Special Issue "Advances in Wine Fermentation"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sergi Maicas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology and Ecology (Universitat de València), Burjassot, Spain
Interests: wine; fermentation; yeasts; lactic acid bacteria
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fermentation is a well-known natural process used by humanity for thousands of years with the fundamental purpose of making alcoholic beverages such as wine, and also other non-alcoholic products. Upon a strictly biochemical point of view, fermentation is a process of central metabolism in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. The fermentation process turns grape juice (must) into wine. This is a complex chemical reaction whereby the yeast interacts with the sugars (glucose and fructose) in the must, to create ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation processes to produce wines are traditionally carried out with \textit{Saccharomyces cerevisiae} strains, the most common and commercially available yeast and some lactic acid bacteria. They are well known for their fermentative behavior and technological characteristics which allow obtaining products of uniform and standard quality. But fermentation is influenced by other factors as well. The initial sugar content of the must and the fermentation temperature are also crucial to preserve volatile aromatics in the wine or retaining fruity characters. Finally, once strictly fermentation is completed, and most of the yeast die, wine evolution continues until the production of the final product.

This issue calls for reviews and original research articles related to the development of wine fermentations including traditional, and also new processes.

Prof. Dr. Sergi Maicas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine
  • fermentation
  • yeast
  • lactic acid bacteria

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Advances in Wine Fermentation
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030187 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Fermentation is a well-known natural process that has been used by humanity for thousands of years, with the fundamental purpose of making alcoholic beverages such as wine, and also other non-alcoholic products. From a strictly biochemical point of view, fermentation is a process [...] Read more.
Fermentation is a well-known natural process that has been used by humanity for thousands of years, with the fundamental purpose of making alcoholic beverages such as wine, and also other non-alcoholic products. From a strictly biochemical point of view, fermentation is a process of central metabolism in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. The fermentation process turns grape juice (must) into wine. This is a complex chemical reaction whereby the yeast interacts with the sugars (glucose and fructose) in the must to create ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation processes to produce wines are traditionally carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, the most common and commercially available yeast, and some lactic acid bacteria. They are well-known for their fermentative behavior and technological characteristics, which allow obtaining products of uniform and standard quality. However, fermentation is influenced by other factors as well. The initial sugar content of the must and the fermentation temperature are also crucial to preserve volatile aromatics in the wine and retain fruity characters. Finally, once fermentation is completed, and most of the yeast dies, wine evolution continues until the production of the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine Fermentation)

Research

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Article
Evaluation of Autochthonous Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts by Sequential Fermentation for Wine Differentiation in Galicia (NW Spain)
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030183 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts constitute a useful tool in winemaking because they secrete hydrolytic enzymes and produce metabolites that enhance wine quality; in addition, their ability to reduce alcohol content and/or to increase acidity can help to mitigate the effects of climatic change on [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts constitute a useful tool in winemaking because they secrete hydrolytic enzymes and produce metabolites that enhance wine quality; in addition, their ability to reduce alcohol content and/or to increase acidity can help to mitigate the effects of climatic change on wines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oenological traits of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains autochthonous from Galicia (NW Spain). To do that, we carried out sequential fermentation using 13 different species from the yeast collection of Estación de Viticultura e Enoloxía de Galicia (Evega) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. The fermentation kinetics and yeast implantation were monitored using conventional methods and genetic techniques, respectively. The basic chemical parameters of wine were determined using the OIV official methodology, and the fermentative aroma compounds were determined by GC–FID. The results evidenced the limited fermentative power of these yeasts and the differences in their survival after the addition of S. cerevisiae to complete fermentation. Some strains reduced the alcohol and/or increased the total acidity of the wine. The positive effect on sensory wine properties as well as the production of desirable volatile compounds were confirmed for Metschnikowia spp. (Mf278 and Mp176), Lachancea thermotolerans Lt93, and Pichia kluyveri Pkl88. These strains could be used for wine diversification in Galicia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine Fermentation)
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Article
A Statistical Workflow to Evaluate the Modulation of Wine Metabolome and Its Contribution to the Sensory Attributes
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020072 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
A data-processing and statistical analysis workflow was proposed to evaluate the metabolic changes and its contribution to the sensory characteristics of different wines. This workflow was applied to rosé wines from different fermentation strategies. The metabolome was acquired by means of two high-throughput [...] Read more.
A data-processing and statistical analysis workflow was proposed to evaluate the metabolic changes and its contribution to the sensory characteristics of different wines. This workflow was applied to rosé wines from different fermentation strategies. The metabolome was acquired by means of two high-throughput techniques: gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for volatile and non-volatile metabolites, respectively, in an untargeted approach, while the sensory evaluation of the wines was performed by a trained panel. Wine volatile and non-volatile metabolites modulation was independently evaluated by means of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), obtaining potential markers of the fermentation strategies. Then, the complete metabolome was integrated by means of sparse generalised canonical correlation analysis discriminant analysis (sGCC-DA). This integrative approach revealed a high link between the volatile and non-volatile data, and additional potential metabolite markers of the fermentation strategies were found. Subsequently, the evaluation of the contribution of metabolome to the sensory characteristics of wines was carried out. First, the all-relevant metabolites affected by the different fermentation processes were selected using PLS-DA and random forest (RF). Each set of volatile and non-volatile metabolites selected was then related to the sensory attributes of the wines by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Finally, the relationships among the three datasets were complementary evaluated using regularised generalised canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA), revealing new correlations among metabolites and sensory data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine Fermentation)
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