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Vet. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An immunohistochemical technique was used to detect Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) Cap protein in a mediastinal lymph node of a pig affected by PCV-2-systemic disease. The diagnosis of this condition is based on three main criteria, including clinical signs (mainly wasting and respiratory distress), moderate to severe lymphocyte depletion and, granulomatous inflammation of the lymphoid tissues and moderate to high amount of PCV-2 antigen in these tissues. The picture is representative of this last diagnostic criterion, with the presence of moderate viral antigen within the citoplasma of macrophages, mainly located in follicular and parafollicular areas. View this paper
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Article
Molecular Detection of Malpighamoeba mellificae in Honey Bees
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030148 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Malpighamoeba mellificae is a protozoan that infects the Malpighian tubules of honey bees. The amoebae, ingested as cysts, develop into trophozoites that feed upon tubule epithelia. The resulting damage of the Malpighian tubules can induce an imbalance of waste excretion and hemolymph exchange. [...] Read more.
Malpighamoeba mellificae is a protozoan that infects the Malpighian tubules of honey bees. The amoebae, ingested as cysts, develop into trophozoites that feed upon tubule epithelia. The resulting damage of the Malpighian tubules can induce an imbalance of waste excretion and hemolymph exchange. This causes the so-called amoebiasis disease in adult bees, which may co-occur with Nosema infections. Most reports of this amoeba are from the 1960s and earlier, and knowledge of the disease and its spreading is very poor. The lack of any genetic marker for the species hampers its sensitive identification using molecular tools and gaining knowledge on its epidemiology. Here, we present a diagnostic RT-qPCR assay, consisting of two primers and one probe that were developed based on 18S rRNA sequences of the amoeba, generated with metagenomic sequencing of Malpighian tubules with and without M. mellificae cysts. The assay was initially tested and adjusted with samples microscopically tested for the presence of M. mellificae cysts. Later, it was validated and material with unknown infection status was tested. The sensitive diagnostic Malpighamoeba disease 18S assay is now ready to be applied for honey bee health monitoring purposes and to investigate the prevalence of M. mellificae in more detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Pathogens and Parasites)
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Article
Electromagnetic Force-Driven Needle-Free in Ovo Injection Device
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030147 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Needle-free injections are mainly used for administering human or mammalian vaccines or drugs. However, poultry vaccines, in ovo injections to embryos, subcutaneous injections to chickens, and intramuscular injections are administered using needle injections. This article presents a new needle-free in ovo injection device [...] Read more.
Needle-free injections are mainly used for administering human or mammalian vaccines or drugs. However, poultry vaccines, in ovo injections to embryos, subcutaneous injections to chickens, and intramuscular injections are administered using needle injections. This article presents a new needle-free in ovo injection device method that uses push-pull solenoids to eject liquid jets, mainly for embryonic eggs of chickens. Furthermore, our study investigated the suitable jet pressures for using this method and the post-injection hatching rates in 18-day-old embryonic eggs. Using this method, we could deliver the liquid to the allantoic and amniotic cavities or the muscle tissue through the egg membrane of the air chamber using a jet pressure of ~6–7 MPa or ~8 MPa. After injecting 0.25 mL of 0.9% saline into 18-day-old Lohmann breed layer embryonic eggs and specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonic eggs at a jet pressure of ~7 MPa, we observed hatching rates of 98.3% and 85.7%, respectively. This study’s electromagnetic needle-free in ovo injection device can apply vaccine or nutrient solution injection for embryo eggs and serve as a reference for future studies on needle-free in ovo injection automation systems, jet pressure control, and injection pretreatment processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Poultry Nutrition, Breeding and Health)
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Article
Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infections in Pigs on Jeju Island, South Korea, from 2009–2019 and Experimental Infection of Pigs with BVDV Strains Isolated from Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030146 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2273
Abstract
On Jeju Island, South Korea, pigs have not been vaccinated against classical swine fever (CSF) since 1999. Analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from pigs on Jeju Island between 2009 and 2019 identified five BVDV-1a strains and one BVDV-1b strain. These [...] Read more.
On Jeju Island, South Korea, pigs have not been vaccinated against classical swine fever (CSF) since 1999. Analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from pigs on Jeju Island between 2009 and 2019 identified five BVDV-1a strains and one BVDV-1b strain. These BVDV types were shown to be the same types as BVDV strains isolated from neighboring cow farms. BVDV antibody-positive pigs (both BVDV-1 and -2) were also detected at 54 of 168 pig farms during this period. In pig infection experiments using BVDV-1a and -2a strains isolated from neighboring cow farms, BVDV-1a was detected in the blood of one of four pigs infected at both 6 and 35 days post-infection (dpi) and in the blood of two of the four pigs at 28 dpi. Pigs showed higher anti-BVDV-1 titers (5.5 ± 1.5 log2) at 35 dpi. BVDV-2a was detected in the blood of one of four pigs infected with this virus at 28 dpi only, and lower antibody titers (2.75 ± 0.75 log2) were seen in these pigs at 35 dpi. While BVDV infection is not particularly pathogenic in pigs, it is still important to monitor porcine BVDV infections due to a differential diagnosis of CSFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Motivations of Human Helping Behavior towards Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030145 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Human–dog interactions have a positive effect on human sociality and health. The relationship with dogs helps humans to cope with stress during an emotionally challenging period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. During this period, a growing global interest in pets has been registered, [...] Read more.
Human–dog interactions have a positive effect on human sociality and health. The relationship with dogs helps humans to cope with stress during an emotionally challenging period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. During this period, a growing global interest in pets has been registered, including the volunteering for shelter/stray dog protection. However, a considerable increase of human dysfunctional interventions toward dogs has been observed in Southern Italy. In this study, we investigated the psychological characteristics of humans volunteering at animal shelter or engaged in stray dog protection. The effect of psychological training and education about dog ethological needs on volunteers’ helping behavior was also analyzed. We report that the intervention can improve volunteers’ physiological features and, consequently, may enhance human management and dog welfare. Full article
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Article
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Posterior Mandibular Displacement in Rats
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030144 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Mandibular protrusion and its treatment is challenging for the orthodontist. The aim of the present research was to identify macroscopic changes in the mandible, based on three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography analysis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups, experimental [...] Read more.
Mandibular protrusion and its treatment is challenging for the orthodontist. The aim of the present research was to identify macroscopic changes in the mandible, based on three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography analysis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups, experimental (group A) and control (group B). Each consisted of three equal subgroups of 12 rats (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3). Full-cast orthodontic intraoral devices were attached to the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals, and effected functional posterior mandibular displacement. Throughout the experimental period, all animals were fed with mashed food. Animals were sacrificed at 30 days (A1, B1), 60 days (A2, B2) and 90 days (A3, B3). At the 60th day of the experiment, the orthodontic devices were removed from the remaining experimental subgroup A3. Measurements revealed significant differences in the anteroposterior dimensions between experimental and control subgroups. However, the observed changes in the vertical dimensions, Condylion/Go’–Menton and the Intercondylar distance proved insignificant. Posterior mandibular displacement of the mandible in growing rats affects the morphology of the mandible and culminates in the development of a smaller mandible at a grown age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing New Therapeutic Strategies Using Models)
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Article
Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus spp. Eggs as a Risk for Human Health in Educational Farms of Sardinia, Italy
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030143 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a severe zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. These parasites are naturally transmitted between canid definitive hosts that harbour the adult stage in the intestine, and mainly ungulate intermediate hosts, with larval cysts [...] Read more.
Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a severe zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. These parasites are naturally transmitted between canid definitive hosts that harbour the adult stage in the intestine, and mainly ungulate intermediate hosts, with larval cysts developing in their internal organs. The close coexistence between dog and sheep with incorrect hygiene management are the most important factors for the persistence of this parasitic pathology. The Educational Farms (EF) are farms and agritourisms suitably equipped to carry out training activities for people interested in farm practices and agricultural processing, in particular student groups. Public attendance of farms represents a new potential risk factor for the zoonoses transmission. Consumption of contaminated food and water in combination with contact or playing with domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are possible routes of zoonoses human infection. In fact, Echinococcus spp. eggs may persist in the environment up to several months at low temperatures and moist conditions, having the chance of contaminating different matrices and surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to study environmental contamination by parasitic elements as a risk for zoonoses, such as Echinococcus spp. A total of 116 samples (35 of water, 33 of soil, 23 of vegetables, 25 of dog faeces) were collected in 30 EF in Sardinia. Samples were subjected to biomolecular investigation for the research of specific gene sequences of Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia spp. The study allowed to identify eight positive EF due to the presence of Echinococcusgranulosus in eight dog faeces samples and one positive EF due to the presence of Taenia spp. in a water sample. The work has allowed to develop and harmonise the diagnostic methods and operating protocols essential for controlling the spread of the CE to create “One Health” intervention plans in high endemic areas through the implementation of SOP (standard operating procedures) for monitoring the pathology in animals, humans and environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
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Article
Live Performance and Microbial Load Modulation of Broilers Fed a Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM) and Xylanase Combination
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030142 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 938
Abstract
The animal industry, which focuses on producing protein for human consumption, is continuously seeking solutions that can enhance both animal performance and health at a low cost. Several feed additives are currently being used to improve the nutritive value of feed as well [...] Read more.
The animal industry, which focuses on producing protein for human consumption, is continuously seeking solutions that can enhance both animal performance and health at a low cost. Several feed additives are currently being used to improve the nutritive value of feed as well as replacing the subtherapeutic levels of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). This study was designed to investigate the effect of a feed additive that is a blend of multi-strain Bacillus spp. probiotics and a xylanase in a 2 × 2 factorial dietary treatments design, testing two levels of the feed additive blend (0 and 100 g/MT) and two cereal grain types (corn and wheat) on live performance, gut lesions, environmental Clostridium perfringens load, and pathogen load in the digesta of broiler chickens (E. tenella, total aerobic count cells (APC), E. coli, and C. perfringens). Day-old chicks were randomly placed in 10 replicate pens per treatment with 52 birds per replicate and grown to 42 d of age. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. At 42 d, birds fed EnzaPro were heavier (p < 0.0004) than unsupplemented birds. An improvement in FCR (p = 0.03) was observed from 1 to 42 d by approximately two points in both corn- and wheat-based diets supplemented with EnzaPro. In wheat-based diets, supplementing EnzaPro reduced (p < 0.0001) a 21 d lesion score of intestines with a further reduction (p < 0.02) at 42 d. EnzaPro reduced (p < 0.03) litter moisture by approximately 1% compared to non-supplemented EnzaPro in both corn- and wheat-based diets. Pathogen load in digesta (C. perfringens, E. tenella, APC, and E. coli) was reduced (p < 0.0002) when EnzaPro was supplemented in diets. It can be concluded that EnzaPro (a blend of DFM Bacillus spp (1 × 105 CFU/g feed) and xylanase (10 XU/g feed)) may be used in both corn- and wheat-based diets to improve the performance and gut health of broilers. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Bioequivalence of an Oral Pimobendan Solution Formulation with Reference Solution Formulation in Beagle Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030141 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Oral capsule and tablet formulations of pimobendan are widely used but may present difficulties for accurately dosing small patients. This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics, bioequivalence, and cardiovascular effects of a custom-made oral pimobendan solution (PS) formulation compared to a [...] Read more.
Oral capsule and tablet formulations of pimobendan are widely used but may present difficulties for accurately dosing small patients. This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics, bioequivalence, and cardiovascular effects of a custom-made oral pimobendan solution (PS) formulation compared to a reference solution (RS) formulation in conscious, healthy dogs. A randomized crossover design was performed on dogs that received RS and PS formulations at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after oral administration for PK analysis; bioequivalence was also calculated. Echocardiography was also performed to assess the cardiovascular effects. The results revealed that the plasma concentrations of pimobendan and o-desmethyl-pimobendan (active metabolite) in the case of both formulations were comparable. The relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations for all significant parameters of PK were within a range of 80–125%, indicating bioequivalence. In addition, both formulations increased cardiac contraction significantly when compared with the baseline, and no differences in cardiac contractility were detected between the formulations. The PS formulation can be used as alternative to the RS formulation for the management of congestive heart disease because of the bioequivalence between the two formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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Case Report
Evaluation of Weight Gain, Clinicopathological and Radiographic Changes after Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030140 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Congenital hypothyroidism is uncommon in cats. This case report describes weight gain, clinicopathological and radiographic changes after early diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism in three British shorthair cats’ siblings. Data were assessed at 53 (diagnosis), 83, 185 and 365 days of age. [...] Read more.
Congenital hypothyroidism is uncommon in cats. This case report describes weight gain, clinicopathological and radiographic changes after early diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism in three British shorthair cats’ siblings. Data were assessed at 53 (diagnosis), 83, 185 and 365 days of age. Correlations between serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and body weight, levothyroxine dose, total thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were evaluated. The body weights of the congenital hypothyroid kittens were compared with those of their two healthy siblings and British shorthair kittens of the same age. At diagnosis, the congenital hypothyroid kittens showed a significantly lower body weight compared to the healthy siblings (p = 0.03). After diagnosis, oral levothyroxine supplementation was started. The difference in body weight was no longer observed after one month of treatment. The clinical signs, clinicopathological and radiographic abnormalities ameliorated after one month of treatment. IGF-1 concentration was significantly positively correlated with body weight (rs = 0.80, p < 0.002). In conclusion, resolution of the clinical signs, achieving a consistent within-breed weight, and improvement of the clinicopathological and radiographic parameters demonstrated the importance of the early diagnosis and treatment of feline congenital hypothyroidism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Feline Internal Medicine)
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Article
Interpolation of Point Prevalence Rate of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 Second Phase Epidemic in South Korea
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030139 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Humans and animals are both susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the future, HPAI has the potential to be a source of zoonoses and pandemic disease drivers. It is necessary to identify areas of high risk that are more vulnerable [...] Read more.
Humans and animals are both susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the future, HPAI has the potential to be a source of zoonoses and pandemic disease drivers. It is necessary to identify areas of high risk that are more vulnerable to HPAI infections. In this study, we applied unbiased predictions based on known information to find points of localities with a high probability of point prevalence rate. To carry out such predictions, we utilized the inverse distance weighting (IDW) and kriging method, with the help of the R statistical computing program. The provinces of Jeollanam-do, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongbuk-do and Ulsan have high anticipated risk. This research might aid in the management of avian influenza threats associated with various potential risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Comparison of a Chromogenic Urine Culture Plate System (UTid+) and Conventional Urine Culture for Canine and Feline Specimens
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030138 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
In companion animal medicine, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common indications for antimicrobial therapy. Definitive diagnosis of UTI requires isolation of bacteria with routine urine culture from an animal with concurrent clinical signs. Urine culture is typically performed at [...] Read more.
In companion animal medicine, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common indications for antimicrobial therapy. Definitive diagnosis of UTI requires isolation of bacteria with routine urine culture from an animal with concurrent clinical signs. Urine culture is typically performed at reference laboratories where paired susceptibility testing can be performed, but delays in shipment or processing can affect results. This study evaluated the use of a selective chromogenic, point-of-care culture system (UTid+) compared to conventional urine culture. A total of 119 (73 canine and 46 feline) cystocentesis urine samples were evaluated. Conventional urine culture was positive for 28 (23.5%) of the 119 cultures and UTid+ culture was positive for 26 (21.8%). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 92.3%, 97.8%, 92.3%, 97.8 and 96.6% for UTid+ respectively. Overall, the UTid+ culture system showed an acceptable level of accuracy when compared to conventional urine culture. Agreement of identification results was high (κ = 0.90) with an important exception being Proteus spp. which was only identified in 1/3 positive cultures. UTid+ may be useful in scenarios where a common UTI pathogen is expected and identification within 24 h is ideal; however, conventional urine culture remains the gold standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Diagnostic Research)
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Case Report
Sub-Antimicrobial Dosage Scheme of Doxycycline for the Chronic Treatment of Bronchiectasis in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030137 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 980
Abstract
A 9-month-old German shepherd dog was examined because of a chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, as well as recurrent episodes of lethargy with anorexia. Multifocal severe bronchiectasis and neutrophilic bronchitis was found with thoracic computed tomography and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage [...] Read more.
A 9-month-old German shepherd dog was examined because of a chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, as well as recurrent episodes of lethargy with anorexia. Multifocal severe bronchiectasis and neutrophilic bronchitis was found with thoracic computed tomography and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respectively. While oral azithromycin was administered, clinical signs were absent. However, stopping azithromycin lead repeatedly to presumed bacterial pneumonia within 1–2 months. With sub-antimicrobial dosed oral doxycycline (initially 1.5 mg/kg once daily for 3 months, then 0.7–0.5 mg/kg once daily for 6 months), the dog remained free from clinical signs. Bronchiectasis is characterized by marked irreversible bronchial dilation. Accumulation of intraluminal mucopurulent material and neutrophilic inflammation cause chronic cough and recurrent bacterial pneumonia. For therapy, life-long oral antibiotics are recommended. Chronic antibiotic administration, however, can select resistant bacterial strains. Though both azithromycin and doxycycline possess anti-inflammatory effects, doxycycline has these off-target properties at a sub-antimicrobial dose. In this report, a chronic sub-antimicrobial dose of doxycycline resulted in the resolution of chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, and prevented recurrence of suspected bacterial pneumonia in the long-term in a dog with severe bronchiectasis. Beneficial effect of doxycycline is probably related to its anti-inflammatory effects rather than its antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Case Report
Use of Electrodiagnostics in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Brachial Plexus Syndrome in a Calf
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030136 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Electrodiagnostic testing by using electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) is essential in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury as it facilitates the localization of the lesion and the prognosis. In this case report, we present a long-term electrodiagnostic [...] Read more.
Electrodiagnostic testing by using electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) is essential in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury as it facilitates the localization of the lesion and the prognosis. In this case report, we present a long-term electrodiagnostic follow-up of a 5-day-old female Holstein calf with brachial plexus syndrome. Electrodiagnostic studies were carried out at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, 7 months and 12 months after admission. Initially, EMG confirmed the damage to the brachial plexus, potentially indicating a condition of neurotmesis or axonotmesis. However, motor NCS and the repeated electrodiagnostic follow-up, along with the evolution of the clinical signs, allowed a more favorable diagnosis of axonotmesis to be made. In fact, EMG showed a slow but gradual reduction and finally the disappearance of spontaneous pathological activity, while motor NCS revealed an increase in the amplitude and areas of the compound muscle action potentials. The animal was deemed fully recovered 12 months after admission. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of motor NCS in bovine medicine and it demonstrates that electrodiagnostics represent a useful and practical tool for the evaluation and prognosis of brachial plexus injury cases in cattle. Full article
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Article
Spatial Variation in Risk for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N6 Viral Infections in South Korea: Poultry Population-Based Case–Control Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030135 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Given the substantial economic damage caused by the continual circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2003, identifying high-risk locations associated with HPAI infections is essential. In this study, using affected and unaffected poultry farms’ locations during an HPAI H5N6 epidemic [...] Read more.
Given the substantial economic damage caused by the continual circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2003, identifying high-risk locations associated with HPAI infections is essential. In this study, using affected and unaffected poultry farms’ locations during an HPAI H5N6 epidemic in South Korea, we identified places where clusters of HPAI cases were found. Hotspots were defined as regions having clusters of HPAI cases. With the help of the statistical computer program R, a kernel density estimate and a spatial scan statistic were employed for this purpose. A kernel density estimate and detection of significant clusters through a spatial scan statistic both showed that districts in the Chungcheongbuk-do, Jeollabuk-do, and Jeollanam-do provinces are more vulnerable to HPAI outbreaks. Prior to the migration season, high-risk districts should implement particular biosecurity measures. High biosecurity measures, as well as improving the cleanliness of the poultry environment, would undoubtedly aid in the prevention of HPAIV transmission to poultry farms in these high-risk regions of South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Blood Inflammatory, Hydro-Electrolytes and Acid-Base Changes in Belgian Blue Cows Developing Parietal Fibrinous Peritonitis or Generalised Peritonitis after Caesarean Section
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030134 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the inflammation, hydro-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances caused by generalised peritonitis (GP) and parietal fibrinous peritonitis (PFP) after caesarean section. After clinical examination, blood was sampled from 11 cows with PFP, 30 with GP and 14 healthy cows. Serum [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the inflammation, hydro-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances caused by generalised peritonitis (GP) and parietal fibrinous peritonitis (PFP) after caesarean section. After clinical examination, blood was sampled from 11 cows with PFP, 30 with GP and 14 healthy cows. Serum and plasma refractometry and glutaraldehyde tests were used to evaluate the inflammation level, while hydro-electrolytes and acid-base parameters were assessed using an EPOC® device. In addition to clinical signs of dehydration (>10%), blood analysis showed a high fibrinogen concentration (PFP: 8.64 ± 8.82 g/L; GP: 7.83 ± 2.45 g/L) and fast glutaraldehyde coagulation (<3 min) indicative of severe inflammation in both diseases compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, a severe decrease in electrolytes concentration (Na+: 126.93 ± 5.79 mmol/L; K+: 3.7 ± 1.3 mmol/L; Ca++: 0.89 ± 0.12 mmol/L; Cl: 82.38 ± 6.45 mmol/L) and a significant increase in bicarbonate (30.87 ± 8.16 mmol/L), base excess (5.71 ± 7.42 mmol/l), L-lactate (8.1 ± 4.85 mmol/L) and creatinine (3.53 ± 2.30 mg/dL) were observed in cows with GP compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, few major perturbations were noticed in PFP, where only K+ (3.64 ± 0.25 mmol/L) and Ca++ (1.06 ± 0.09 mmol/L) were significantly modified (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a high dehydration and severe inflammation are induced by PFP and GP. Nevertheless, GP causes more electrolytes and acid-base disturbances than PFP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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Case Report
Mixed Infection of Mycobacterium szulgai, M. lentiflavum, and Gram-Negative Bacteria as a Cause of Death in a Brown Caiman Caiman crocodylus: A Case Report
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030133 - 13 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
This paper describes a fatal case of nontuberculosis mycobacteriosis in a four-year-old brown caiman kept in captivity. Although the clinical signs were asymptomatic, severe gross lesions were observed, namely necrotic inflammation of the intestines and granulomatous hepatitis. Microbiological and histopathological examination performed on [...] Read more.
This paper describes a fatal case of nontuberculosis mycobacteriosis in a four-year-old brown caiman kept in captivity. Although the clinical signs were asymptomatic, severe gross lesions were observed, namely necrotic inflammation of the intestines and granulomatous hepatitis. Microbiological and histopathological examination performed on the tissues collected postmortem revealed a mixed infection of Mycobacterium lentiflavum and Mycobacterium szulgai, secondarily mimicked with Salmonella Coeln, Aeromonas hydrofila, Citrobacter freundii, and Providencia rettgeri. Those microorganisms are not only potentially pathogenic to reptiles, but also have a zoonotic importance for humans. Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of educating owners and maintaining hygiene rules when handling reptiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Infectious Diseases of Companion Animals)
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Article
Evidence of Influenza A Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques, Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030132 - 13 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Little is known about the ecology of influenza A virus (IAV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). We conducted active surveillance of IAV among 672 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in 27 free-ranging colonies in Thailand between March and November 2019. A hemagglutination [...] Read more.
Little is known about the ecology of influenza A virus (IAV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). We conducted active surveillance of IAV among 672 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in 27 free-ranging colonies in Thailand between March and November 2019. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was employed as the screening test against 16 subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) and two strains of the H1 subtype of human influenza virus. The serum samples with HI titers ≥20 were further confirmed by microneutralization (MN) assay. Real-time RT-PCR assay was performed to detect the conserved region of the influenza matrix (M) gene. The seropositive rate for subtypes of IAV, including AIV H1 (1.6%, 11/672), AIV H2 (15.2%, 102/672), AIV H3 (0.3%, 2/672), AIV H9 (3.4%, 23/672), and human H1 (NP-045) (0.9%, 6/672), was demonstrated. We also found antibody against more than one subtype of IAV in 15 out of 128 positive tested sera (11.7%). Moreover, influenza genome could be detected in 1 out of 245 pool swab samples (0.41%). Evidence of IAV infection presented here emphasizes the role of NHPs in the ecology of the virus. Our findings highlight the need to further conduct a continuous active surveillance program in NHP populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Wildlife Infectious Diseases)
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Article
Performance of Slow-Growing Chickens Fed with Tenebrio molitor Larval Meal as a Full Replacement for Soybean Meal
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030131 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Insect larval meal is an increasingly common protein source in poultry systems. In this study, the effect of replacing soybean meal with Tenebrio molitor larval meal on the performance of slow-growing chickens was assessed. A total of 128 one-day-old chickens (Colorield) [...] Read more.
Insect larval meal is an increasingly common protein source in poultry systems. In this study, the effect of replacing soybean meal with Tenebrio molitor larval meal on the performance of slow-growing chickens was assessed. A total of 128 one-day-old chickens (Colorield) were randomly divided into a control group (C) (n = 64), fed with soybean meal, and an experimental group (TM) (n = 64), fed with T. molitor larvae meal. The chicks were slaughtered after 95 days. Three different isoenergetic and isoproteic diets (F1, F2 and F3) were used for each group. The F1 diet resulted in higher body weight gain and higher feed and water intakes in group C, but a lower feed conversion ratio. Contrarily, diets F2 and F3 did not produce differences in the studied parameters between the two groups, except for body weight gain in the case of diet F2, which was highest in group C. Therefore, weight gain and feed and water intakes were significantly higher in group C, but there were no differences in feed conversion ratio or live weight. In conclusion, the total replacement of soybean meal with T. molitor larvae meal resulted in a reduction in feed intake and a consequent reduction in weight. During this period, partial rather than total substitution may be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Poultry Nutrition, Breeding and Health)
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Review
The Role of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in Honey Bee Colony Losses and Current Insights on Treatment
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030130 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Honeybee populations have locally and temporally declined in the last few years because of both biotic and abiotic factors. Among the latter, one of the most important reasons is infection by the microsporidia Nosema ceranae, which is the etiological agent of type [...] Read more.
Honeybee populations have locally and temporally declined in the last few years because of both biotic and abiotic factors. Among the latter, one of the most important reasons is infection by the microsporidia Nosema ceranae, which is the etiological agent of type C nosemosis. This species was first described in Asian honeybees (Apis cerana). Nowadays, domestic honeybees (Apis mellifera) worldwide are also becoming infected due to globalization. Type C nosemosis can be asymptomatic or can cause important damage to bees, such as changes in temporal polyethism, energy and oxidative stress, immunity loss, and decreased average life expectancy. It causes drastic reductions in workers, numbers of broods, and honey production, finally leading to colony loss. Common treatment is based on fumagillin, an antibiotic with side effects and relatively poor efficiency, which is banned in the European Union. Natural products, probiotics, food supplements, nutraceuticals, and other veterinary drugs are currently under study and might represent alternative treatments. Prophylaxis and management of affected colonies are essential to control the disease. While N. ceranae is one potential cause of bee losses in a colony, other factors must also be considered, especially synergies between microsporidia and the use of insecticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Pathogens and Parasites)
Article
In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Isatis tinctoria Extracts against Ewes’ Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GINs), a Possible Application for Animal Welfare
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030129 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2096
Abstract
Sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestation represents a limiting factor for sheep farming and milk production in Italy. The development of anthelmintic resistance to conventionally used drugs suggests the path towards the use of natural remedies as a possible alternative. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestation represents a limiting factor for sheep farming and milk production in Italy. The development of anthelmintic resistance to conventionally used drugs suggests the path towards the use of natural remedies as a possible alternative. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extracts of basal leaves (It-BL), cauline leaves (It-CL) and flowers (It-F) of Isatis tinctoria (Brassicaceae), a spontaneous Sicilian species renowned as an important source of bioactive compounds. The dry extracts of the different parts of the plant were tested using the egg hatch test (EHT) in vitro to verify the efficacy against ovine GIN at different concentrations (1.00, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 mg/mL). Thiabendazole and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results obtained from EHT indicated that all the I. tinctoria extracts were highly effective (p < 0.0001) in inhibiting egg hatching within 48 h of exposure. The in vitro inhibitory effect was never less than 84% in all doses tested, and it was only slightly lower than the standard drug thiabendazole (95.6%). The current study documents the anthelmintic activity of I. tinctoria against sheep’s GIN, suggesting its application as alternative natural method to limit the use of antiparasitic drugs. Full article
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Case Report
Aspiration Pneumonia with Prominent Alveolar Mineralization in a Dairy Cow
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030128 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 918
Abstract
A 2-years-old Jersey breed cow showed severe respiratory distress and prolonged lateral recumbency about 1 week after parturition. The cow was regularly vaccinated against the main respiratory pathogens and was given a calcium salt solution per os shortly after calving in order to [...] Read more.
A 2-years-old Jersey breed cow showed severe respiratory distress and prolonged lateral recumbency about 1 week after parturition. The cow was regularly vaccinated against the main respiratory pathogens and was given a calcium salt solution per os shortly after calving in order to prevent milk fever. Despite therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, the cow spontaneously died one week later and was necropsied. On gross examination, a severe, acute, diffuse fibrinonecrotic tracheitis was observed. In addition, the cranioventral portions of both lungs appeared firm and severely congested, while the pleural surface was covered by a discrete amount of fibrinous exudate. Microscopically, the following lesions were observed: tracheal hemorrhages, acute, fibrinonecrotic and suppurative tracheitis, pulmonary hemorrhages, fibrinous bronchopneumonia and fibrinous pleuritis. Noteworthy, multiple foci of mineralization were observed, scattered throughout the lung parenchyma and occasionally within the tracheal mucosa. The presence of calcium deposits was confirmed by means of Von Kossa staining method. Based on clinical history, clinical signs and pathological findings, aspiration pneumonia caused by the accidental inhalation of liquid calcium salt supplement was diagnosed. The present case report highlights the relevance of the staff training to optimize animal production and welfare. Full article
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Case Report
Inherited Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy in a Border Collie, Interest of Oclacitinib for the Control of Self-Mutilation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030127 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Sensory and autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in a five-month-old Border Collie puppy, who presented with progressive self-mutilation, proprioceptive ataxia and urinary incontinence. In the Border Collie, sensory neuropathy is different from what is observed in acral mutilation syndrome, as the genetic mutation is [...] Read more.
Sensory and autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in a five-month-old Border Collie puppy, who presented with progressive self-mutilation, proprioceptive ataxia and urinary incontinence. In the Border Collie, sensory neuropathy is different from what is observed in acral mutilation syndrome, as the genetic mutation is linked to an inversion disrupting the FAM134B gene. Diagnosis was based on history, clinical signs and genetic testing. The prognosis of sensory neuropathies is poor and no curative treatment is available. In the present case, oclacitinib was started for symptomatic treatment of the self-mutilation. A good control of the self-mutilation was quickly observed with an improvement in quality of life for five months. Unfortunately, progression of neurological signs with severe proprioceptive deficits, ataxia, muscular atrophy and urinary/fecal incontinence was observed. Five months after diagnosis, the owner elected for euthanasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Dermatology)
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Article
Risk Analysis of 24 Residual Antibiotics in Poultry Eggs in Shandong, China (2018–2020)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030126 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Although antibiotics have played a certain positive role in the prevention and treatment of poultry diseases, as well as the promotion of poultry growth, some farmers use antibiotics in an incorrect way in the breeding process, resulting in antibiotic residues in poultry tissues, [...] Read more.
Although antibiotics have played a certain positive role in the prevention and treatment of poultry diseases, as well as the promotion of poultry growth, some farmers use antibiotics in an incorrect way in the breeding process, resulting in antibiotic residues in poultry tissues, organs and edible products. Residual antibiotics enter the human body through the food chain and accumulate, which not only causes poisoning and allergic reactions, but also drug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms, thus endangering the health of consumers. In this investigation, the residues of 24 antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, antivirals, lincomycin and florfenicol, were analyzed in 1211 poultry egg samples in Shandong, China, from 2018 to 2020. Then, based on the per capita intake of poultry eggs recommended in the dietary guidelines of Chinese residents, the maximum residue limit of veterinary drugs specified in Chinese regulations and the average weight of males and females aged 18 and over in 2020, the risk of residual antibiotics was evaluated by International Food Safety indices (IFS). The detection results showed that 104 of 1211 samples were detected with antibiotic residues, with a detection rate of 8.58%. Among them, the main residues were enrofloxacin, sulfonamides and florfenicol. The IFS calculation results showed that the IFS of residual antibiotics ranged from 1.44 × 10−7 to 0.102. Therefore, although enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin, sulfonamides, tilmicosin, doxycycline, florfenicol, which are banned during egg laying, were detected in poultry eggs in Shandong, these residues did not pose a threat to the health of Chinese adult consumers, according to the daily dietary habits of Chinese people. However, it is strongly suggested that Shandong should strengthen the monitoring of antibiotic use during egg laying. Full article
Review
Historical Evolution of Cattle Management and Herd Health of Dairy Farms in OECD Countries
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030125 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
This work aimed to review the important aspects of the dairy industry evolution at herd level, interrelating production with health management systems. Since the beginning of the industrialization of the dairy cattle sector (1950s), driven by the need to feed the rapidly growing [...] Read more.
This work aimed to review the important aspects of the dairy industry evolution at herd level, interrelating production with health management systems. Since the beginning of the industrialization of the dairy cattle sector (1950s), driven by the need to feed the rapidly growing urban areas, this industry has experienced several improvements, evolving in management and technology. These changes have been felt above all in the terms of milking, rearing, nutrition, reproductive management, and design of facilities. Shortage of labor, emphasis on increasing farm efficiency, and quality of life of the farmers were the driving factors for these changes. To achieve it, in many areas of the world, pasture production has been abandoned, moving to indoor production, which allows for greater nutritional and reproductive control of the animals. To keep pace with this paradigm in milk production, animal health management has also been improved. Prevention and biosecurity have become essential to control and prevent pathologies that cause great economic losses. As such, veterinary herd health management programs were created, allowing the management of health of the herd as a whole, through the common work of veterinarians and farmers. These programs address the farms holistically, from breeding to nutrition, from prevention to consultancy. In addition, farmers are now faced with a consumer more concerned on animal production, valuing certified products that respect animal health and welfare, as well as environmental sustainability. Full article
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Article
Green Veterinary Pharmacology for Honey Bee Welfare and Health: Origanum heracleoticum L. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil for the Control of the Apis mellifera Varroatosis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030124 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Varroatosis, caused by the Varroa destructor mite, is currently the most dangerous parasitic disease threatening the survival of honey bees worldwide. Its adverse effect on the welfare and health of honey bees requires the regular use of specific acaricides. This condition has led [...] Read more.
Varroatosis, caused by the Varroa destructor mite, is currently the most dangerous parasitic disease threatening the survival of honey bees worldwide. Its adverse effect on the welfare and health of honey bees requires the regular use of specific acaricides. This condition has led to a growing development of resistance phenomena towards the most frequently used drugs. In addition, another important aspect that should not be understated, is the toxicity and persistence of chemicals in the environment. Therefore, the identification of viable and environmentally friendly alternatives is urgently needed. In this scenario, essential oils are promising candidates. The aim of this study was to assess the contact toxicity, the fumigation efficacy and the repellent effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil (EO) against V. destructor mite. In the contact tests, each experimental replicate consisted of 15 viable adult female mites divided as follows: 5 treated with EO diluted in HPLC grade acetone, 5 treated with acetone alone (as negative control) and 5 treated with Amitraz diluted in acetone (as positive control). The EO was tested at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL. For each experimental replicate, mortality was manually assessed after one hour. The efficacy of EO fumigation was evaluated through prolonged exposure at different time intervals. After each exposure, the 5 mites constituting an experimental replicate were transferred to a Petri dish containing a honey bee larva and mortality was assessed after 48 h. The repellent action was investigated by implementing a directional choice test in a mandatory route. During the repellency tests the behavior of the mite (90 min after its introduction in the mandatory route) was not influenced by the EO. In contact tests, EO showed the best efficacy at 2 and 1 mg/mL concentrations, neutralizing (dead + inactivated) 90.9% and 80% of the mites, respectively. In fumigation tests, the mean mortality rate of V. destructor at maximum exposure time (90 min) was 60% and 84% at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Overall, these results demonstrate a significant efficacy of O. heracleoticum EO against V. destructor, suggesting a possible alternative use in the control of varroatosis in honey bee farms in order to improve Apis mellifera welfare and health and, consequently, the hive productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
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Case Report
Spontaneous Polycystic Kidneys with Chronic Renal Failure in an Aged House Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030123 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common inheritable renal diseases, characterized by the formation of multiple fluid-filled renal cysts. This disease is a progressive and unfortunately incurable condition. A case of polycystic kidney with chronic renal failure in house musk shrew [...] Read more.
Polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common inheritable renal diseases, characterized by the formation of multiple fluid-filled renal cysts. This disease is a progressive and unfortunately incurable condition. A case of polycystic kidney with chronic renal failure in house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is described. At clinical presentation, a 16-month-old Suncus murinus showed weight loss and coarse fur. Regarding the biochemical profile, total protein concentrations increased, resulting in a declined albumin: globulin ratio. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were markedly elevated, indicating the end stage of chronic renal failure. Serum amyloid A levels increased and revealed inflammatory reaction during the cyst formation. Histopathologically, multiple cysts were lined by a single layer of epithelial cells or low cuboidal epithelium. The contents were homogenous eosinophilic materials (mucopolysaccharides or mucoproteins) and these cysts contained abundant macrophages. There were also regeneration and dilatation of renal tubes and interstitial fibrosis. The atrophic glomeruli and glomerular capsules were thickened and hyalinized by dense amorphous mucopolysaccharides. These histopathological findings suggested that the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease shared a common mechanistic feature across species. Full article
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Article
A Cutoff Determination of Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for End-Point Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030122 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. jejuni is commonly found in poultry. It is the most frequent cause of contamination and thus resulting in not only public health concerns but also economic impacts. To test for [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. jejuni is commonly found in poultry. It is the most frequent cause of contamination and thus resulting in not only public health concerns but also economic impacts. To test for this bacterial contamination in food processing plants, this study attempted to employ a simple and rapid detection assay called loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The best cutoff value for the positive determination of C. jejuni calculated using real-time LAMP quantification cycle (Cq) was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve modeling. The model showed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.936 (95% Wald CI: 0.903–0.970). Based on Youden’s J statistic, the optimal cutoff value which had the highest sensitivity and specificity from the model was calculated as 18.07. The LAMP assay had 96.9% sensitivity, 95.8% specificity, and 93.9 and 97.9% positive and negative predictive values, respectively, compared to a standard culture approach for C. jejuni identification. Among all non-C. jejuni strains, the LAMP assay gave each of 12.5% false-positive results to C. coli and E. coli (1 out of 8 samples). The assay can detect C. jejuni at the lowest concentration of 103 CFU/mL. Our results suggest a preliminary indicator for the application of end-point LAMP assays, such as turbidity and UV fluorescence tests, to detect C. jejuni in field operations. The LAMP assay is an alternative screening test for C. jejuni contamination in food samples. The method provides a rapid detection, which requires only 9 min with a cutoff value of Cq. We performed the extraction of DNA from pure cultures and the detection of C. jejuni using the LAMP assay within 3 h. However, we were not able to reduce the time for the process of enrichment involved in our study. Therefore, we suggest that alternative enrichment media and rapid DNA extraction methods should be considered for further study. Compared to other traditional methods, our proposed assay requires less equipment and time, which is applicable at any processing steps in the food production chain. Full article
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Article
Molecular Diagnosis of Cetacean Morbillivirus in Beaked Whales Stranded in the Canary Islands (1999–2017)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030121 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2215
Abstract
A retrospective survey for detecting the cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was carried out in beaked whales (BWs) stranded in the Canary Islands (1999–2017). CeMV is responsible for causing worldwide epizootic events with the highest mass die-offs in cetaceans, although the epidemic status of the [...] Read more.
A retrospective survey for detecting the cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was carried out in beaked whales (BWs) stranded in the Canary Islands (1999–2017). CeMV is responsible for causing worldwide epizootic events with the highest mass die-offs in cetaceans, although the epidemic status of the Canarian Archipelago seems to be that of an endemic situation. A total of 319 tissue samples from 55 BWs (35 Cuvier’s BWs and 20 specimens belonging to the Mesoplodon genus) were subjected to the amplification of a fragment of the fusion protein (F) and/or phosphoprotein (P) genes of CeMV by means of one or more of three polymerase chain reactions (PCR). RNA integrity could not be demonstrated in samples from 11 animals. Positivity (dolphin morbillivirus strain (DMV)) was detected in the skin sample of only a subadult male Cuvier’s BW stranded in 2002, being the earliest confirmed occurrence of DMV in the Cuvier’s BW species. The obtained P gene sequence showed the closest relationship with other DMVs detected in a striped dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands in the same year. A phylogenetic analysis supports a previous hypothesis of a cross-species infection and the existence of the circulation of endemic DMV strains in the Atlantic Ocean similar to those later detected in the North-East Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea and the South-West Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Wildlife Infectious Diseases)
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Article
Comparison between Areas of Bone Visualization Using Radiolucent Hybrid Fixator Frames and Graphically Simulated Metallic Frames: An Ex Vivo Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030120 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The objective of this study is to evaluate the difference between the amount of bone visible with the superimposition of a radiolucent hybrid external fixator and a graphically simulated metallic frame. Eighteen frames were applied to eighteen bone specimens. The fracture area (FA), [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the difference between the amount of bone visible with the superimposition of a radiolucent hybrid external fixator and a graphically simulated metallic frame. Eighteen frames were applied to eighteen bone specimens. The fracture area (FA), the radiolucent area (RLA) and the radiopaque area (ROA) inside the FA were calculated for each construct on both postoperative views. The ratio between the RLA and FA and between the ROA and FA was used to evaluate the amount of bone visible in the FA with a radiolucent and a radiopaque fixator, respectively. Finally, the areas of RLA and ROA were compared using the Wilcoxon test and Friedman test to evaluate the effect of the radiolucent material on the amount of bone visible. Differences were considered significant if p < 0.5. In every specimen p was <0.5. The amount of bone visible was significantly higher with the radiolucent frame compared to the radiopaque frame. Based on the results of this study, the use of radiolucent materials can be a valuable option for external fixation, in order to decrease the radiographic interference of the frame, allowing better assessment of fracture reduction and bone healing on postoperative radiographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orthopaedic and Traumatology in Dog and Cat)
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Article
In Vivo Recovery of Bacteriophages and Their Effects on Clostridium perfringens-Infected Broiler Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030119 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to recover bacteriophages (BPs) from the intestinal digesta of BP-fed broilers and to evaluate the antibacterial effects of encapsulated or powdered BPs in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 320/experiment) [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to recover bacteriophages (BPs) from the intestinal digesta of BP-fed broilers and to evaluate the antibacterial effects of encapsulated or powdered BPs in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 320/experiment) were randomly assigned to 32 pens (n = 10 broilers/pen) and allocated to one of four dietary groups: (1) unchallenged group (NEG); (2) C. perfringens-challenged group (POS); (3) POS group fed a diet supplemented with powdered BPs; and (4) POS group fed a diet supplemented with encapsulated BPs. On days 21, 22, and 23 post-hatch, all chickens except NEG were orally inoculated twice a day with 2 mL C. perfringens (1.0 × 108 cfu/mL). Varying BP levels were detected in gut digesta at all ages and were numerically or significantly higher in the encapsulated BP group than in the powdered BP group. Dietary powder or encapsulated BPs reversed the C. perfringens-mediated increase in crypt depth. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio was elevated in the NEG and BP-treated/challenged groups compared with that in the POS group. C. perfringens counts in the cecum were significantly lower in the BP-fed chickens than in the POS group. The encapsulated BP-supplemented diet-fed chickens had the highest serum IgA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that dietary BP remains viable in intestinal digesta upon ingestion and can inhibit cecal C. perfringens counts. Full article
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