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Special Issue "New Insight and Current Trends in Oenological Microbiology"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francesco Grieco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council—Institute of Sciences of Food Production (CNR-ISPA), via Prov. Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: beer; wine; agri-food fermentations; microbial starters; microbial biomass production
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Carmen Berbegal
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ENOLAB, Estructura de Recerca Interdisciplinar (ERI), BioTecMed and Departament de Microbiologia i Ecología, Universitat de València, c/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
Interests: food biotechnology; food microbiology; wine yeasts; lactic acid bacteria; fermentation; biocontrol; starter cultures
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine is a fermented beverage with fundamental global socio-economic relevance. Fermentative steps related to wine production are accompanied by complex biological processes, mainly relying on biochemical interactions between grape must and diverse microorganisms such as fungi, yeasts, and bacteria.

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts promote the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF), and, subsequently, Saccharomyces cerevisiae proliferates, dominating and completing this crucial fermentative phase. Even though several non-Saccharomyces species are still considered spoilage microorganisms, numerous non-Saccharomyces strains, in recent years, have been studied and were demonstrated to enhance the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of the produced wines. The term ‘malolactic fermentation (MLF)’ refers to the bioconversion of L-malic acid into L-lactic acid and CO2, as a result of the malolactic bacteria metabolism in wine. Oenococcus oeni strains mainly carry out the MLF, but also other lactic bacteria, such as Lactoplantibacillus plantarum have displayed their ability to promote MLF in wine. Finally, in wines, several undesired microorganisms can depreciate wine quality and safety, with losses in production and possible negative impacts on human health.

The concept of “microbial terroir” is receiving growing attention in modern winemaking. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the preservation and characterization of indigenous microflora associated with a specific terroir to enhance the typicity of Regional and National productions. The employment of selected autochthonous non-Saccharomyces species together with S. cerevisiae and, eventually, with malolactic bacteria indigenous strains, has been suggested to reproduce the addressable aromatic complexity of spontaneous fermentations, thus enhancing wine chemical and sensory attributes. This Special Issue will highlight the most recent advances in the following subjects:

  • Wine microbiology;
  • Yeast and lactic acid bacteria metabolism in wine;
  • Alcoholic fermentation;
  • Malolactic fermentation;
  • Evaluation of commercial starter cultures in oenology;
  • Study of autochthonous microbes associated with specific grapevine varieties and terroirs;
  • Microbial impact on wine chemistry;
  • Microbial resources and wine aging;
  • Microbial resources and wine stability;
  • Microbes, wine chemicals, and sensory analysis;
  • Microbial spoilers, wine depreciation, and wine off-flavors;
  • Undesired microbes and wine safety.

Dr. Francesco Grieco
Dr. Vittorio Capozzi
Dr. Carmen Berbegal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Alcoholic fermentation
  • malolactic fermentation
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • non-Saccharomyces species
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • fermentation starters
  • wine quality
  • wine spoilage
  • wine safety

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Stress Resistance and Adhesive Properties of Commercial Flor and Wine Strains, and Environmental Isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030188 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent a special group of yeasts used for producing biologically aged wines. We analyzed the collection of commercial wine and flor yeast strains, as well as environmental strains isolated from the surface of grapes growing in vineyards, for [...] Read more.
Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent a special group of yeasts used for producing biologically aged wines. We analyzed the collection of commercial wine and flor yeast strains, as well as environmental strains isolated from the surface of grapes growing in vineyards, for resistance to abiotic stresses, adhesive properties, and the ability to form a floating flor. The degree of resistance of commercial strains to ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide was generally not higher than that of environmental isolates, some of which had high resistance to the tested stress agents. The relatively low degree of stress resistance of flor strains can be explained both by the peculiarities of their adaptive mechanisms and by differences in the nature of their exposure to various types of stress in the course of biological wine aging and under the experimental conditions we used. The hydrophobicity and adhesive properties of cells were determined by the efficiency of adsorption to polystyrene and the distribution of cells between the aqueous and organic phases. Flor strains were distinguished by a higher degree of hydrophobicity of the cell surface and an increased ability to adhere to polystyrene. A clear correlation between biofilm formation and adhesive properties was also observed for environmental yeast isolates. The overall results of this study indicate that relatively simple tests for cell hydrophobicity can be used for the rapid screening of new candidate flor strains in yeast culture collections and among environmental isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight and Current Trends in Oenological Microbiology)
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Article
Influence of Microencapsulation on Fermentative Behavior of Hanseniaspora osmophila in Wine Mixed Starter Fermentation
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030112 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
In recent years, as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, several studies have been conducted on the use of controlled mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces and different non-Saccharomyces yeast species from the winemaking environment. To benefit from [...] Read more.
In recent years, as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, several studies have been conducted on the use of controlled mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces and different non-Saccharomyces yeast species from the winemaking environment. To benefit from the metabolic particularities of some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, the management of a non-Saccharomyces strain in mixed fermentation is a crucial step, in particular the use of procedures addressed to increase the persistence of non-Saccharomyces strains during the fermentative process. The use of microencapsulation for cell immobilization might represent a strategy for enhancing the competitiveness of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed fermentation. This study was aimed to assess the fermentative performance of a mixed starter culture, composed by a wild Hanseniaspora osmophila strain (ND1) and a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (EC1118). For this purpose, free and microencapsulated cells of ND1 strain were tested in co-culture with EC1118 during mixed fermentations in order to evaluate the effect of the microencapsulation on fermentative behavior of mixed starter and final wine composition. The data have shown that H. osmophila cell formulation affects the persistence of both ND1 and EC1118 strains during fermentations and microencapsulation resulted in a suitable system to increase the fermentative efficiency of ND1 strain during mixed starter fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight and Current Trends in Oenological Microbiology)
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Article
Transcriptional and Metabolic Response of Wine-Related Lactiplantibacillus plantarum to Different Conditions of Aeration and Nitrogen Availability
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020068 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) perform the process of malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine. Availability of oxygen and nitrogen nutrients could influence LAB growth, malolactic activity, and other metabolic pathways, impacting the subsequent wine quality. The impact of these two factors has received limited [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) perform the process of malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine. Availability of oxygen and nitrogen nutrients could influence LAB growth, malolactic activity, and other metabolic pathways, impacting the subsequent wine quality. The impact of these two factors has received limited investigation within LAB, especially on a transcriptome level. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic changes in the strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum IWBT B063, growing in synthetic grape juice medium (GJM) under different oxygen exposure conditions, and with low availability of nitrogen-based nutrients. Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze expression across the transcriptome (RNA-seq), in combination with conventional microbiological and chemical analysis. L. plantarum consumed the malic acid present in all the conditions evaluated, with a slight delay and impaired growth for nitrogen limitation and for anaerobiosis. Comparison of L. plantarum transcriptome during growth in GJM with and without O2 revealed differential expression of 148 functionally annotated genes, which were mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, genetic information processing, and signaling and cellular processes. In particular, genes with a protective role against oxidative stress and genes related to amino acid metabolism were differentially expressed. This study confirms the suitability of L. plantarum IWBT B063 to carry out MLF in different environmental conditions due to its potential adaption to the stress conditions tested and provides a better understanding of the genetic background of an industrially relevant strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight and Current Trends in Oenological Microbiology)
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