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Fluids, Volume 6, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 38 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann method are used to explore the interactions between sediment particles and carrier-fluid turbulence in the open channel flow. Turbulence statistics of the fluid and particulate phases, flow structures, and the dynamics of the individual particles are investigated for several particle volume fractions. Sediment particles are found to preferentially reside in low-speed streak regions due to the action of near-wall streamwise vortical structures. The vertical profiles of normalized particle concentration are self-similar and consistent with a kinetic model. The trajectories of individual particles are analyzed and reveal several typical transport modes of the sediment particles, such as resuspension, saltation, and rolling. View this paper.
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Self-Propelled Steady Jet Propulsion at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers: Effects of Orifice Size on Animal Jet Propulsion
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060230 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Most marine jet-propelled animals have low swimming efficiencies and relatively small jet orifices. Motivated by this, the present computational fluid dynamics study simulates the flow for a jet-propelled axisymmetric body swimming steadily at intermediate Reynolds numbers of order 1–1000. Results show that swimming-imposed [...] Read more.
Most marine jet-propelled animals have low swimming efficiencies and relatively small jet orifices. Motivated by this, the present computational fluid dynamics study simulates the flow for a jet-propelled axisymmetric body swimming steadily at intermediate Reynolds numbers of order 1–1000. Results show that swimming-imposed flow field, drag coefficients, swimming efficiencies, and performance index (a metric comparing swimming speeds sustained by differently sized orifices ejecting the same volume flow rate) all depend strongly on orifice size, and orifice size affects the configuration of oppositely signed body vorticity and jet vorticity, thereby affecting wake and efficiency. As orifice size decreases, efficiencies decrease considerably, while performance index increases substantially, suggesting that, for a given jet volume flow rate, a smaller orifice supports faster swimming than a larger one does, albeit at reduced efficiency. These results support the notion that most jet-propelled animals having relatively small jet orifices may be an adaptation to deal with the physical constraint of limited total volume of water available for jetting, while needing to compete for fast swimming. Finally, jet orifice size is discussed regarding the role of jet propulsion in jet-propelled animal ecology, particularly for salps that use two relatively large siphons to respectively draw in and expel water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics of Swimming)
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Article
A Monolithic and a Partitioned, Reduced Basis Method for Fluid–Structure Interaction Problems
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060229 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
The aim of this work is to present an overview about the combination of the Reduced Basis Method (RBM) with two different approaches for Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) problems, namely a monolithic and a partitioned approach. We provide the details of implementation of two [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to present an overview about the combination of the Reduced Basis Method (RBM) with two different approaches for Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) problems, namely a monolithic and a partitioned approach. We provide the details of implementation of two reduction procedures, and we then apply them to the same test case of interest. We first implement a reduction technique that is based on a monolithic procedure where we solve the fluid and the solid problems all at once. We then present another reduction technique that is based on a partitioned (or segregated) procedure: the fluid and the solid problems are solved separately and then coupled using a fixed point strategy. The toy problem that we consider is based on the Turek–Hron benchmark test case, with a fluid Reynolds number Re=100. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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Article
Effect of Water Content and Pectin on the Viscoelastic Improvement of Water-in-Canola Oil Emulsions
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060228 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate gelation in glycerol monooleate (GMO)-stabilized water-in-canola oil (W/CO) emulsions by increasing water content (20–50 wt.%) and the addition of low methoxyl pectin (LMP) in the aqueous phase. A constant ratio of GMO to water was used to keep [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate gelation in glycerol monooleate (GMO)-stabilized water-in-canola oil (W/CO) emulsions by increasing water content (20–50 wt.%) and the addition of low methoxyl pectin (LMP) in the aqueous phase. A constant ratio of GMO to water was used to keep a similar droplet size in all emulsions. Hydrogenated soybean oil (7 wt.%) was used to provide network stabilization in the continuous phase. All fresh emulsions with LMP in the aqueous phase formed a stable and self-supported matrix with higher viscosity and gel strength than emulsions without LMP. Emulsion viscosity and gel strength increased with an increase in water content. All emulsions showed gel-like properties (storage moduli (G’) > loss moduli (G’’)) related to the presence of LMP in the aqueous phase and increased water content. Freeze/thaw analysis using a differential scanning calorimeter showed improved stability of the water droplets in the presence of LMP in the aqueous phase. This study demonstrated the presence of LMP in the aqueous phase, its interaction with GMO at the interface, and fat crystals in the continuous phase that could support the water droplets’ aggregation to obtain stable elastic W/CO emulsions that could be used as low-fat table spreads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions and Emulsions)
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Editorial
Thermal Flows
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060227 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Flows of thermal origin and heat transfer problems are central in a variety of disciplines and industrial applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Flows)
Article
Two-Phase Flow Mass Transfer Analysis of Airlift Pump for Aquaculture Applications
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060226 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Airlift pumps can be used in the aquaculture industry to provide aeration while concurrently moving water utilizing the dynamics of two-phase flow in the pump riser. The oxygen mass transfer that occurs from the injected compressed air to the water in the aquaculture [...] Read more.
Airlift pumps can be used in the aquaculture industry to provide aeration while concurrently moving water utilizing the dynamics of two-phase flow in the pump riser. The oxygen mass transfer that occurs from the injected compressed air to the water in the aquaculture systems can be experimentally investigated to determine the pump aeration capabilities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of various airflow rates as well as the injection methods on the oxygen transfer rate within a dual injector airlift pump system. Experiments were conducted using an airlift pump connected to a vertical pump riser within a recirculating system. Both two-phase flow patterns and the void fraction measurements were used to evaluate the dissolved oxygen mass transfer mechanism through the airlift pump. A dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor was used to determine the DO levels within the airlift pumping system at different operating conditions required by the pump. Flow visualization imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in order to better understand the effects of the two-phase flow patterns on the aeration performance. It was found that the radial injection method reached the saturation point faster at lower airflow rates, whereas the axial method performed better as the airflow rates were increased. The standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR) and standard aeration efficiency (SAE) were calculated and were found to strongly depend on the injection method as well as the two-phase flow patterns in the pump riser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow for Energy, Water and Food Applications)
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Article
Variable Energy Fluxes and Exact Relations in Magnetohydrodynamics Turbulence
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060225 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), there is a transfer of energy from the velocity field to the magnetic field in the inertial range itself. As a result, the inertial-range energy fluxes of velocity and magnetic fields exhibit significant variations. Still, these variable energy fluxes satisfy [...] Read more.
In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), there is a transfer of energy from the velocity field to the magnetic field in the inertial range itself. As a result, the inertial-range energy fluxes of velocity and magnetic fields exhibit significant variations. Still, these variable energy fluxes satisfy several exact relations due to conservation of energy. In this paper, using numerical simulations, we quantify the variable energy fluxes of MHD turbulence, as well as verify several exact relations. We also study the energy fluxes of Elsässer variables that are constant in the inertial range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
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Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Gaseous Detonation in a Narrow Channel with Obstacles
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060224 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Gaseous detonation propagation in a thin channel with regularly spaced cylindrical obstacles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The wave propagation with substantial velocity deficits is observed and the details of its propagation mechanism are described based on experimental measurements of the luminosity and [...] Read more.
Gaseous detonation propagation in a thin channel with regularly spaced cylindrical obstacles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The wave propagation with substantial velocity deficits is observed and the details of its propagation mechanism are described based on experimental measurements of the luminosity and pressure and on three-dimensional flow fields obtained by numerical simulations. Both experiments and simulations indicate a significant role of shock–shock and shock–obstacle interactions in providing high-temperature conditions necessary to sustain the reaction wave propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Heat and Mass transfer)
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Article
Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of a New Structure of Protected Agriculture Established in a Region of Tropical Climate Conditions
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060223 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Determining airflow patterns and their effect on the distribution of microclimate variables such as temperature is one of the most important activities in naturally ventilated protected agricultural structures. In tropical countries, this information is used by farmers and decision makers when defining climate [...] Read more.
Determining airflow patterns and their effect on the distribution of microclimate variables such as temperature is one of the most important activities in naturally ventilated protected agricultural structures. In tropical countries, this information is used by farmers and decision makers when defining climate management strategies and for crop-specific cultural work. The objective of this research was to implement a validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in 3D to determine the aerodynamic and thermal behavior of a new protected agricultural structure established in a warm climate region in the Dominican Republic. The numerical evaluation of the structure was carried out for the hours of the daytime period (6–17 h), the results found allowed to define that the CFD model generates satisfactory predictions of the variables evaluated. Additionally, it was found that airflow patterns are strongly affected by the presence of porous insect screens, which generate moderate velocity flows (<0.73 m s−1) inside the structure. It was also identified that the value of the average temperature inside the structure is directly related to the air flows, the level of radiation and the temperature of the outside environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper for Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Generation of Gravity Waves by Pedal-Wavemakers
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060222 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Experimental wave generation in channels is usually achieved through wavemakers (moving paddles) acting on the surface of the water. Although practical for engineering purposes, wavemakers have issues: they perform poorly in the generation of long waves and create evanescent waves in their vicinity. [...] Read more.
Experimental wave generation in channels is usually achieved through wavemakers (moving paddles) acting on the surface of the water. Although practical for engineering purposes, wavemakers have issues: they perform poorly in the generation of long waves and create evanescent waves in their vicinity. In this article, we introduce a framework for wave generation through the action of an underwater multipoint mechanism: the pedal-wavemaking method. Our multipoint action makes each point of the bottom move with a prescribed pedalling-like motion. We analyse the linear response of waves in a uniform channel in terms of the wavelength of the bottom action. The framework naturally solves the problem of the performance for long waves and replaces evanescent waves by a thin boundary layer at the bottom of the channel. We also show that proper synchronisation of the orbital motion on the bottom can produce waves that mimic deep water waves. This last feature has been proved to be useful to study fluid–structure interaction in simulations based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Water Waves)
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Article
Effects of Varying Inhalation Duration and Respiratory Rate on Human Airway Flow
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060221 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Studies of flow through the human airway have shown that inhalation time (IT) and secondary flow structures can play important roles in particle deposition. However, the effects of varying IT in conjunction with the respiratory rate (RR) on airway flow remain unknown. Using [...] Read more.
Studies of flow through the human airway have shown that inhalation time (IT) and secondary flow structures can play important roles in particle deposition. However, the effects of varying IT in conjunction with the respiratory rate (RR) on airway flow remain unknown. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of oscillatory flow through an idealized airway model (consisting of a mouth, glottis, trachea, and symmetric double bifurcation) at a trachea Reynolds number (Re) of 4200, we investigated how varying the ratio of IT to breathing time (BT) from 25% to 50% and RR from 10 breaths per minute (bpm) corresponding to a Womersley number (Wo) of 2.41 to 1000 bpm (Wo = 24.1) impacts airway flow characteristics. Irrespective of IT/BT, axial flow during inhalation at tracheal cross-sections was non-uniform for Wo = 2.41, as compared to centrally concentrated distribution for Wo = 24.1. For a given Wo and IT/BT, both axial and secondary (lateral) flow components unevenly split between left and right branches of a bifurcation. Irrespective of Wo, IT/BT and airway generation, lateral dispersion was a stronger transport mechanism than axial flow streaming. Discrepancy in the oscillatory flow relation Re/Wo2 = 2 L/D (L = stroke length; D = trachea diameter) was observed for IT/BT ≠ 50%, as L changed with IT/BT. We developed a modified dimensionless stroke length term including IT/BT. While viscous forces and convective acceleration were dominant for lower Wo, unsteady acceleration was dominant for higher Wo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biological Flows and Biomimetics, Volume II)
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Article
Low Pressure Experimental Validation of Low-Dimensional Analytical Model for Air–Water Two-Phase Transient Flow in Horizontal Pipelines
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060220 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
This paper presents a low-pressure experimental validation of a two-phase transient pipeline flow model. Measured pressure and flow rate data are collected for slug and froth flow patterns at the low pressure of 6 bar at the National University of Singapore Multiphase Flow [...] Read more.
This paper presents a low-pressure experimental validation of a two-phase transient pipeline flow model. Measured pressure and flow rate data are collected for slug and froth flow patterns at the low pressure of 6 bar at the National University of Singapore Multiphase Flow Loop facility. The analyzed low-dimensional model proposed in comprises a steady-state multiphase flow model in series with a linear dynamic model capturing the flow transients. The model is based on a dissipative distributed parameter model for transient flow in transmission lines employing equivalent fluid properties. These parameters are based solely on the flowing conditions, fluid properties and pipeline geometry. OLGA simulations are employed as an independent method to validate the low-dimension model. Both low-dimensional and OLGA models are evaluated based on the estimated two-phase pressure transients for varying gas volume fraction (GVF). Both models estimated the two-phase flow transient pressure within 5% mean absolute percent error of the laboratory data. Additionally, an unavoidable presence of entrained air within a pipeline is confirmed for the case of 0% GVF as evidenced by the pressure transient estimation. Thus, dampened oscillations in the simulated 0% GVF case exists owing to an increase in the fluid compressibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow in Pipes with and without Porous Media)
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Article
Investigation of Oil Droplet Breakup during Atomization of Emulsions: Comparison of Pressure Swirl and Twin-Fluid Atomizers
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060219 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate oil droplet breakup in food emulsions during atomization with pressure swirl (PS), internal mixing (IM), and external mixing (EM) twin-fluid atomizers. By this, new knowledge is provided that facilitates the design of atomization processes, taking [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to investigate oil droplet breakup in food emulsions during atomization with pressure swirl (PS), internal mixing (IM), and external mixing (EM) twin-fluid atomizers. By this, new knowledge is provided that facilitates the design of atomization processes, taking into account atomization performance as well as product characteristics (oil droplet size). Atomization experiments were performed in pilot plant scale at liquid volume flow rates of 21.8, 28.0, and 33.3 L/h. Corresponding liquid pressures in the range of 50–200 bar and air-to-liquid ratios in the range of 0.03–0.5 were applied. Two approaches were followed: oil droplet breakup was initially compared for conditions by which the same spray droplet sizes were achieved at constant liquid throughput. For all volume flow rates, the strongest oil droplet breakup was obtained with the PS nozzle, followed by the IM and the EM twin-fluid atomizer. In a second approach, the concept of energy density EV was used to characterize the sizes of resulting spray droplets and of the dispersed oil droplets in the spray. For all nozzles, Sauter mean diameters of spray and oil droplets showed a power-law dependency on EV. PS nozzles achieved the smallest spray droplet sizes and the strongest oil droplet breakup for a constant EV. In twin-fluid atomizers, the nozzle type (IM or EM) has a significant influence on the resulting oil droplet size, even when the resulting spray droplet size is independent of this nozzle type. Overall, it was shown that the proposed concept of EV allows formulating process functions that simplify the design of atomization processes regarding both spray and oil droplet sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Spray Atomization)
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Article
Migration and Alignment of Three Interacting Particles in Poiseuille Flow of Giesekus Fluids
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060218 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Effect of rheological property on the migration and alignment of three interacting particles in Poiseuille flow of Giesekus fluids is studied with the direct-forcing fictitious domain method for the Weissenberg number (Wi) ranging from 0.1 to 1.5, the mobility parameter ranging [...] Read more.
Effect of rheological property on the migration and alignment of three interacting particles in Poiseuille flow of Giesekus fluids is studied with the direct-forcing fictitious domain method for the Weissenberg number (Wi) ranging from 0.1 to 1.5, the mobility parameter ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, the ratio of particle diameter to channel height ranging from 0.2 to 0.4, the ratio of the solvent viscosity to the total viscosity being 0.3 and the initial distance (y0) of particles from the centerline ranging from 0 to 0.2. The results showed that the effect of y0 on the migration and alignment of particles is significant. The variation of off-centerline (y0 ≠ 0) particle spacing is completely different from that of on-centerline (y0 = 0) particle spacing. As the initial vertical distance y0 increased, the various types of particle spacing are more diversified. For the off-centerline particle, the change of particle spacing is mainly concentrated in the process of cross-flow migration. Additionally, the polymer extension is proportional to both the Weissenberg number and confinement ratio. The bigger the Wi and confinement ratio is, the bigger the increment of spacing is. The memory of shear-thinning is responsible for the reduction of d1. Furthermore, the particles migrate abnormally due to the interparticle interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport in Viscoelastic Fluids)
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Article
Direct Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transport in Turbulent Open Channel Flow Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060217 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to conduct direct numerical simulations of turbulent open channel flows with the presence of finite-size spherical sediment particles. The uniform particles have a diameter of approximately 18 wall units and a density of [...] Read more.
The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to conduct direct numerical simulations of turbulent open channel flows with the presence of finite-size spherical sediment particles. The uniform particles have a diameter of approximately 18 wall units and a density of ρp=2.65ρf, where ρp and ρf are the particle and fluid densities, respectively. Three low particle volume fractions ϕ=0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.44% are used to investigate the particle-turbulence interactions. Simulation results indicate that particles are found to result in a more isotropic distribution of fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) among different velocity components, and a more homogeneous distribution of the fluid TKE in the wall-normal direction. Particles tend to accumulate in the near-wall region due to the settling effect and they preferentially reside in low-speed streaks. The vertical particle volume fraction profiles are self-similar when normalized by the total particle volume fractions. Moreover, several typical transport modes of the sediment particles, such as resuspension, saltation, and rolling, are captured by tracking the trajectories of particles. Finally, the vertical profiles of particle concentration are shown to be consistent with a kinetic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boundary Layer Processes in Geophysical/Environmental Flows)
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Article
Flow Past Mound-Bearing Impact Craters: An Experimental Study
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060216 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
An experimental investigation into the flow produced by mound-bearing impact craters is reported herein. Both an idealized crater and a scaled model of a real martian crater are examined. Measurements were performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a refractive-index matching [...] Read more.
An experimental investigation into the flow produced by mound-bearing impact craters is reported herein. Both an idealized crater and a scaled model of a real martian crater are examined. Measurements were performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a refractive-index matching (RIM) flow environment. Rendering the crater models optically invisible with this RIM approach provided unimpeded access to the flow around and within each crater model. Results showed that the mean flow within the idealized crater exhibits more structural complexity compared to its moundless counterpart. Second-order statistics highlighted regions of minimal and elevated turbulent stresses, the latter of which revealed a complex interaction between shear layers that are present at the upstream and downstream parts of the rim and the central mound. Periodic vortex shedding of quasi-spanwise vortices from the upstream rim was revealed by POD-filtered instantaneous flow fields. Vertical flapping of this shear layer resulted in vortices occasionally impinging on the inner wall of the downstream rim. Further, conditional averaging analysis suggested periodic lateral oscillations of wall-normal vortices within the crater rim region reminiscent of those observed for flow inside spherical dimples. These results have implications for intra- to extra-crater mass and momentum exchange, and for sediment transport processes. Lastly, experiments with the Gale Crater model showed both similarities with and differences from the primary flow features found for the idealized model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boundary Layer Processes in Geophysical/Environmental Flows)
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Article
Cavitation Bubble Cloud Break-Off Mechanisms at Micro-Channels
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060215 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
This paper provides new physical insight into the coupling between flow dynamics and cavitation bubble cloud behaviour at conditions relevant to both cavitation inception and the more complex phenomenon of flow “choking” using a multiphase compressible framework. Understanding the cavitation bubble cloud process [...] Read more.
This paper provides new physical insight into the coupling between flow dynamics and cavitation bubble cloud behaviour at conditions relevant to both cavitation inception and the more complex phenomenon of flow “choking” using a multiphase compressible framework. Understanding the cavitation bubble cloud process and the parameters that determine its break-off frequency is important for control of phenomena such as structure vibration and erosion. Initially, the role of the pressure waves in the flow development is investigated. We highlight the differences between “physical” and “artificial” numerical waves by comparing cases with different boundary and differencing schemes. We analyse in detail the prediction of the coupling of flow and cavitation dynamics in a micro-channel 20 μm high containing Diesel at pressure differences 7 MPa and 8.5 MPa, corresponding to cavitation inception and "choking" conditions respectively. The results have a very good agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that pressure wave dynamics, rather than the “re-entrant jet dynamics” suggested by previous studies, determine the characteristics of the bubble cloud dynamics under “choking” conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Droplets and Bubbles)
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Article
Classical and Multisymplectic Schemes for Linearized KdV Equation: Numerical Results and Dispersion Analysis
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060214 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
We construct three finite difference methods to solve a linearized Korteweg–de-Vries (KdV) equation with advective and dispersive terms and specified initial and boundary conditions. Two numerical experiments are considered; case 1 is when the coefficient of advection is greater than the coefficient of [...] Read more.
We construct three finite difference methods to solve a linearized Korteweg–de-Vries (KdV) equation with advective and dispersive terms and specified initial and boundary conditions. Two numerical experiments are considered; case 1 is when the coefficient of advection is greater than the coefficient of dispersion, while case 2 is when the coefficient of dispersion is greater than the coefficient of advection. The three finite difference methods constructed include classical, multisymplectic and a modified explicit scheme. We obtain the stability region and study the consistency and dispersion properties of the various finite difference methods for the two cases. This is one of the rare papers that analyse dispersive properties of methods for dispersive partial differential equations. The performance of the schemes are gauged over short and long propagation times. Absolute and relative errors are computed at a given time at the spatial nodes used. Full article
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Article
On the Choice of Interface Parameters in Robin–Robin Loosely Coupled Schemes for Fluid–Structure Interaction
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060213 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
We consider two loosely coupled schemes for the solution of the fluid–structure interaction problem in the presence of large added mass effect. In particular, we introduce the Robin–Robin and Robin–Neumann explicit schemes where suitable interface conditions of Robin type are used. For the [...] Read more.
We consider two loosely coupled schemes for the solution of the fluid–structure interaction problem in the presence of large added mass effect. In particular, we introduce the Robin–Robin and Robin–Neumann explicit schemes where suitable interface conditions of Robin type are used. For the estimate of interface Robin parameters which guarantee stability of the numerical solution, we propose a new strategy based on the optimization of the reduction factor of the corresponding strongly coupled (implicit) scheme, by means of the optimized Schwarz method. To check the suitability of our proposals, we show numerical results both in an ideal cylindrical domain and in a real human carotid. Our results showed the effectiveness of our proposal for the calibration of interface parameters, which leads to stable results and shows how the explicit solution tends to the implicit one for decreasing values of the time discretization parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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Article
Design of Breakwaters to Minimize Greenwater Loading on Bow Structures of Fixed Vessels
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060212 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Greenwater (splashing of water on the deck) loading is a classical problem faced by designers of ship-shaped vessels, which becomes even worse when the vessel operates in harsh weather conditions for an extended period of time. Installation of breakwaters on the deck can [...] Read more.
Greenwater (splashing of water on the deck) loading is a classical problem faced by designers of ship-shaped vessels, which becomes even worse when the vessel operates in harsh weather conditions for an extended period of time. Installation of breakwaters on the deck can play a crucial role in minimizing this impact. However, research on the design and optimization of the breakwater is still in its infancy, and this study aims at shedding further light on this area by proposing and analysing the effectiveness of three breakwater designs on a fixed box-shaped vessel. The commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent is used for this investigation. The design model (without breakwater) was validated at first against experimental results of greenwater splashing, before performing the actual simulations with the proposed breakwater design. A vertical plate is used as the deck structure, and the greenwater pressure at several locations on that plate is measured to compare the effectiveness of various breakwater designs. Overall, breakwaters with openings (perforations, grillages, etc.) were found to be more effective in minimizing the pressure generated by the greenwater. Nevertheless, there is significant room for improvement on breakwater designs, and some topics for further research are also suggested in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Its Interaction with Structures)
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Article
Discrete Vortex Prediction of Flows around a Cylinder Near a Wall Using Overlapping Grid System
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060211 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Modelling of unidirectional and oscillatory flows around a cylinder near a wall using an overlapping grid system is carried out. The circular grid system of the cylinder was overlapped with the rectangular grid system of the wall. The use of such an overlapping [...] Read more.
Modelling of unidirectional and oscillatory flows around a cylinder near a wall using an overlapping grid system is carried out. The circular grid system of the cylinder was overlapped with the rectangular grid system of the wall. The use of such an overlapping grid system is intended to reduce the CPU time compared to the cloud scheme in which vortex-to-vortex interaction is used, i.e., especially in calculating the shedding vortex velocity, since calculating the vortices velocity takes the longest CPU time. This method is not only time efficient, but also gives a better distribution of surface vorticity as the scattered vortices around the body are now concentrated on a grid point. Therefore, grid-to-grid interaction is used instead of vortex-to-vortex interaction. Velocity calculation was also carried out using this overlapping grid in which the new incremental shift position was summed up to obtain the total new vortices position. The engineering applications of this topic are to simulate the loading of submarine pipeline placed close to the seabed or to simulate the flow as a result of the scouring process below the cylinder since there is space for the fluid to flow beneath it. The in-line and transverse force coefficients are found by integrating the pressure around the cylinder surface. The flow patterns are then obtained and presented. The comparison of the results with experimental evidence is presented and the range of good results is discussed. Full article
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Article
CFD Model for Aircraft Ground Deicing: Verification and Validation of an Extended Enthalpy-Porosity Technique in Particulate Two Phase Flows
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060210 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Researchers have focused in the last five years on modelling the aircraft ground deicing process using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) in order to reduce its costs and pollution. As preliminary efforts, those studies did not model the ice melting nor the diffusion between [...] Read more.
Researchers have focused in the last five years on modelling the aircraft ground deicing process using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) in order to reduce its costs and pollution. As preliminary efforts, those studies did not model the ice melting nor the diffusion between deicing fluids and water resulting from the melting process. This paper proposes a CFD method to simulate this process filling these gaps. A particulate two-phase flow approach is used to model the spray impact on ice near the contaminated surface. Ice melting is modelled using an extended version of the enthalpy-porosity technique. The water resulting from the melting process is diffused into the deicing fluid forming a single-phase film. This paper presents a new model of the process. The model is verified and validated through three steps. (i) verification of the species transport. (ii) validation of the transient temperature field of a mixture. (iii) validation of the convective heat transfer of an impinging spray. The permeability coefficient of the enthalpy-porosity technique is then calibrated. The proposed model proved to be a suitable candidate for a parametric study of the aircraft ground deicing process. On the validation test cases, the precision of heat transfer prediction exceeds 88%. The model has the ability of predicting the deicing time and the deicing fluid quantities needed to decontaminate a surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Fluids and Flows: Algorithms and Applications)
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Article
Modeling of the Effects of Pleat Packing Density and Cartridge Geometry on the Performance of Pleated Membrane Filters
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060209 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Pleated membrane filters are widely used to remove undesired impurities from a fluid in many applications. A filter membrane is sandwiched between porous support layers and then pleated and packed into an annular cylindrical cartridge with a central hollow duct for outflow. Although [...] Read more.
Pleated membrane filters are widely used to remove undesired impurities from a fluid in many applications. A filter membrane is sandwiched between porous support layers and then pleated and packed into an annular cylindrical cartridge with a central hollow duct for outflow. Although this arrangement offers a high surface filtration area to volume ratio, the filter performance is not as efficient as those of equivalent flat filters. In this paper, we use asymptotic methods to simplify the flow throughout the cartridge to systematically investigate how the number of pleats or pleat packing density affects the performance of the pleated membrane filters. The model is used to determine an optimal number of pleats in order to achieve a particular optimum filtration performance. Our findings show that only the “just right”—neither too few nor too many—number of pleats gives optimum performance in a pleated filter cartridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids and Surfaces)
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Article
Perspective on the Response of Turbulent Pipe Flows to Strong Perturbations
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060208 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Pipe flow responds to strong perturbations in ways that are fundamentally different from the response exhibited by boundary layers undergoing a similar perturbation, primarily because of the confinement offered by the pipe wall, and the need to satisfy continuity. We review such differences [...] Read more.
Pipe flow responds to strong perturbations in ways that are fundamentally different from the response exhibited by boundary layers undergoing a similar perturbation, primarily because of the confinement offered by the pipe wall, and the need to satisfy continuity. We review such differences by examining previous literature, with a particular focus on the response of pipe flow to three different kinds of disturbances: the abrupt change in surface condition from rough to smooth, the obstruction due to presence of a single square bar roughness elements of different sizes, and the flow downstream of a streamlined body-of-revolution placed on the centerline of the pipe. In each case, the initial response is strongly influenced by the pipe geometry, but far downstream all three flows display a common feature, which is the very slow, second-order recovery that can be explained using a model based on the Reynolds stress equations. Some future directions for research are also given. Full article
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Article
A CFD Tutorial in Julia: Introduction to Laminar Boundary-Layer Theory
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060207 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Numerical simulations of laminar boundary-layer equations are used to investigate the origins of skin-friction drag, flow separation, and aerodynamic heating concepts in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level fluid dynamics/aerodynamics courses. A boundary-layer is a thin layer of fluid near a solid surface, and viscous [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations of laminar boundary-layer equations are used to investigate the origins of skin-friction drag, flow separation, and aerodynamic heating concepts in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level fluid dynamics/aerodynamics courses. A boundary-layer is a thin layer of fluid near a solid surface, and viscous effects dominate it. Students must understand the modeling of flow physics and implement numerical methods to conduct successful simulations. Writing computer codes to solve equations numerically is a critical part of the simulation process. Julia is a new programming language that is designed to combine performance and productivity. It is dynamic and fast. However, it is crucial to understand the capabilities of a new programming language before attempting to use it in a new project. In this paper, fundamental flow problems such as Blasius, Hiemenz, Homann, and Falkner-Skan flow equations are derived from scratch and numerically solved using the Julia language. We used the finite difference scheme to discretize the governing equations, employed the Thomas algorithm to solve the resulting linear system, and compared the results with the published data. In addition, we released the Julia codes in GitHub to shorten the learning curve for new users and discussed the advantages of Julia over other programming languages. We found that the Julia language has significant advantages in productivity over other coding languages. Interested readers may access the Julia codes on our GitHub page. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning of Fluid Mechanics, Volume II)
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Article
The Seasonal Variability of the Ocean Energy Cycle from a Quasi-Geostrophic Double Gyre Ensemble
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060206 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
With the advent of submesoscale O(1km) permitting basin-scale ocean simulations, the seasonality of mesoscale O(50km) eddies with kinetic energies peaking in summer has been commonly attributed to submesoscale eddies feeding back onto the mesoscale via [...] Read more.
With the advent of submesoscale O(1km) permitting basin-scale ocean simulations, the seasonality of mesoscale O(50km) eddies with kinetic energies peaking in summer has been commonly attributed to submesoscale eddies feeding back onto the mesoscale via an inverse energy cascade under the constraint of stratification and Earth’s rotation. In contrast, by running a 101-member, seasonally forced, three-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) ensemble configured to represent an idealized double-gyre system of the subtropical and subpolar basin, we find that the mesoscale kinetic energy shows a seasonality consistent with the summer peak without resolving the submesoscales; by definition, a QG model only resolves small Rossby and Froude number dynamics (O(Ro)1,O(Fr)1) while submesoscale dynamics are associated with O(Ro)1,O(Fr)1. Here, by quantifying the Lorenz cycle of the mean and eddy energy, defined as the ensemble mean and fluctuations about the mean, respectively, we propose a different mechanism from the inverse energy cascade. During summer, when the Western Boundary Current is stabilized and strengthened due to increased stratification, stronger mesoscale eddies are shed from the separated jet. Conversely, the opposite occurs during the winter; the separated jet destablizes and results in overall lower mean and eddy kinetic energies despite the domain being more susceptible to baroclinic instability from weaker stratification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
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Article
Five-Wave Resonances in Deep Water Gravity Waves: Integrability, Numerical Simulations and Experiments
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060205 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
In this work we consider the problem of finding the simplest arrangement of resonant deep-water gravity waves in one-dimensional propagation, from three perspectives: Theoretical, numerical and experimental. Theoretically this requires using a normal-form Hamiltonian that focuses on 5-wave resonances. The simplest arrangement is [...] Read more.
In this work we consider the problem of finding the simplest arrangement of resonant deep-water gravity waves in one-dimensional propagation, from three perspectives: Theoretical, numerical and experimental. Theoretically this requires using a normal-form Hamiltonian that focuses on 5-wave resonances. The simplest arrangement is based on a triad of wavevectors K1+K2=K3 (satisfying specific ratios) along with their negatives, corresponding to a scenario of encountering wavepackets, amenable to experiments and numerical simulations. The normal-form equations for these encountering waves in resonance are shown to be non-integrable, but they admit an integrable reduction in a symmetric configuration. Numerical simulations of the governing equations in natural variables using pseudospectral methods require the inclusion of up to 6-wave interactions, which imposes a strong dealiasing cut-off in order to properly resolve the evolving waves. We study the resonance numerically by looking at a target mode in the base triad and showing that the energy transfer to this mode is more efficient when the system is close to satisfying the resonant conditions. We first look at encountering plane waves with base frequencies in the range 1.32–2.35 Hz and steepnesses below 0.1, and show that the time evolution of the target mode’s energy is dramatically changed at the resonance. We then look at a scenario that is closer to experiments: Encountering wavepackets in a 400-m long numerical tank, where the interaction time is reduced with respect to the plane-wave case but the resonance is still observed; by mimicking a probe measurement of surface elevation we obtain efficiencies of up to 10% in frequency space after including near-resonant contributions. Finally, we perform preliminary experiments of encountering wavepackets in a 35-m long tank, which seem to show that the resonance exists physically. The measured efficiencies via probe measurements of surface elevation are relatively small, indicating that a finer search is needed along with longer wave flumes with much larger amplitudes and lower frequency waves. A further analysis of phases generated from probe data via the analytic signal approach (using the Hilbert transform) shows a strong triad phase synchronisation at the resonance, thus providing independent experimental evidence of the resonance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Free Surface Hydrodynamics)
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Article
CFD Investigation of Trout-Like Configuration Holding Station near an Obstruction
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060204 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 669
Abstract
This report presents the development of a fluid-structure interaction model using commercial Computational fluid dynamics software and in-house developed User Defined Function to simulate the motion of a trout Department of Mechanical Engineering, Widener University holding station in a moving water stream. The [...] Read more.
This report presents the development of a fluid-structure interaction model using commercial Computational fluid dynamics software and in-house developed User Defined Function to simulate the motion of a trout Department of Mechanical Engineering, Widener University holding station in a moving water stream. The oscillation model used in this study is based on the observations of trout swimming in a respirometry tank in a laboratory experiment. The numerical simulations showed results that are consistent with laboratory observations of a trout holding station in the tank without obstruction and trout entrained to the side of the cylindrical obstruction. This paper will be helpful in the development of numerical models for the hydrodynamic analysis of bioinspired unmanned underwater vehicle systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biological Flows and Biomimetics, Volume II)
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Article
Fluid Flow Characteristics of Healthy and Calcified Aortic Valves Using Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060203 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Aortic valve calcification is an important cardiovascular disorder that deteriorates the accurate functioning of the valve leaflets. The increasing stiffness due to the calcification prevents the complete closure of the valve and therefore leads to significant hemodynamic alterations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling [...] Read more.
Aortic valve calcification is an important cardiovascular disorder that deteriorates the accurate functioning of the valve leaflets. The increasing stiffness due to the calcification prevents the complete closure of the valve and therefore leads to significant hemodynamic alterations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling enables the investigation of the entire flow domain by processing medical images from aortic valve patients. In this study, we computationally modeled and simulated a 3D aortic valve using patient-specific dimensions of the aortic root and aortic sinus. Leaflet stiffness is deteriorated in aortic valve disease due to calcification. In order to investigate the influence of leaflet calcification on flow dynamics, three different leaflet-stiffness values were considered for healthy, mildly calcified, and severely calcified leaflets. Time-dependent CFD results were used for applying the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) technique by performing finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) computations along with Lagrangian particle residence time (PRT) analysis to identify unique vortex structures at the front and backside of the leaflets. Obtained results indicated that the peak flow velocity at the valve orifice increased with the calcification rate. For the healthy aortic valve, a low-pressure field was observed at the leaflet tips. This low-pressure field gradually expanded through the entire aortic sinus as the calcification level increased. FTLE field plots of the healthy and calcified valves showed a variety of differences in terms of flow structures. When the number of fluid particles in the healthy valve model was taken as reference, 1.59 and 1.74 times more particles accumulated in the mildly and severely calcified valves, respectively, indicating that the calcified valves were not sufficiently opened to allow normal mass flow rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Biofluid Mechanics)
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Article
The Magneto-Natural Convection Flow of a Micropolar Hybrid Nanofluid over a Vertical Plate Saturated in a Porous Medium
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060202 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the convective flow of a micropolar hybrid nanofluid through a vertical radiating permeable plate in a saturated porous medium. The impact of the presence or absence of the internal heat generation (IHG) in the medium is examined as [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the convective flow of a micropolar hybrid nanofluid through a vertical radiating permeable plate in a saturated porous medium. The impact of the presence or absence of the internal heat generation (IHG) in the medium is examined as well as the impacts of the magnetic field and thermal radiation. We apply similarity transformations to the non-dimensionalized equations and render them as a system of non-linear ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) subject to appropriate boundary conditions. This system of non-linear ODEs is solved by an adaptive mesh transformation Chebyshev differential quadrature method. The influence of the governing parameters on the temperature, microrotation and velocity is examined. The skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are tabulated. We determine that the skin friction coefficient and heat transport rate increase with the increment in the magnetic field. Moreover, the increment in the micropolarity and nanoparticle volume fraction enhances the skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number. We also conclude that the IHG term improved the flow of the hybrid nanofluid. Finally, our results indicate that employing a hybrid nanofluid increases the heat transfer compared with that in pure water and a nanofluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics in Energy Systems)
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Article
Prediction of the Atmospheric Dustiness over the Black Sea Region Using the WRF-Chem Model
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060201 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
To make a reliable forecast for the level of dust, many external factors such as the wind energy and the soil content in the moisture must be considered. The numerical prediction of the Black sea region’s content of dust is the focus of [...] Read more.
To make a reliable forecast for the level of dust, many external factors such as the wind energy and the soil content in the moisture must be considered. The numerical prediction of the Black sea region’s content of dust is the focus of this study, and for this purpose, the WRF-Chem model is used. The investigation is based on the statistics of the prediction coincidence and the actual result extracted from the data of the backward trajectories of AERONET and aerosol stratification maps in the atmosphere constructed with the help of the CALIPSO satellite. A comprehensive set of data was collected, and a comparative analysis of the results was carried out using machine learning techniques. The investigation identified 89% hits in the prediction of dust events, which is a very satisfactory result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol Transport in the Biological and Environmental Fluids)
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