Drug Resistance in Ruminants: Rational Use of Anthelmintics and Alternative Strategies

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 25167

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Medicine Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; diagnosis; anthelmintic resistance; zoonotic parasites; pets

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, CREMOPAR, Naples, Italy
Interests: ruminant parasites; anthelmintic resistance; parasitological diagnosis; parasite control
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, CISVetSUA, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: geospatial tools; epidemiology; medicinal plants; alternative control anthelmintics; parasitological diagnosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are of paramount importance in ruminant production systems, as they affect animal health and welfare, and cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry. The management and control of GIN infections is a challenging task, and is currently almost entirely dependent on efficient anthelmintic drugs. However, the improper use (over- and mis-use) of anthelmintics has led to the development of anthelmintic resistance. There have been reports of GIN populations resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics worldwide, representing a clear threat to existing GIN control programs. Therefore, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in livestock increasingly requires the rational use of anthelmintics and alternative remedies for helminth control.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest research and reviews on anthelmintic resistance and GINs fauna, on the rational use of anthelmintics, and on alternative approaches to the control of GINs in livestock.

Prof. Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio
Dr. Antonio Bosco
Assoc. Prof. Vincenzo Musella
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • anthelmintic resistance
  • ruminants
  • drugs
  • gastrointestinal nematodes
  • parasite control

Published Papers (6 papers)

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9 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Isatis tinctoria Extracts against Ewes’ Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GINs), a Possible Application for Animal Welfare
by Monica Ragusa, Natalizia Miceli, Cristian Piras, Antonio Bosco, Fabio Castagna, Laura Rinaldi, Vincenzo Musella, Maria Fernanda Taviano and Domenico Britti
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030129 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3461
Abstract
Sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestation represents a limiting factor for sheep farming and milk production in Italy. The development of anthelmintic resistance to conventionally used drugs suggests the path towards the use of natural remedies as a possible alternative. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestation represents a limiting factor for sheep farming and milk production in Italy. The development of anthelmintic resistance to conventionally used drugs suggests the path towards the use of natural remedies as a possible alternative. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extracts of basal leaves (It-BL), cauline leaves (It-CL) and flowers (It-F) of Isatis tinctoria (Brassicaceae), a spontaneous Sicilian species renowned as an important source of bioactive compounds. The dry extracts of the different parts of the plant were tested using the egg hatch test (EHT) in vitro to verify the efficacy against ovine GIN at different concentrations (1.00, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 mg/mL). Thiabendazole and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results obtained from EHT indicated that all the I. tinctoria extracts were highly effective (p < 0.0001) in inhibiting egg hatching within 48 h of exposure. The in vitro inhibitory effect was never less than 84% in all doses tested, and it was only slightly lower than the standard drug thiabendazole (95.6%). The current study documents the anthelmintic activity of I. tinctoria against sheep’s GIN, suggesting its application as alternative natural method to limit the use of antiparasitic drugs. Full article
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15 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Anthelmintic Properties of Essential Oils to Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Sheep—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
by Filip Štrbac, Antonio Bosco, Maria Paola Maurelli, Radomir Ratajac, Dragica Stojanović, Nataša Simin, Dejan Orčić, Ivan Pušić, Slobodan Krnjajić, Smaragda Sotiraki, Giorgio Saralli, Giuseppe Cringoli and Laura Rinaldi
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9020093 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4721
Abstract
Herbal products such as essential oils may play a promising role in the treatment of infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro potential of 11 essential oils (EOs) and one binary combination of [...] Read more.
Herbal products such as essential oils may play a promising role in the treatment of infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro potential of 11 essential oils (EOs) and one binary combination of isolated EO compounds, as well as the in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of two EO formulations. Four GIN genera were identified in the coproculture examination: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia and Chabertia. The in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) was performed at six different concentrations (50, 12.5, 3.125, 0.781, 0.195 and 0.049 mg/mL) for each EO, whereas in the in vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), each EO sample was diluted in sunflower oil and orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg to the different group of animals. In the EHT, the EOs of Origanum vulgare, Foeniculum vulgare, Satureja montana, Satureja hortensis and two types of Thymus vulgaris were the most effective. The dominant compounds of these EOs were carvacrol, thymol, anethol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene, indicating their importance for the anthelmintic activity. In the FECRT, both T. vulgaris EO type 1 and linalool:estragole combination show an anthelmintic potential with a mean effect on FECR of approximately 25%. The results suggest the possible role of tested EOs as anthelmintic agents in sheep farms, although further in vivo tests are needed. Full article
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14 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
Green Veterinary Pharmacology Applied to Parasite Control: Evaluation of Punica granatum, Artemisia campestris, Salix caprea Aqueous Macerates against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
by Fabio Castagna, Cristian Piras, Ernesto Palma, Vincenzo Musolino, Carmine Lupia, Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Vincenzo Musella and Domenico Britti
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100237 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep is of high concern for livestock production worldwide. In Calabria (southern Italy), many plants have been used in ethnoveterinary medicine for parasite control in small ruminants. Here, we present an in vivo evaluation [...] Read more.
Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep is of high concern for livestock production worldwide. In Calabria (southern Italy), many plants have been used in ethnoveterinary medicine for parasite control in small ruminants. Here, we present an in vivo evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of three plant extracts. The first was based on bark and leaves of Salix caprea, the second and the third were based on the whole plant Artemisia campestris and whole fruit (seeds and peel) of Punica granatum, respectively. Anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated according to the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) performed with the FLOTAC technique. The results showed a significant anthelmintic effect of Punica granatum macerate (50%), a low effectiveness of the Artemisia campestris macerate (20%), and a complete ineffectiveness of Salix caprea macerate (0.1%). With these outcomes, we report a P. granatum-based remedy reducing 50% GIN egg output. This result was obtained without using any synthetic drug, paving the way for the employment of green veterinary pharmacology (GVP) as a complementary and sustainable method to reduce the use of chemicals and to counteract anthelmintic resistance. Full article
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11 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonated Water Treatment on the Viability of Eimeria Oocysts and Giardia Cysts from Water Buffaloes: A Proof-of-Concept Study
by Maria Elena Morgoglione, Antonio Bosco, Lavinia Ciuca, Paola Pepe, Gerald C. Coles, Giuseppe Cringoli and Laura Rinaldi
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060115 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3452
Abstract
The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of ozonated water treatment on the viability of Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts isolated from naturally infected water buffaloes. Eimeria oocysts were divided into seven groups of six replicates that [...] Read more.
The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of ozonated water treatment on the viability of Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts isolated from naturally infected water buffaloes. Eimeria oocysts were divided into seven groups of six replicates that were treated with ozonated water at three ozone concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) and two contact times (five and ten minutes), and one group (negative control) that was exposed to non-treated water. Giardia cysts were divided into nine groups of six replicates and were treated with ozonated water at four ozone concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) and two contact times (one and two minutes), while one group (negative control) was exposed to non-treated water. The results of the ozonated water treatment gave a 33% inhibition of the sporulation of Eimeria oocysts and rendered 96.3% of Giardia cysts non-viable, suggesting that ozonated water treatment could be a promising alternative sanitation technology to common conventional disinfectants for reducing intestinal protozoa infections in water buffaloes; though further in vitro and in vivo tests are needed. Full article
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15 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Survey on Endoparasites of Dairy Goats in North-Eastern Italy Using a Farm-Tailored Monitoring Approach
by Anna Maurizio, Laura Stancampiano, Cinzia Tessarin, Alice Pertile, Giulia Pedrini, Ceren Asti, Waktole Terfa, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono and Rudi Cassini
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8050069 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4131
Abstract
With the spread of anthelmintic resistance (AR), endoparasite monitoring consolidates its role for a more sustainable targeting of treatments. A survey on endoparasites in dairy goat farms of north-eastern Italy was conducted to test a monitoring approach based on a farm-tailored sample size. [...] Read more.
With the spread of anthelmintic resistance (AR), endoparasite monitoring consolidates its role for a more sustainable targeting of treatments. A survey on endoparasites in dairy goat farms of north-eastern Italy was conducted to test a monitoring approach based on a farm-tailored sample size. Farm management and parasites control practices were investigated in 20 farms through a questionnaire survey. Further, fecal samples were collected (November 2018–September 2019) from 264 animals from 13 farms and were analyzed individually with a modified McMaster method and subsequently pooled to perform a coproculture. Coccidia (78.4%), gastrointestinal strongyles (37.9%), Strongyloides (28.4%), Skrjabinema (18.9%), Trichuris (8.0%) and Nematodirus/Marshallagia (0.4%) were identified. Abundances were higher for coccidia and gastrointestinal strongyles. Haemonchus (71%) was the dominant gastrointestinal nematode. Pasture and age class resulted in the main risk factors at the multivariable analysis through a negative binomial regression model. Results from farm monitoring indicate that our approach can be a cost-effective decision tool to target treatments more effectively, but farmers need to be educated about the importance of parasitological testing, which is currently scarcely implemented, against the risk of AR. Full article
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7 pages, 811 KiB  
Perspective
Ivermectin (IVM) Possible Side Activities and Implications in Antimicrobial Resistance and Animal Welfare: The Authors’ Perspective
by Cristian Piras, Enrico Gugliandolo, Fabio Castagna, Ernesto Palma and Domenico Britti
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010024 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4522
Abstract
Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the [...] Read more.
Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the world’s poor” because of its role as a saviour for those living on the margins of society, in underdeveloped areas afflicted by devastating and debilitating diseases, such as Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis. It showed huge, unexpected potential as an antibacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis and mycobacteria), and it has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The research line described here is placed right in the middle of the investigation on the impact of this drug as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator. Being a drug widely employed for mass administration, it is mandatory to broaden the knowledge of its possible interaction with bacterial growth and its generation of antimicrobial resistance. Equally, it is important to understand the impact of these drugs on the immune systems of animal species, e.g., horses and dogs, in which this drug is often used. More importantly, could immunomodulation and antibacterial activity promote both bacterial growth and the occurrence of resistance mechanisms? Full article
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