared to viable probiotics. In this article, a model for the large-scale production of postbiotics and their uses in cosmetic formulations are reviewed. In addition, results obtained from in vivo tests for the treatment of alopecia, acne, atopic dermatitis, and wound healing are discussed. Finally, technological advances are shown based on a survey of the main patents filed in the area of postbiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1675 KiB  
Review
Butyrate Properties in Immune-Related Diseases: Friend or Foe?
by Muhammad Anshory, Raden Mohamad Rendy Ariezal Effendi, Handono Kalim, Reiva Farah Dwiyana, Oki Suwarsa, Tamar E. C. Nijsten, Jan L. Nouwen and Hok Bing Thio
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030205 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5024
Abstract
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) created within the intestinal lumen by bacterial fermentation of largely undigested dietary carbohydrates. Its beneficial effects on cellular energy metabolism and intestinal homeostasis have garnered significant attention among SCFAs. Butyrate also has systemic effects and is [...] Read more.
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) created within the intestinal lumen by bacterial fermentation of largely undigested dietary carbohydrates. Its beneficial effects on cellular energy metabolism and intestinal homeostasis have garnered significant attention among SCFAs. Butyrate also has systemic effects and is known to regulate the immune system. Most of the butyrate and other SCFAs are produced in the human colon, through the fermentation of dietary fiber or resistant starch. However, the modern diet often lacks sufficient intake of fermentable dietary fiber, which can lead to low butyrate levels in the colon. To increase butyrate levels, it is helpful to incorporate fiber sources into meals and drinks that rely on slow bacterial fermentation. Butyrate is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties and has a range of immune system-related properties. As an agonist for GPR41, GPR43, or GPR109A, butyrate may have anti-inflammatory effects through these receptors’ signaling pathways. Butyrate also serves as an epigenetic regulator, responding to environmental or pharmacological changes by inhibiting HDAC, up-regulating miR-7a-5p, and promoting histone butyrylation and autophagy processes. This review discusses the importance of butyrate in regulating immunological homeostasis and the inflammatory response. It also addresses experimental models and human studies investigating the therapeutic potential of butyrate supplementation in immune-related conditions linked to butyrate depletion. Specifically, it covers the role of butyrate in some immune-related diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, human immunodeficiency virus, cancer, and several other special conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 1692 KiB  
Review
Probiotics in the Sourdough Bread Fermentation: Current Status
by Ingrid Teixeira Akamine, Felipe R. P. Mansoldo and Alane Beatriz Vermelho
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020090 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 12589
Abstract
Sourdough fermentation is an ancient technique to ferment cereal flour that improves bread quality, bringing nutritional and health benefits. The fermented dough has a complex microbiome composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. During fermentation, the production of metabolites and chemical reactions [...] Read more.
Sourdough fermentation is an ancient technique to ferment cereal flour that improves bread quality, bringing nutritional and health benefits. The fermented dough has a complex microbiome composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. During fermentation, the production of metabolites and chemical reactions occur, giving the product unique characteristics and a high sensory quality. Mastery of fermentation allows adjustment of gluten levels, delaying starch digestibility, and increasing the bio-accessibility of vitamins and minerals. This review focuses on the main steps of sourdough fermentation, the microorganisms involved, and advances in bread production with functional properties. The impact of probiotics on human health, the metabolites produced, and the main microbial enzymes used in the bakery industry are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postbiotics from Production to Their Health-Promoting Aspects)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop