Special Issue "Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 17546

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marie Archambault
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; virulence; animal pathogens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mohamed Rhouma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Interests: antimicrobial use and resistance; dosage regimens; PK/PD models; one health; food safety
Prof. Dr. Patrick Butaye
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pathobiology, Pharmacology and Zoological Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Interests: microbiology; antimicrobial resistance in bacteria; molecular epidemiology of bacteria
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global issue and a threat to both human and animal health as well as to the environment. Over the past decade, considerable efforts have been made in veterinary medicine, especially in farm animals, to limit the spread of AMR bacteria and to preserve the effectiveness of antimicrobials, mainly through the reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU). However, these efforts have been insufficient, mainly because the impact of AMU in animals on the emergence and dissemination of AMR bacteria, and their resistance determinants in both animals and humans, as well as in the environment, is poorly understood. This Special Issue provides an opportunity to exchange research results, expertise and opinions regarding the following topics:

  • Prevalence and molecular characterization of AMR bacteria of animal origin;
  • One-Health perspective of AMR;
  • Relation of AMU in farms on AMR in bacteria of animal origin and along the food chain;
  • The pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) optimization of antimicrobials in food-producing animals to reduce AMR bacteria selection;
  • New technologies for improving microbial disease diagnosis as well as new alternatives to antimicrobials to reduce AMU in animals;
  • Antimicrobial stewardship;
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding AMU and AMR among the different stakeholders of animal production.

Prof. Dr. Marie Archambault
Dr. Mohamed Rhouma
Prof. Dr. Patrick Butaye
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial use
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • food-producing animals
  • One Health
  • pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics optimization
  • microbial disease diagnosis
  • alternatives to antimicrobials
  • food chain
  • education and awareness

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antibacterial Activity of Romanian Propolis against Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dogs with Superficial Pyoderma: In Vitro Test
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060299 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Staphylococcal infection treatment in dogs is frequently associated with adverse side effects, high costs, prolonged treatment, and resistant strain selection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated staphylococci in cases of canine superficial pyoderma. The number of Staphylococcus strains to exhibit primary resistance [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal infection treatment in dogs is frequently associated with adverse side effects, high costs, prolonged treatment, and resistant strain selection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated staphylococci in cases of canine superficial pyoderma. The number of Staphylococcus strains to exhibit primary resistance to various drugs in vitro is increasing. Propolis has a diverse chemical composition and well-known therapeutic properties against bacterial infections. The current investigation evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of the commercial allopathic antimicrobials, Romanian propolis ethanolic extracts, against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from superficial dermatitis clinical samples in dogs and two reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, as the MSSA and MRSA positive controls, respectively, in western Romania. We used the microdilution broth technique to evaluate the susceptibility profile of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Romanian propolis ethanolic extract ranged from 6 to 10 μg/mL for all isolates, determined by the broth microdilution method. The MICs of ethanolic Romanian propolis extracts had a pronounced antibacterial activity. These results indicate that propolis can potentially be used and recommended for in vivo experiments as a promising therapeutic agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections in superficial dermatitis of dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical and Commensal Escherichia coli Canine Isolates: Profile Characterization and Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Results According to Different Guidelines
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(6), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060284 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Background: Pyometra is a diestrual chronic disease frequently associated with Escherichia coli. Initial pyometra treatment involves empiric antimicrobial therapy whose suitability should be confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health issue for veterinary medicine, rendering surveillance studies essential. [...] Read more.
Background: Pyometra is a diestrual chronic disease frequently associated with Escherichia coli. Initial pyometra treatment involves empiric antimicrobial therapy whose suitability should be confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health issue for veterinary medicine, rendering surveillance studies essential. Our goal was to determine the susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates obtained from healthy and pyometra-presenting dogs and to compare the application of different antimicrobial susceptibility guidelines. Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility profile (ASP) of 74 E. coli isolates was determined by disk diffusion, using six antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary medicine. Profiles were assessed by CLSI VET01S, CLSI M100 and EUCAST guidelines. β-lactamases-encoding genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected by multiplex PCR. Biofilm production ability was evaluated by pellicle formation assays in Luria–Bertani medium. Results: Variations in the resistance frequency were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalexin and cefotaxime (29.7–54.1%, 10.8–16.2% and 1.4–4.1%, respectively). Results varied slightly between clinical and commensal isolates, as well as their biofilm-forming ability. Genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected in 25.5%, 11.8% and 9.8% of isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Results show the importance of ASP determination in veterinary isolates and the need for using standardized and validated testing methods and harmonized interpretive criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Article
Genetic Diversity, Biofilm Formation, and Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Cow, Camel, and Mare with Clinical Endometritis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9050239 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic bacterium that causes diseases in animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of P. aeruginosa isolated from the uterus of cow, camel, and [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic bacterium that causes diseases in animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of P. aeruginosa isolated from the uterus of cow, camel, and mare with clinical endometritis and their drinking water. Among the 180 uterine swabs and 90 drinking water samples analysed, 54 (20%) P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered. Isolates were identified biochemically to the genus level by the automated Vitek 2 system and genetically by the amplification of the gyrB gene and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multilocus sequence typing identified ten different sequence types for the P. aeruginosa isolates. The identification of ST2012 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than that of ST296, ST308, ST111, and ST241. The isolates exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased resistance to piperacillin (77.8%), ciprofloxacin (59.3%), gentamicin (50%), and ceftazidime (38.9%). Eight (14.8%) isolates showed resistance to imipenem; however, none of the isolates showed resistance to colistin. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 24 isolates (44.4%) with a multiple antibiotic resistance index ranging from 0.44 to 0.77. MDR was identified in 30 (33.3%) isolates. Furthermore, 38.8% and 9.2% of the isolates exhibited a positive extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) phenotype, respectively. The most prevalent β-lactamase encoding genes were blaTEM and blaCTX-M, however, the blaIPM gene was not detected in any of the isolates. Biofilm formation was observed in 49 (90.7%) isolates classified as: 11.1% weak biofilm producers; 38.9% moderate biofilm producers; 40.7% strong biofilm producers. A positive correlation was observed between the MAR index and biofilm formation. In conclusion, the results highlighted that farm animals with clinical endometritis could act as a reservoir for MDR and virulent P. aeruginosa. The emergence of ESBLs and MBLs producing P. aeruginosa in different farm animals is a public health concern. Therefore, surveillance programs to monitor and control MDR P. aeruginosa in animals are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Bacteria Commonly Isolated from Farmed Salmonids in Atlantic Canada (2000–2021)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9040159 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Bacterial infection and antimicrobial resistance are important constraints in the production and sustainability of farmed salmonids. This retrospective study aimed to describe the frequency of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial resistance profiles in salmonid aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing [...] Read more.
Bacterial infection and antimicrobial resistance are important constraints in the production and sustainability of farmed salmonids. This retrospective study aimed to describe the frequency of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial resistance profiles in salmonid aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results assessed by disk diffusion testing were summarized for 18,776 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples from 2291 unique cases submitted to the Atlantic Veterinary College, Aquatic Diagnostic Services Bacteriology Laboratory from 2000 to 2021. Kidney was the most commonly submitted tissue (60.29%, n = 11,320), and these specimens were mostly submitted as swabs (63.68%, n = 11,957). The most prevalent pathogens detected in these cases were Yersinia ruckeri type 1 (5.54%, n = 127), Renibacterium salmoninarum (2.10%, n = 48), Aeromonas salmonicida (atypical) (1.66%, n = 38), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.22%, n = 28). Most bacterial isolates tested (n = 918) showed resistance to florfenicol, oxytetracycline, ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but not to enrofloxacin. This report provides baseline data for antimicrobial surveillance programs that investigate emerging antimicrobial resistance trends in salmonid aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Article
Prevalence, Risk Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella in Northeast Tunisia Broiler Flocks
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010012 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This study was conducted in northeastern Tunisia to estimate both the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonella in broiler flocks as well as to characterize the isolated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains. In the present study, a total number of 124 farms were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted in northeastern Tunisia to estimate both the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonella in broiler flocks as well as to characterize the isolated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains. In the present study, a total number of 124 farms were sampled; Salmonella isolates were identified by the alternative technique VIDAS Easy Salmonella. The susceptibility of Salmonella isolates was assessed against 21 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method on Mueller–Hinton agar using antimicrobial discs. Some antimicrobial resistance genes were identified using PCR. The prevalence rate of Salmonella infection, in the sampled farms, was estimated at 19.9% (64/322). Moreover, a total number of 13 different serotypes were identified. High rate of resistance was identified against nalidixic acid (82.85%), amoxicillin (81.25%), streptomycin (75%), and ciprofloxacin (75%). Alarming level of resistance to ertapenem (12.5%) was noticed. A total of 87.5% (56/64) of isolated strains were recognized as MDR. Three MDR strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producers and three MDR strains were cephalosporinase-producers. The blaCTX-M gene was amplified in all the three ESBL strains. The qnrB gene was not amplified in fluoroquinolones-resistant strains. The tetA and tetB genes were amplified in 5% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40) of tetracycline-resistant strains, respectively. The dfrA1 gene was amplified in five of the 20 trimethoprim-resistant strains. The mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, and mcr-5 genes were not amplified in any of the phenotypically colistin-resistant strains. In terms of integrase genes int1 and int2, only gene class 2 was amplified in 11% (7/64) of analyzed strains. Risk factors, such as the poor level of cleaning and disinfection, the lack of antimicrobial treatment at the start of the breeding, and a crawl space duration lower than 15 days, were associated with high Salmonella infection in birds. These data should be considered when preparing salmonellosis control programs in Tunisian broiler flocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Article
A Biological Study of Anisotropic Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antimicrobial Application for Topical Use
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(9), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8090177 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
The excessive use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has contributed to the development and rapid spread of drug resistance in bacteria. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become a tool of choice that can be used to treat these resistant bacteria. Several [...] Read more.
The excessive use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has contributed to the development and rapid spread of drug resistance in bacteria. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become a tool of choice that can be used to treat these resistant bacteria. Several studies have shown that AgNPs have antibacterial and wound healing properties. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of anisotropic AgNPs to develop an antimicrobial gel formulation for treating wound infections. We showed that some anisotropic AgNPs (S2) have an effective antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens and low cytotoxicity to keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. The MIC and MBC values were in the range of 2–32 µg/mL, and cytotoxicity had IC50 values of 68.20 ± 9.71 µg/mL and 68.65 ± 10.97 µg/mL against human keratinocyte and normal human dermal fibroblast cells, respectively. The anisotropic AgNPs (S2) were used as a gel component and tested for antibacterial activity, including long-term protection, compared with povidone iodine, a common antiseptic agent. The results show that the anisotropic AgNPs can inhibit the growth of most tested bacterial pathogens and provide protection longer than 48 h, whereas povidone iodine only inhibits the growth of some bacteria. This study suggests that anisotropic AgNPs could be used as an alternative antimicrobial agent for treating bacterial skin infection and as a wound healing formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Review

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Review
Current Insights Regarding the Role of Farm Animals in the Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance from a One Health Perspective
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(9), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9090480 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a global threat to both human and animal health and has received increasing attention over the years from different stakeholders. Certain AMR bacteria circulate between humans, animals, and the environment, while AMR genes can be found in all ecosystems. [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a global threat to both human and animal health and has received increasing attention over the years from different stakeholders. Certain AMR bacteria circulate between humans, animals, and the environment, while AMR genes can be found in all ecosystems. The aim of the present review was to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals and to document the current status of the role of farm animals in the spread of AMR to humans. The available body of scientific evidence supported the notion that restricted use of antimicrobials in farm animals was effective in reducing AMR in livestock and, in some cases, in humans. However, most recent studies have reported that livestock have little contribution to the acquisition of AMR bacteria and/or AMR genes by humans. Overall, strategies applied on farms that target the reduction of all antimicrobials are recommended, as these are apparently associated with notable reduction in AMR (avoiding co-resistance between antimicrobials). The interconnection between human and animal health as well as the environment requires the acceleration of the implementation of the ‘One Health’ approach to effectively fight AMR while preserving the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Other

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Case Report
Sub-Antimicrobial Dosage Scheme of Doxycycline for the Chronic Treatment of Bronchiectasis in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030137 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1871
Abstract
A 9-month-old German shepherd dog was examined because of a chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, as well as recurrent episodes of lethargy with anorexia. Multifocal severe bronchiectasis and neutrophilic bronchitis was found with thoracic computed tomography and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage [...] Read more.
A 9-month-old German shepherd dog was examined because of a chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, as well as recurrent episodes of lethargy with anorexia. Multifocal severe bronchiectasis and neutrophilic bronchitis was found with thoracic computed tomography and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respectively. While oral azithromycin was administered, clinical signs were absent. However, stopping azithromycin lead repeatedly to presumed bacterial pneumonia within 1–2 months. With sub-antimicrobial dosed oral doxycycline (initially 1.5 mg/kg once daily for 3 months, then 0.7–0.5 mg/kg once daily for 6 months), the dog remained free from clinical signs. Bronchiectasis is characterized by marked irreversible bronchial dilation. Accumulation of intraluminal mucopurulent material and neutrophilic inflammation cause chronic cough and recurrent bacterial pneumonia. For therapy, life-long oral antibiotics are recommended. Chronic antibiotic administration, however, can select resistant bacterial strains. Though both azithromycin and doxycycline possess anti-inflammatory effects, doxycycline has these off-target properties at a sub-antimicrobial dose. In this report, a chronic sub-antimicrobial dose of doxycycline resulted in the resolution of chronic cough, exercise intolerance and labored breathing, and prevented recurrence of suspected bacterial pneumonia in the long-term in a dog with severe bronchiectasis. Beneficial effect of doxycycline is probably related to its anti-inflammatory effects rather than its antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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