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Fermentation, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 36 articles

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Article
Temporal Comparison of Microbial Community Structure in an Australian Winery
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030134 (registering DOI) - 27 Jul 2021
Abstract
Most modern fermented foods and beverages are produced in fit-for-purpose facilities which are designed to ensure not only a reliable product, but also one safe for consumption. Despite careful hygiene, microorganisms can colonise these facilities and establish resident populations that can potentially contribute [...] Read more.
Most modern fermented foods and beverages are produced in fit-for-purpose facilities which are designed to ensure not only a reliable product, but also one safe for consumption. Despite careful hygiene, microorganisms can colonise these facilities and establish resident populations that can potentially contribute to the fermentation process. Although some microorganisms may not negatively affect the final product, spoilage microorganisms can be detrimental for quality, generating substantial economic losses. Here, amplicon-based phylotyping was used to map microbial communities within an Australian winery, before, during and after the 2020 vintage. Resident bacterial and yeast populations were shown to change over time, with both relative abundance and location within the winery varying according to sampling date. The bacterial family Micrococcaceae, and the genera Sphingomonas and Brevundimonas were the most abundant bacterial taxonomies, while Naganishia, Pyrenochaeta and Didymella were the most abundant fungal genera. Mapping the spatial distributions of the microbial populations identified the main locations that harboured these resident microorganisms, that include known wine spoilage yeasts and bacteria. Wine spoilage microorganisms, including the genefugura Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Brettanomyces showed very low relative abundance and were found only in a couple of locations within the winery. Microbial populations detected in this facility were also compared to the resident microbiota identified in other fermented food facilities, revealing that microbial population structures may reflect the nature of the product created in each facility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 3.0)
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Article
Increased Varietal Aroma Diversity of Marselan Wine by Mixed Fermentation with Indigenous Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030133 (registering DOI) - 27 Jul 2021
Abstract
The common use of commercial yeasts usually leads to dull wine with similar aromas and tastes. Therefore, screening for novel indigenous yeasts to practice is a promising method. In this research, aroma discrepancies among six wine groups fermentated with indigenous yeasts were analyzed. [...] Read more.
The common use of commercial yeasts usually leads to dull wine with similar aromas and tastes. Therefore, screening for novel indigenous yeasts to practice is a promising method. In this research, aroma discrepancies among six wine groups fermentated with indigenous yeasts were analyzed. Three Saccharomyces yeasts (FS36, HL12, YT28) and three matched non-Saccharomyces yeasts (FS31, HL9, YT2) were selected from typical Chinese vineyards. The basic oenological parameters, aroma compounds, and sensory evaluation were analyzed. The results showed that each indigenous Saccharomyces yeast had excellent fermentation capacity, and mixed-strain fermentation groups produced more glycerol, contributing to sweeter and rounder taste. The results from GC-MS, principal components analysis (PCA), and sensory evaluation highlighted that the HL mixed group kept the most content of Marselan varietal flavors such as calamenene and β-damascone hereby ameliorated the whole aroma quality. Our study also implied that the indigenous yeast from the same region as the grape variety seems more conducive to preserve the natural variety characteristics of grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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Article
Comparison of Water-Removal Efficiency of Molecular Sieves Vibrating by Rotary Shaking and Electromagnetic Stirring from Feedstock Oil for Biofuel Production
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030132 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Adequate water-removal techniques are requisite to remain superior biofuel quality. The effects of vibrating types and operating time on the water-removal efficiency of molecular sieves were experimentally studied. Molecular sieves of 3 Å pore size own excellent hydrophilic characteristics and hardly absorb molecules [...] Read more.
Adequate water-removal techniques are requisite to remain superior biofuel quality. The effects of vibrating types and operating time on the water-removal efficiency of molecular sieves were experimentally studied. Molecular sieves of 3 Å pore size own excellent hydrophilic characteristics and hardly absorb molecules other than water. Molecular sieves of 3 Å accompanied by two different vibrating types, rotary shaking and electromagnetic stirring, were used to remove initial water from the reactant mixture of feedstock oil in order to prevent excessive growth or breeding of microorganisms in the biofuel product. The physical structure of about 66% molecular sieves was significantly damaged due to shattered collision between the magnetic bar and molecular sieves during electromagnetic stirring for 1 h. The molecular sieves vibrated by the rotary shaker appeared to have relatively higher water-removal efficiency than those by the electromagnetic stirrer and by keeping the reactant mixture motionless by 6 and 5 wt.%, respectively. The structure of the molecular sieves vibrated by an electromagnetic stirrer and thereafter being dehydrated appeared much more irregular and damaged, and the weight loss accounted for as high as 19 wt.%. In contrast, the structure of the molecular sieves vibrated by a rotary shaker almost remained original ball-shaped, and the weight loss was much less after regenerative treatment for those molecular sieves. As a consequence, the water-removal process using molecular sieves vibrated by the rotary shaker is considered a competitive method during the biofuel production reaction to achieve a superior quality of biofuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels Production and Processing Technology)
Article
Bottlenecks in the Development of Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Resources for the Circular Economy in Taiwan
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030131 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Strategies and actions for mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants in the transportation sector are becoming more important and urgent due to concerns related to public health and climate change. As a result, the Taiwanese government has promulgated a [...] Read more.
Strategies and actions for mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants in the transportation sector are becoming more important and urgent due to concerns related to public health and climate change. As a result, the Taiwanese government has promulgated a number of regulatory measures and promotion plans (or programs) on bioethanol use, novel fermentation research projects and domestic production since the mid-2000s. The main aim of this paper was to present a trend analysis of the motor gasoline supply/consumption and bioethanol supply, and the regulatory system relevant to bioethanol production and gasohol use since 2007 based on the official database and the statistics. The motor gasoline supply has shown a decreasing trend in the last five years (2016–2020), especially in 2020, corresponding to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Although the government provided a subsidy of NT$ 1.0–2.0 dollars per liter for refueling E3 gasohol based on the price of 95-unleaded gasoline, the bioethanol supply has shown decreasing demand since 2012. In addition, the plans for domestic bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues or energy crops were ceased in 2011 due to non-profitability. To examine the obstacles to bioethanol promotion in Taiwan, the bottlenecks to bioethanol production and gasohol use were addressed from the perspectives of the producer (domestic enterprise), the seller (gas station) and the consumer (end user). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels Production and Processing Technology)
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Review
Antimicrobial Activity of Se-Nanoparticles from Bacterial Biotransformation
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030130 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are gaining importance in the food and medical fields due to their antibacterial properties. The microbial inhibition of these kinds of particles has been tested in a wide range of Gram (+) and Gram (−) pathogenic bacteria. When SeNPs are [...] Read more.
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are gaining importance in the food and medical fields due to their antibacterial properties. The microbial inhibition of these kinds of particles has been tested in a wide range of Gram (+) and Gram (−) pathogenic bacteria. When SeNPs are synthesized by biological methods, they are called biogenic SeNPs, which have a negative charge caused by their interaction between surface and capping layer (bioorganic material), producing their high stability. This review is focused on SeNPs synthesis by bacteria and summarizes the main factors that influence their main characteristics: shape, size and surface charge, considering the bacteria growth conditions for their synthesis. The different mechanisms of antimicrobial activity are revised, and this review describes several biosynthesis hypotheses that have been proposed due to the fact that the biological mechanism of SeNP synthesis is not fully known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology 3.0)
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Article
Conversion of a Thiol Precursor into Aroma Compound 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone Using Microbial Cell Extracts
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030129 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 213
Abstract
4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), a high-impact aroma compound with the box tree and black currant flavors was first identified in wines and could be released by microbial cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyases from its precursors. In this study, various yeasts and bacteria encoding β-lyases were selected to examine [...] Read more.
4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), a high-impact aroma compound with the box tree and black currant flavors was first identified in wines and could be released by microbial cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyases from its precursors. In this study, various yeasts and bacteria encoding β-lyases were selected to examine their β-lyase activities. A thiol precursor of 4MMP, cysteine-conjugate of 4MMP (cys-4MMP), was synthesized with a purity of >95% in a relatively environmentally friendly approach, and its chemical structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The β-lyase activities of the crude cell extract from the bacteria and yeast strains for different substrates were examined using a colorimetric method. Shewanella putrefaciens cell extract exhibited the highest β-lyase activity for all tested substrates. Additionally, the optimum pH and temperature for their β-lyase activities were determined. To monitor the conversion efficiency of precursor cys-4MMP to 4MMP, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used. Our data indicate that selected bacteria and yeasts could convert cys-4MMP into 4MMP, and S. putrefaciens exhibited the best conversion yield. This study demonstrated the potential use of microbial cell extracts to produce sulfur-containing aroma compounds such as 4MMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Processes to Produce Specialized Metabolites)
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Article
Manuka Honey with Varying Levels of Active Manuka Factor (AMF) Ratings as an Anaerobic Fermentation Substrate for Limosilactobacillus reuteri DPC16
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030128 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Manuka honey is known for its strong antibacterial effect against pathogens but can promote probiotic growth in certain conditions. In a two-factor ANOVA study, AMFTM Manuka honey (Active Manuka Factor: 05+, 10+, 15+ and 20+) [...] Read more.
Manuka honey is known for its strong antibacterial effect against pathogens but can promote probiotic growth in certain conditions. In a two-factor ANOVA study, AMFTM Manuka honey (Active Manuka Factor: 05+, 10+, 15+ and 20+) was utilised as a substrate for probiotic Limosilactobacillus reuteri DPC16 in an anaerobic batch fermenter for 36 h. The biomass growth in MRS broth was noticeably higher with AMF Manuka honey than invert syrup and control samples without any additional sweetener source. The pH value was significantly lowered below 4.0 only in the AMF samples with the formation of lactic acid as the major metabolite. Other beneficial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetic, succinic, and propionic acids, produced during the fermentation, along with the honey saccharides, were quantified by two-dimensional (2-D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A significantly (p < 0.05) high biomass in AMF 20+ sample after 36 h, can partly be attributed to the high total sugar and oligosaccharide content in the honey. Importantly, however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the recorded major fermentation outcomes for the different AMF levels. The results, nevertheless, indicate the potential prebiotic efficacy of Manuka honey as a fermentation substrate for the lactobacilli probiotic strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Gut Microbiome)
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Article
High Foam Phenotypic Diversity and Variability in Flocculant Gene Observed for Various Yeast Cell Surfaces Present as Industrial Contaminants
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030127 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Many contaminant yeast strains that survive inside fuel ethanol industrial vats show detrimental cell surface phenotypes. These harmful effects may include filamentation, invasive growth, flocculation, biofilm formation, and excessive foam production. Previous studies have linked some of these phenotypes to the expression of [...] Read more.
Many contaminant yeast strains that survive inside fuel ethanol industrial vats show detrimental cell surface phenotypes. These harmful effects may include filamentation, invasive growth, flocculation, biofilm formation, and excessive foam production. Previous studies have linked some of these phenotypes to the expression of FLO genes, and the presence of gene length polymorphisms causing the expansion of FLO gene size appears to result in stronger flocculation and biofilm formation phenotypes. We performed here a molecular analysis of FLO1 and FLO11 gene polymorphisms present in contaminant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Brazilian fuel ethanol distilleries showing vigorous foaming phenotypes during fermentation. The size variability of these genes was correlated with cellular hydrophobicity, flocculation, and highly foaming phenotypes in these yeast strains. Our results also showed that deleting the primary activator of FLO genes (the FLO8 gene) from the genome of a contaminant and highly foaming industrial strain avoids complex foam formation, flocculation, invasive growth, and biofilm production by the engineered (flo8∆::BleR/flo8Δ::kanMX) yeast strain. Thus, the characterization of highly foaming yeasts and the influence of FLO8 in this phenotype open new perspectives for yeast strain engineering and optimization in the sugarcane fuel-ethanol industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuel Fermentation from Renewable Biomass)
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Article
Chemical and Sensory Profiles of Merlot Wines Produced by Sequential Inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima or Meyerzyma guilliermondii
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030126 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Inoculation of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as means to produce Merlot wines with reduced ethanol contents was investigated. Fermentations of grape musts (25.4° Brix, pH 3.50, and 4.23 g/L titratable acidity) were conducted in stainless steel tanks inoculated with Metschnikowia [...] Read more.
Inoculation of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as means to produce Merlot wines with reduced ethanol contents was investigated. Fermentations of grape musts (25.4° Brix, pH 3.50, and 4.23 g/L titratable acidity) were conducted in stainless steel tanks inoculated with Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains P01A016 or NS-MP or Meyerozyma guilliermondii P40D002 with S. cerevisiae Syrah added after three days. After fermentation, wines with Mt. pulcherrima contained 13.8% (P01A016) or 13.9% (NS-MP) v/v ethanol, respectively, amounts which were lower than in wines with S. cerevisiae alone (14.9% v/v). Delayed inoculation of must with S. cerevisiae (day 3) or musts with My. guilliermondii contained elevated concentrations of ethyl acetate (145 and 148 mg/L, respectively), concentrations significantly higher than those with S. cerevisiae inoculated on day 0 or with either strain of Mt. pulcherrima. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed a significant effect due to panelist but not due to Mt. pulcherrima or My. guilliermondii. This research indicates the potential for commercial application of these yeasts towards the production of reduced alcohol wines but without imparting negative sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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Article
Prebiotic and Immunomodulatory Properties of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Synergistic Triglyceride-Lowering Effect with Bifidobacteria
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030125 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The microalga Chlorella and strains of Bifidobacterium have been used in human or animal food supplements for decades because of their positive health effects. The presented study assessed different properties of C. vulgaris and its combination with bifidobacteria with the aim to develop [...] Read more.
The microalga Chlorella and strains of Bifidobacterium have been used in human or animal food supplements for decades because of their positive health effects. The presented study assessed different properties of C. vulgaris and its combination with bifidobacteria with the aim to develop new functional foods. The growth of four bifidobacteria strains in milk and whey supplemented with 1.0% (w/v) C. vulgaris and the immunomodulatory effects of aqueous Chlorella solutions (0.5%, 1.0%, and 3.0%) on human peripheral mononuclear cells were evaluated. Furthermore, synergistic effects on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-fat diet with Chlorella and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® were analysed. Chlorella had a positive growth-promoting effect on the tested bifidobacteria (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and interleukin-6), depending on the concentration of Chlorella (p < 0.05). After 8 weeks, significant synergistic effects of Chlorella and bifidobacteria on triglyceride levels in rat heart, liver, and serum were observed (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that various combinations of Chlorella and bifidobacteria have significant potential for the development of new fermented products, dependent on the algal species, probiotic strain, application form, and concentrations for acceptable sensory quality for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Microbes Related to Health)
Article
Growth of Non-Saccharomyces Native Strains under Different Fermentative Stress Conditions
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030124 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 179
Abstract
The selection of yeast strains adapted to fermentation stresses in their winegrowing area is a key factor to produce quality wines. Twelve non-Saccharomyces native strains from Denomination of Origin (D.O.) “Vinos de Madrid” (Spain), a warm climate winegrowing region, were tested under [...] Read more.
The selection of yeast strains adapted to fermentation stresses in their winegrowing area is a key factor to produce quality wines. Twelve non-Saccharomyces native strains from Denomination of Origin (D.O.) “Vinos de Madrid” (Spain), a warm climate winegrowing region, were tested under osmotic pressure, ethanol, and acidic pH stresses. In addition, mixed combinations between non-Saccharomyces and a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were practised. Phenotypic microarray technology has been employed to study the metabolic output of yeasts under the different stress situations. The yeast strains, Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed the best adaptation to three stress conditions examined. The use of mixed cultures improved the tolerance to osmotic pressure by Torulaspora delbrueckii, S. pombe, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains and to high ethanol content by Candida stellata, S. pombe, and Z. bailii strains regarding the control. In general, the good adaptation of the native non-Saccharomyces strains to fermentative stress conditions makes them great candidates for wine elaboration in warm climate areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 3.0)
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Article
The Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic, and Anti-Adipogenesis Potential and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Human and Fermented Foods
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030123 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 175
Abstract
In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains derived from human and fermented food sources were examined to identify their properties related to obesity, as well as establish their safety and stability as probiotics. LAB (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus MG4502, Lactobacillus gasseri MG4524, Limosilactobacillus [...] Read more.
In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains derived from human and fermented food sources were examined to identify their properties related to obesity, as well as establish their safety and stability as probiotics. LAB (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus MG4502, Lactobacillus gasseri MG4524, Limosilactobacillus reuteri MG5149, and Weissella cibaria MG5285) exhibited antioxidant activity through DPPH (>26.1%) and ABTS (>40.1%) radical scavenging assays and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (>60.3%), respectively. The LAB strains promoted anti-adipogenesis by reducing lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil Red O staining (>70.3%). In addition, we found that these LAB strains were resistant to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (pH 3, 4, 7, and 8) and showed potential for health promotion, based on hemolysis, cell adhesion, antibiotic susceptibility, and enzyme production. Thus, LAB may be used as probiotic ingredients with beneficial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
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Article
Optimization of Microbial Hydrolysis Parameters of Poultry By-Products Using Probiotic Microorganisms to Obtain Protein Hydrolysates
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030122 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 131
Abstract
In connection with the active growth of poultry processing, the issue of rational use of poultry by-products is urgent. The paper proposes hydrolysis of the gizzards of broiler chickens and hens of the parent stock with bifidobacteria liquid concentrate (BLC) and Propionix liquid [...] Read more.
In connection with the active growth of poultry processing, the issue of rational use of poultry by-products is urgent. The paper proposes hydrolysis of the gizzards of broiler chickens and hens of the parent stock with bifidobacteria liquid concentrate (BLC) and Propionix liquid concentrated starter culture (Propionix LCSC). The effect of enzymatic treatment on changes in the structural components of the gizzards was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and determination of the dispersed composition. As a result of the research, the multiple regression equations and the response surfaces were obtained, which describe the optimal parameters of the gizzard´s hydrolysis process. The temperature and the time of hydrolysis are factors that have a significant effect on the degree of hydrolysis. The results of the structural and microscopic analysis confirm the high hydrolysability of the by-products by changing its structure and increasing the number of smaller protein particles. It was found experimentally that the gizzards of hens are more susceptible to the action of probiotic microorganisms’ enzymes compared to the gizzards of broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation Process Design)
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Article
Bored Coffee Beans for Production of Hyaluronic Acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030121 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Bored coffee beans (BCBs) are the residues left from the pest Hypothenemus hampei that attacks coffee crops, resulting in enormous economic losses. The bioconversion of monosaccharides from BCBs into hyaluronic acid (HA) is appealing both for using the residues and given the high [...] Read more.
Bored coffee beans (BCBs) are the residues left from the pest Hypothenemus hampei that attacks coffee crops, resulting in enormous economic losses. The bioconversion of monosaccharides from BCBs into hyaluronic acid (HA) is appealing both for using the residues and given the high commercial value of HA. This study dealt with the production of HA using Streptococcus zooepidemicus by employing either acid (AcH) or enzymatic (EnH) hydrolyzates from BCBs. The highest release of monosaccharides (evaluated using surface response methodology) was obtained with EnH (36.4 g/L); however, S. zooepidemicus produced more HA (1.5 g/L) using AcH compared to EnH. Hydrolyzates from acetone-extracted BCBs yielded 2.7 g/L of HA, which is similar to the amount obtained using a synthetic medium (2.8 g/L). This report demonstrates the potential of hydrolyzates from bored coffee beans to produce HA by S. zooepidemicus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Materials to Value-Added Products)
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Article
Utilization of Yeast Waste Fermented Citric Waste as a Protein Source to Replace Soybean Meal and Various Roughage to Concentrate Ratios on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation, Gas Kinetic, and Feed Digestion
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030120 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the application of citric waste fermented yeast waste (CWYW) obtained from an agro-industrial by-product as a protein source to replace soybean meal (SBM) in a concentrate diet. We also determined the effect of various roughage [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the application of citric waste fermented yeast waste (CWYW) obtained from an agro-industrial by-product as a protein source to replace soybean meal (SBM) in a concentrate diet. We also determined the effect of various roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C) on the gas production kinetics, ruminal characteristics, and in vitro digestibility using an in vitro gas production technique. The experiment design was a 3 × 5 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD), with three replicates. There were three R:C ratios (60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) and five replacing SBM with CWYW (SBM:CWYW) ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The CWYW product’s crude protein (CP) content was 535 g/kg dry matter (DM). There was no interaction effect between R:C ratios and SBM:CWYW ratios for all parameters observed (p > 0.05). The SBM:CWYW ratio did not affect the kinetics and the cumulative amount of gas. However, the gas potential extent and cumulative production of gas were increased with the R:C ratio of 40:60, and the values were about 74.9 and 75.0 mL/0.5 g, respectively (p < 0.01). The replacement of SBM by CWYW at up to 75% did not alter in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), but 100% CWYW replacement significantly reduced (p < 0.05) IVDMD at 24 h of incubation and the mean value. In addition, IVDMD at 12 h and 24 h of incubation and the mean value were significantly increased with the R:C ratio of 40:60 (p < 0.01). The SBM:CWYW ratio did not change the ruminal pH and population of protozoa (p > 0.05). The ruminal pH was reduced at the R:C ratio of 40:60 (p < 0.01), whereas the protozoal population at 4 h was increased (p < 0.05). The SBM:CWYW ratio did not impact the in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile (p > 0.05). However, the total VFA, and propionate (C3) concentration were significantly increased (p < 0.01) by the R:C ratio of 40:60. In conclusion, the replacement of SBM by 75% CWYW did not show any negative impact on parameters observed, and the R:C ratio of 40:60 enhanced the gas kinetics, digestibility, VFA, and C3 concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 5.0)
Article
Digital Smoke Taint Detection in Pinot Grigio Wines Using an E-Nose and Machine Learning Algorithms Following Treatment with Activated Carbon and a Cleaving Enzyme
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030119 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 176
Abstract
The incidence and intensity of bushfires is increasing due to climate change, resulting in a greater risk of smoke taint development in wine. In this study, smoke-tainted and non-smoke-tainted wines were subjected to treatments using activated carbon with/without the addition of a cleaving [...] Read more.
The incidence and intensity of bushfires is increasing due to climate change, resulting in a greater risk of smoke taint development in wine. In this study, smoke-tainted and non-smoke-tainted wines were subjected to treatments using activated carbon with/without the addition of a cleaving enzyme treatment to hydrolyze glycoconjugates. Chemical measurements and volatile aroma compounds were assessed for each treatment, with the two smoke taint amelioration treatments exhibiting lower mean values for volatile aroma compounds exhibiting positive ‘fruit’ aromas. Furthermore, a low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) was used to assess the wines. A machine learning model based on artificial neural networks (ANN) was developed using the e-nose outputs from the unsmoked control wine, unsmoked wine with activated carbon treatment, unsmoked wine with a cleaving enzyme plus activated carbon treatment, and smoke-tainted control wine samples as inputs to classify the wines according to the smoke taint amelioration treatment. The model displayed a high overall accuracy of 98% in classifying the e-nose readings, illustrating it may be a rapid, cost-effective tool for winemakers to assess the effectiveness of smoke taint amelioration treatment by activated carbon with/without the use of a cleaving enzyme. Furthermore, the use of a cleaving enzyme coupled with activated carbon was found to be effective in ameliorating smoke taint in wine and may help delay the resurgence of smoke aromas in wine following the aging and hydrolysis of glycoconjugates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Digital Technologies on Beverage Fermentation)
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Article
Highly Efficient 2,3-Butanediol Production by Bacillus licheniformis via Complex Optimization of Nutritional and Technological Parameters
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030118 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 184
Abstract
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a reagent with remarkable commercial use as a platform chemical in numerous industries. The present study aims to determine the capabilities of non-pathogenic and cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis 24 as a 2,3-BD producer. By applying the Plackett–Burman design and response surface [...] Read more.
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a reagent with remarkable commercial use as a platform chemical in numerous industries. The present study aims to determine the capabilities of non-pathogenic and cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis 24 as a 2,3-BD producer. By applying the Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology through central composite design (CCD), a complex optimization of medium and process parameters was conducted. Thus, among ten studied factors of medium content, four components were evaluated with a significant positive effect on 2,3-BD formation. Their optimal values for 2,3-BD production (yeast extract, 13.38 g/L; tryptone, 6.41 g/L; K2HPO4, 4.2 g/L; MgSO4, 0.32 g/L), as well as the optimal temperature (37.8 °C), pH (6.23) and aeration rate (3.68 vvm) were predicted by CCD experiments and validated in a series of batch processes. In optimized batch fermentation of 200 g/L of glucose 91.23 g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained, with the overall productivity of 1.94 g/L/h and yield of 0.488 g/g. To reveal the maximum 2,3-BD tolerance of B. licheniformis 24, fed-batch fermentation was carried out. The obtained 138.8 g/L of 2,3-BD with a yield of 0.479 g/g and productivity of 1.16 g/L/h ranks the strain among the best 2,3-BD producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethanol and Value-Added Co-Products 3.0)
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Article
Smart Detection of Faults in Beers Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Low-Cost Electronic Nose and Artificial Intelligence
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030117 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Early detection of beer faults is an important assessment in the brewing process to secure a high-quality product and consumer acceptability. This study proposed an integrated AI system for smart detection of beer faults based on the comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and [...] Read more.
Early detection of beer faults is an important assessment in the brewing process to secure a high-quality product and consumer acceptability. This study proposed an integrated AI system for smart detection of beer faults based on the comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and a newly developed electronic nose (e-nose) using machine learning modelling. For these purposes, a commercial larger beer was used as a base prototype, which was spiked with 18 common beer faults plus the control aroma. The 19 aroma profiles were used as targets for classification ma-chine learning (ML) modelling. Six different ML models were developed; Model 1 (M1) and M2 were developed using the NIR absorbance values (100 inputs from 1596–2396 nm) and e-nose (nine sensor readings) as inputs, respectively, to classify the samples into control, low and high concentration of faults. Model 3 (M3) and M4 were based on NIR and M5 and M6 based on the e-nose readings as inputs with 19 aroma profiles as targets for all models. A customized code tested 17 artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms automatically testing performance and neu-ron trimming. Results showed that the Bayesian regularization algorithm was the most adequate for classification rendering precisions of M1 = 95.6%, M2 = 95.3%, M3 = 98.9%, M4 = 98.3%, M5 = 96.8%, and M6 = 96.2% without statistical signs of under- or overfitting. The proposed system can be added to robotic pourers and the brewing process at low cost, which can benefit craft and larger brewing companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Digital Technologies on Beverage Fermentation)
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Article
Direct Ethanol Production from Xylan and Acorn Using the Starch-Fermenting Basidiomycete Fungus Phlebia acerina
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030116 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
During our search for ethanol-producing basidiomycete fungi for a wide range of substrates, we isolated Phlebia acerina, which is a white rot basidiomycete fungus. It favorably converted starch into ethanol with approximately 70% yield. Although the yield decreased as the starch concentration [...] Read more.
During our search for ethanol-producing basidiomycete fungi for a wide range of substrates, we isolated Phlebia acerina, which is a white rot basidiomycete fungus. It favorably converted starch into ethanol with approximately 70% yield. Although the yield decreased as the starch concentration increased, growth and fermentation were observed even at 200 g/L of starch. P. acerina produced ethanol from glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, cellobiose, and maltose with 93%, 91%, 86%, 72%, 92%, and 68% yields, respectively. Additionally, P. acerina, which secreted xylanase and xylosidase, was capable of assimilating xylan and directly converting it to ethanol with a yield of 63%. Furthermore, P. acerina produced ethanol directly from acorns, which are plant fruits containing starch and tannins, with a yield of 70%. Tannin delayed mycelia growth, thus prolonging ethanol production; however, this did not particularly affect the yield. These results were similar to those of fermentation in a medium with the same amounts of starch and tannin as the target crop acorn, thus suggesting that P. acerina could successfully produce environmentally friendly ethanol from starch-containing lignocellulosic biomass, unlike previously reported ethanol-producing basidiomycete fungi. Full article
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Article
Quinoa Flour, the Germinated Grain Flour, and Sourdough as Alternative Sources for Gluten-Free Bread Formulation: Impact on Chemical, Textural and Sensorial Characteristics
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030115 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The demand for gluten-free breads has increased in the last years, but important quality and nutritional challenges remain unsolved. This research evaluated the addition of quinoa in whole quinoa grain flour, germinated quinoa flour, and quinoa sourdough, as a functional ingredient in the [...] Read more.
The demand for gluten-free breads has increased in the last years, but important quality and nutritional challenges remain unsolved. This research evaluated the addition of quinoa in whole quinoa grain flour, germinated quinoa flour, and quinoa sourdough, as a functional ingredient in the formulation of a rice flour-based bread. Twenty percent (w/w) of the rice flour was replaced with quinoa flour alternatives in bread formulations. The chemical composition, shelf-life, and sensory attributes of the rice-quinoa breads were analyzed. The addition of quinoa in sourdough resulted in breads with a significantly improved protein content at 9.82%, relative to 2.70% in the control breads. The amino acid content in quinoa sourdough breads also was also 5.2, 4.4, 2.6, 3.0, and 2.1 times higher in arginine, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine, respectively, relative to control breads with rice flour only. The addition of quinoa sourdough in rice breads also improved the texture, color, and shelf-life (up to 6 days), and thus they became moderately accepted among consumers. Although the germinated quinoa flour addition also resulted in a higher protein (9.77%) and amino acid content, they had a reduced shelf-life (4 days). Similarly, the addition of quinoa flour resulted in a higher protein content (9.61%), but the breads had poor texture attributes and were the least preferred by the consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sourdough Bread Making)
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Article
Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production Efficiency, and Nutrient Digestibility of Lactating Dairy Cows Receiving Fresh Cassava Root and Solid Feed-Block Containing High Sulfur
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030114 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This study evaluates the effects of fresh cassava root (CR) and a solid feed-block containing sulfur (S-FB) on fermentation in the rumen, feed utilization, milk yield, and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four Holstein-Friesian cows with 470 ± 50.0 kg body weight [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effects of fresh cassava root (CR) and a solid feed-block containing sulfur (S-FB) on fermentation in the rumen, feed utilization, milk yield, and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four Holstein-Friesian cows with 470 ± 50.0 kg body weight (BW), 10 ± 2 kg day−1 average milk yield, and 112 ± 15 days-in-milk were studied. A 2 × 2 factorial combination was arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the treatment-related effects. The treatments were obtained from a combination of two factors: (1) levels of CR at 10 g kg−1 BW (CR-1) and 15 g kg−1 (CR-1.5) and (2) levels of sulfur supplementation in solid feed-block at 20 g kg−1 (S-FB-2) and 40 g kg−1 (S-FB-4). The results showed that CR and S-FB had no interaction effect on feed intake, digestibility, fermentation, blood metabolites, milk yield, or its composition. Feeding CR up to 15 g kg−1 of the BW significantly increased (p < 0.05) the milk fat concentration while it decreased (p < 0.05) the somatic cell count. The S-FB-4 of the sulfur significantly (p < 0.05) increased the acid detergent fiber when compared with the S-FB-2 of the sulfur. CR could be fed up to 15 g kg−1 of BW with S-FB containing high sulfur (40 g kg−1) in dairy cows without a negative impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
Article
Complementing Digital Image Analysis and Laser Distance Meter in Beer Foam Stability Determination
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030113 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The aim of this research is to investigate the possibility of applying a laser distance meter (LDM) as a complementary measurement method to image analysis during beer foam stability monitoring. The basic optical property of foam, i.e., its high reflectivity, is the main [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to investigate the possibility of applying a laser distance meter (LDM) as a complementary measurement method to image analysis during beer foam stability monitoring. The basic optical property of foam, i.e., its high reflectivity, is the main reason for using LDM. LDM measurements provide relatively precise information on foam height, even in the presence of lacing, and provide information as to when foam is no longer visible on the surface of the beer. Sixteen different commercially available lager beers were subjected to analysis. A camera and LDM display recorded the foam behavior; the LDM display which was placed close to the monitored beer glass. Measurements obtained by the image analysis of videos provided by the visual camera were comparable to those obtained independently by LDM. However, due to lacing, image analysis could not accurately detect foam disappearance. On the other hand, LDM measurements accurately detected the moment of foam disappearance since the measurements would have significantly higher values due to multiple reflections in the glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Fermented Food and Beverages)
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Article
Influence of Microencapsulation on Fermentative Behavior of Hanseniaspora osmophila in Wine Mixed Starter Fermentation
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030112 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 266
Abstract
In recent years, as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, several studies have been conducted on the use of controlled mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces and different non-Saccharomyces yeast species from the winemaking environment. To benefit from [...] Read more.
In recent years, as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, several studies have been conducted on the use of controlled mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces and different non-Saccharomyces yeast species from the winemaking environment. To benefit from the metabolic particularities of some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, the management of a non-Saccharomyces strain in mixed fermentation is a crucial step, in particular the use of procedures addressed to increase the persistence of non-Saccharomyces strains during the fermentative process. The use of microencapsulation for cell immobilization might represent a strategy for enhancing the competitiveness of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed fermentation. This study was aimed to assess the fermentative performance of a mixed starter culture, composed by a wild Hanseniaspora osmophila strain (ND1) and a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (EC1118). For this purpose, free and microencapsulated cells of ND1 strain were tested in co-culture with EC1118 during mixed fermentations in order to evaluate the effect of the microencapsulation on fermentative behavior of mixed starter and final wine composition. The data have shown that H. osmophila cell formulation affects the persistence of both ND1 and EC1118 strains during fermentations and microencapsulation resulted in a suitable system to increase the fermentative efficiency of ND1 strain during mixed starter fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight and Current Trends in Oenological Microbiology)
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Article
Lactic Acid Fermented Green Tea with Levilactobacillus brevis Capable of Producing γ-Aminobutyric Acid
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030110 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds content of lactic acid fermented green tea (LFG) fermented with an outstanding GABA-producing strain under optimised fermentation conditions were evaluated. Levilactobacillus strain GTL 79 was isolated from green tea leaves and selected based on acid production, growth [...] Read more.
The antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds content of lactic acid fermented green tea (LFG) fermented with an outstanding GABA-producing strain under optimised fermentation conditions were evaluated. Levilactobacillus strain GTL 79 was isolated from green tea leaves and selected based on acid production, growth potential, catechin resistance, and GABA production to be applied to LFG. Through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Levilactobacillus brevis. The optimised conditions were defined as fermentation at 37 °C with supplementation of 1% fermentation alcohol, 6% glucose, and 1% MSG and was determined to be most effective in increasing the lactic acid, acetic acid, and GABA content in LFG by 522.20%, 238.72% and 232.52% (or 247.58%), respectively. Initial DPPH scavenging activity of LFG fermented under the optimised conditions was 88.96% and rose to 94.38% by day 5. Polyphenols may contribute to the initial DPPH scavenging activity, while GABA and other bioactive compounds may contribute to the activity thereafter. Consequently, as GABA and other bioactive compounds found in green tea have been reported to have health benefits, future studies may prove that optimally fermented LFG by L. brevis GTL 79 could be useful in the food and health industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology 3.0)
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Article
Use of Corn-Steep Water Effluent as a Promising Substrate for Lactic Acid Production by Enterococcus faecium Strain WH51-1
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030111 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Various challenges facing the industrial production of bio-based lactic acid (LA) such as cost of raw materials and nitrogen sources, as well as contamination risk by mesophilic and neutrophilic producers, should be overcome for the commercial production. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Various challenges facing the industrial production of bio-based lactic acid (LA) such as cost of raw materials and nitrogen sources, as well as contamination risk by mesophilic and neutrophilic producers, should be overcome for the commercial production. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of corn steep water (CSW) as a raw material for LA production using a newly thermo-alkali-tolerant lactic acid bacterium. The physicochemical characteristics of CSW were investigated. The high carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, essential elements, minerals, and non-protein nitrogenous compounds content confirmed that the CSW is a promising substrate for LA production. Out of 67 bacterial isolates, Enterococcus faecium WH51-1 was selected based on its tolerance to high temperatures and inhibitory compounds (sodium metabisulfate, sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and formic acid). Fermentation factors including sugar concentration, temperature, inoculum size, and neutralizing agents were optimized for LA production. Lactic acid concentration of about 44.6 g/L with a high yield (0.89 ± 0.02 g/g) was obtained using 60 g/L of CSW sugar, inoculum size 10% (v/v), 45 °C, and sodium hydroxide or calcium carbonate as a neutralizing agent. These results demonstrated the potential of strain WH51-1 for LA production using CSW effluent as raw material. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Mitigation Responded to Flavonoid Extract Levels from Alternanthera sissoo and Dietary Ratios
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030109 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted under this study: Experiment 1 was to study production yield, chemical composition, and in vitro degradability of Brazilian spinach (Alternanthera sissoo; BS) leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk at various maturity ages of 15, 30, 45, and 60 [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted under this study: Experiment 1 was to study production yield, chemical composition, and in vitro degradability of Brazilian spinach (Alternanthera sissoo; BS) leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk at various maturity ages of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after plantation and regrowth and Experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of flavonoid extract from BS leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk and dietary ratios on ruminal gas production, fermentation characteristics, and in vitro degradability. Experiment 1 showed that maturity ages after planting and regrowth increased, the yield significantly increased. Increasing maturity ages significantly (p < 0.05) increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content and decreased crude protein content, total flavonoid (TF) content, and degradability for both leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk. Maturity ages from 15 to 30 days after plantation and regrowth resulted (p < 0.05) the highest TF content and degradability for both leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk. Thus, BS leaf and leaf + leaf-stalk samples from 15 to 30 days of age were used for flavonoid extraction and used in the Experiment 2. Experiment 2 was conducted according to a 3 × 5 factorial experiment. Three roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratios at 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were used, and five levels of flavonoid extract (FE) at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg of substrate dry matter (DM) were supplemented. Experiment 2 showed that R:C ratio and FE had an interaction effect only on acetate to propionate ratio. Varying R:C ratios significantly increased (p < 0.05) in vitro DM degradability, total volatile fatty acids (VFA), and propionate (C3) concentration. FE supplementation linearly (p < 0.05) increased total VFA and C3 concentration and decreased methane production and protozoal population. This study could conclude that FE from BS could effectively modulate ruminal fermentation and decrease methane production. However, in vivo study needs to elucidate in order to validate the present results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
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Article
Comparative Highly Efficient Production of β-glucan by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT 3966 and Its Multiscale Characterization
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030108 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Lasiodiplodan, a (1→6)-β-d-glucan, is an exopolysaccharide with high commercial value and many applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Current industrial production of β-glucans from crops is mostly by chemical routes generating hazardous and toxic waste. Therefore, alternative sustainable and eco-friendly pathways are highly [...] Read more.
Lasiodiplodan, a (1→6)-β-d-glucan, is an exopolysaccharide with high commercial value and many applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Current industrial production of β-glucans from crops is mostly by chemical routes generating hazardous and toxic waste. Therefore, alternative sustainable and eco-friendly pathways are highly desirable. Here, we have studied the lasiodiplodan production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a major lignocellulosic agricultural residue, by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT 3966. Lasiodiplodan accumulated on SCB hydrolysate (carbon source) supplemented with soybean bran or rice bran (nitrogen source) was 16.2 [6.8 × 103 Da] and 22.0 [7.6 × 103 Da] g/L, respectively. Lasiodiplodan showed high purity, low solubility, pseudoplastic behavior and was composed of glucose units. Moreover, the exopolysaccharides were substantially amorphous with moderate thermal stability and similar degradation temperatures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the highest production of SCB-based lasiodiplodan to date. L. theobromae, as a microbial cell factory, demonstrated the commercial potential for the sustainable production of lasiodiplodan from renewable biomass feedstock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethanol and Value-Added Co-Products 3.0)
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Article
Improving the Utilization of Isomaltose and Panose by Lager Yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030107 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Approximately 25% of all carbohydrates in industrial worts are poorly, if at all, fermented by brewing yeast. This includes dextrins, β-glucans, arabinose, xylose, disaccharides such as isomaltose, nigerose, kojibiose, and trisaccharides such as panose and isopanose. As the efficient utilization of carbohydrates during [...] Read more.
Approximately 25% of all carbohydrates in industrial worts are poorly, if at all, fermented by brewing yeast. This includes dextrins, β-glucans, arabinose, xylose, disaccharides such as isomaltose, nigerose, kojibiose, and trisaccharides such as panose and isopanose. As the efficient utilization of carbohydrates during the wort’s fermentation impacts the alcohol yield and the organoleptic traits of the product, developing brewing strains with enhanced abilities to ferment subsets of these sugars is highly desirable. In this study, we developed Saccharomyces pastorianus laboratory yeast strains with a superior capacity to grow on isomaltose and panose. First, we designed a plasmid toolbox for the stable integration of genes into lager strains. Next, we used the toolbox to elevate the levels of the α-glucoside transporter Agt1 and the major isomaltase Ima1. This was achieved by integrating synthetic AGT1 and IMA1 genes under the control of strong constitutive promoters into defined genomic sites. As a result, strains carrying both genes showed a superior capacity to grow on panose and isomaltose, indicating that Ima1 and Agt1 act in synergy to consume these sugars. Our study suggests that non-GMO strategies aiming to develop strains with improved isomaltose and panose utilization could include identifying strains that overexpress AGT1 and IMA1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Beverages, Food, Yeast and Brewing Research)
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Review
Obtaining Antioxidants and Natural Preservatives from Food By-Products through Fermentation: A Review
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030106 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
Industrial food waste has potential for generating income from high-added-value compounds through fermentation. Solid-state fermentation is promising to obtain a high yield of bioactive compounds while requiring less water for the microorganism’s growth. A number of scientific studies evinced an increase in flavonoids [...] Read more.
Industrial food waste has potential for generating income from high-added-value compounds through fermentation. Solid-state fermentation is promising to obtain a high yield of bioactive compounds while requiring less water for the microorganism’s growth. A number of scientific studies evinced an increase in flavonoids or phenolics from fruit or vegetable waste and bioactive peptides from cereal processing residues and whey, a major waste of the dairy industry. Livestock, fish, or shellfish processing by-products (skin, viscera, fish scales, seabass colon, shrimp waste) also has the possibility of generating antioxidant peptides, hydrolysates, or compounds through fermentation. These bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, or antioxidant peptides) resulting from bacterial or fungal fermentation are also capable of inhibiting the growth of commonly occurring food spoilage fungi and can be used as natural preservatives. Despite the significant release or enhancement of antioxidant compounds through by-products fermentation, the surface areas of large-scale bioreactors and flow patterns act as constraints in designing a scale-up process for improved efficiency. An in-process purification method can also be the most significant contributing factor for raising the overall cost. Therefore, future research in modelling scale-up design can contribute towards mitigating the discard of high-added-value generating residues. Therefore, in this review, the current knowledge on the use of fermentation to obtain bioactive compounds from food by-products, emphasizing their use as natural preservatives, was evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 3.0)
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Article
Ability of Yeast Metabolic Activity to Reduce Sugars and Stabilize Betalains in Red Beet Juice
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030105 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
To lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases, the WHO recommends that consumers reduce their consumption of sugars. Here, we propose a microbiological method to reduce the sugar content in red beet juice, while incurring only slight losses in the [...] Read more.
To lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases, the WHO recommends that consumers reduce their consumption of sugars. Here, we propose a microbiological method to reduce the sugar content in red beet juice, while incurring only slight losses in the betalain content and maintaining the correct proportion of the other beet juice components. Several yeast strains with different metabolic activities were investigated for their ability to reduce the sugar content in red beet juice, which resulted in a decrease in the extract level corresponding to sugar content from 49.7% to 58.2%. This strategy was found to have the additional advantage of increasing the chemical and microbial stability of the red beet juice. Only slight losses of betalain pigments were noted, to final concentrations of 5.11% w/v and 2.56% w/v for the red and yellow fractions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 3.0)
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