Next Article in Journal
Use of Lachancea thermotolerans for Biological vs. Chemical Acidification at Pilot-Scale in White Wines from Warm Areas
Previous Article in Journal
Pretreatment of Corn Stover Using an Extremely Low-Liquid Ammonia (ELLA) Method for the Effective Utilization of Sugars in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of Ethanol
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nutritionally Enhanced Probioticated Whole Pineapple Juice
Article

Indigenous Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Acetic Acid Bacteria from Cocoa Bean Fermentation in Indonesia Can Inhibit Fungal-Growth-Producing Mycotoxins

1
Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Centre for Food and Nutrition Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
Provincial Office of Drug and Food Control, Bali 80234, Indonesia
4
Department of Postharvest, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amparo Gamero and Mónica Gandía
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030192
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 10 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fermentation for Better Nutrition, Health and Sustainability)
Cocoa bean fermentation is an important process in the manufacturing of cocoa products. It involves microbes, such as lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and acetic acid bacteria. The presence of mold in cocoa bean fermentation is undesired, as it reduces the quality and may produce mycotoxins, which can cause poisoning and death. Aspergillus niger is a fungus that produces ochratoxin A, which is often found in dried agricultural products such as seeds and cereals. In this study, we applied indigenous Candida famata HY-37, Lactobacillus plantarum HL-15, and Acetobacter spp. HA-37 as starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation. We found that the use of L. plantarum HL-15 individually or in combination Candida famata HY-37, Lactobacillus plantarum HL-15, and Acetobacter spp. HA-37 as a starter for cocoa bean fermentation can inhibit the growth of A. niger YAC-9 and the synthesis of ochratoxin A during fermentation and drying. With biological methods that use indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum HL-15 individually or in combination with Candida famata HY-37 and Acetobacter spp. HA-37, we successfully inhibited contamination by ochratoxin-A-producing fungi. Thus, the three indigenous microbes should be used in cocoa bean fermentation to inhibit the growth of fungi that produce mycotoxins and thus improve the quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida famata HY-37; Lactobacillus plantarum HL-15; Acetobacter spp. HA-37; cocoa bean fermentation; anti-fungal growth; ochratoxin A Candida famata HY-37; Lactobacillus plantarum HL-15; Acetobacter spp. HA-37; cocoa bean fermentation; anti-fungal growth; ochratoxin A
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rahayu, E.S.; Triyadi, R.; Khusna, R.N.B.; Djaafar, T.F.; Utami, T.; Marwati, T.; Hatmi, R.U. Indigenous Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Acetic Acid Bacteria from Cocoa Bean Fermentation in Indonesia Can Inhibit Fungal-Growth-Producing Mycotoxins. Fermentation 2021, 7, 192. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030192

AMA Style

Rahayu ES, Triyadi R, Khusna RNB, Djaafar TF, Utami T, Marwati T, Hatmi RU. Indigenous Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Acetic Acid Bacteria from Cocoa Bean Fermentation in Indonesia Can Inhibit Fungal-Growth-Producing Mycotoxins. Fermentation. 2021; 7(3):192. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030192

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahayu, Endang S., Rokhmat Triyadi, Rosyida N.B. Khusna, Titiek F. Djaafar, Tyas Utami, Tri Marwati, and Retno U. Hatmi 2021. "Indigenous Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Acetic Acid Bacteria from Cocoa Bean Fermentation in Indonesia Can Inhibit Fungal-Growth-Producing Mycotoxins" Fermentation 7, no. 3: 192. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030192

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop