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Beverages, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biogenic amines and amino acids are abundant in fermented foods such as wines. We have determined their composition in musts, wines, and sparkling wines by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride. Proline, lysine, ethanolamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine are the most abundant compounds. They are recognized as excellent descriptors of wine quality and other oenological issues. Significant differences in their concentrations are encountered since, in general, products of higher quality exhibit lower levels. The feasibility of the conclusions is confirmed using chemometric methods. The classification tree protocol assessed to identify samples based on quality and variety provides excellent prediction rates. View this paper
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Article
Decoding the Proanthocyanins Profile of Italian Red Wines
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040076 - 25 Nov 2022
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Abstract
The Italian wine appellations system is organized in hundreds of origin wines, with unique characteristics that are protected with many denominations of origin. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare the proanthocyanin profile of 12 single-cultivar and single-vintage Italian red [...] Read more.
The Italian wine appellations system is organized in hundreds of origin wines, with unique characteristics that are protected with many denominations of origin. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare the proanthocyanin profile of 12 single-cultivar and single-vintage Italian red wine groups (Aglianico from Campania, Cannonau from Sardinia, Corvina from Veneto, Montepulciano from Abruzzo, Nebbiolo from Piedmont, Nerello Mascalese from Sicily, Primitivo from Apulia, Raboso Piave from Veneto, Sagrantino from Umbria, Sangiovese from Tuscany and Romagna, and Teroldego from Trentino), each one produced in their terroirs under ad hoc legal frameworks to guarantee their quality and origin. All wines were analyzed with a protocol that combined the phloroglucinolysis reaction with an LC-MS/MS instrument. The results underlined Sagrantino wines as the richest in proanthocyanins. Sangiovese, Montepulciano, Nerello, and Teroldego were the richest in B-ring trihydroxylated flavan-3-ols, and especially Nerello was the richest in prodelphinidins. Cannonau, Raboso Piave, Nerello, and Corvina were characterized by C-ring trans conformation flavan-3-ols. Nebbiolo and Corvina had high percentages of galloylated flavan-3-ols. Aglianico and Primitivo had the lowest percentages of B-ring trihydroxylated and C-ring trans conformation flavan-3-ols. This information should be useful in better understanding the Italian red wines and valorize them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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Review
Current Developments in European Alcohol Policy: An Analysis of Possible Impacts on the German Wine Industry
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040075 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 245
Abstract
In February 2022, the European Parliament agreed on a far-reaching package of measures to regulate alcohol consumption in its vote on “Strengthening Europe in the fight against cancer”. This article therefore elaborates on the most important positions and directions of current European alcohol [...] Read more.
In February 2022, the European Parliament agreed on a far-reaching package of measures to regulate alcohol consumption in its vote on “Strengthening Europe in the fight against cancer”. This article therefore elaborates on the most important positions and directions of current European alcohol policy and discusses possible effects on the German wine industry based on existing literature. It can be shown that the attitudes towards alcohol consumption sometimes differ considerably within the European Union, but that there is increasing harmonization of consumption-regulating measures in the course of European integration. However, alcohol policies in the EU are limited by an unclear scientific assessment of “moderate” consumption. This is supplemented by moderate social awareness and the scientific discourse on the effectiveness of alcohol policy measures, as well as a lack of government initiative and legal barriers. Ultimately, the German wine industry finds itself confronted with new scientific findings, associated political demands and creeping changes in social attitudes towards alcoholic beverages. Full article
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Article
Comparison of the Chemical Properties of Vinegar Obtained via One-Step Fermentation and Sequential Fermentation from Dragon Fruit and Pineapple
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040074 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Dragon fruit has many potential health benefits. It is inexpensive and widely cultivated in Thailand. The addition of dragon fruit to pineapple vinegar may help enhance the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to study and compare the chemical characteristics [...] Read more.
Dragon fruit has many potential health benefits. It is inexpensive and widely cultivated in Thailand. The addition of dragon fruit to pineapple vinegar may help enhance the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to study and compare the chemical characteristics of vinegar produced via one-step fermentation of a mixture of pineapple and dragon fruit juice from Krok Phra District of Thailand using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. burgundy with that obtained using sequential fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. burgundy and Acetobacter aceti. When the two fermentation methods were compared on day 20, the maximum acetic acid concentration obtained from sequential fermentation was 5.79 ± 0.25%, which was higher than that obtained in one-step fermentation (1.93%). The total phenolic compound content in the mixed fruit vinegar obtained from sequential fermentation and one-step fermentation was 228.01 and 242.2 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant content of the products obtained in sequential and one-step fermentations was 187.91 mg/L GAE and 209.33 µg/g of Trolox equivalents, respectively, which was consistent with the total phenolic compound content. This indicated that the acetic acid content in the mixed pineapple and dragon fruit juice vinegar obtained using sequential fermentation was higher than that obtained using one-step fermentation although its total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities were slightly lower. These observations will be useful for improving vinegar fermentation in the area. Full article
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Communication
A Survey on Detection of Plastic-Related Chemicals in Beer Packaged in PET Using FT-IR Technology
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040073 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The emerging consciousness on nano- and microplastics in our environment raises questions on how to reduce and minimize its influence on human health. PET (polyethylene terephthalate) packaging is gaining popularity, and many traditional products end up in such packaging (vinegar, wine, beer). Currently, [...] Read more.
The emerging consciousness on nano- and microplastics in our environment raises questions on how to reduce and minimize its influence on human health. PET (polyethylene terephthalate) packaging is gaining popularity, and many traditional products end up in such packaging (vinegar, wine, beer). Currently, it is very hard to quantify the number of particles and their exact composition, but semi-quantitative techniques such as FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry) can give us an insight into the chemical composition of plastic bits in foods and beverages. Nowadays, beer is packed in PET packaging, since it provides a cheaper packaging material compared to glass and since it is safe to use at public manifestations, contrary to glass bottles, while providing a reasonable barrier for gas permeation (O2 and CO2). The aim of this paper was to provide a short overview of FT-IR-detected compounds in PET-packaged beer samples. The results indicate that many compounds can be found in beer, but those that were most commonly found in our research were β-cyclodextrin and L(-)-glyceraldehyde unnatural forms, two compounds designated as plastic-related compounds. Full article
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Article
Combined Pulsed Electric Field with Antimicrobial Caps for Extending Shelf Life of Orange Juice
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040072 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined pulsed electric fields (PEF) and antimicrobial packaging treatment in maintaining the quality and stability of orange juice stored at 10 °C. Orange juice was treated by PEF and stored in glass [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined pulsed electric fields (PEF) and antimicrobial packaging treatment in maintaining the quality and stability of orange juice stored at 10 °C. Orange juice was treated by PEF and stored in glass jars with antimicrobial caps coated with 10 µL of carvacrol essential oil (AP). Microbial reductions and physiochemical properties of juice samples were determined after treatments and during storage at 10 °C. Orange juice samples subjected to the combined treatment (PEF+AP) had the lowest yeast and mold populations after 14 day-storage at 10 °C. There were no significant differences in pH, acidity, color, total soluble solid contents, total phenol compounds, and Vitamin C among all samples after treatments. Storage studies showed that PEF, AP, and PEF+AP treatments maintained the quality and stability of orange juice stored at 10 °C for 5 weeks but lost Vitamin C. This study provides valuable information to juice processors for consideration and design of nonthermal pasteurization with antimicrobial packaging of juice products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
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Article
Valorization of Waste Orange Peels: Aqueous Antioxidant Polyphenol Extraction as Affected by Organic Acid Addition
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040071 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Waste orange peels (WOP) are a food processing residue rich in bioactive polyphenols. However, data on aqueous extraction processes for efficient polyphenol recovery are rather limited. The present study dealt with the optimization of WOP polyphenols, using a batch stirred-tank mode and water [...] Read more.
Waste orange peels (WOP) are a food processing residue rich in bioactive polyphenols. However, data on aqueous extraction processes for efficient polyphenol recovery are rather limited. The present study dealt with the optimization of WOP polyphenols, using a batch stirred-tank mode and water as solvent. After a preliminary single-factor examination, the implementation of response surface methodology revealed that optimum extraction time and temperature were 60 min and 55 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction afforded a total polyphenol yield of 26.13 ± 0.78 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry mass. The use of aqueous solutions of citric, tartaric and lactic acid showed that total polyphenol yield may be significantly increased with 1% tartaric acid or equally with 2.5% citric acid. However, the effect on individual polyphenolic constituents was rather negligible, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The discrepancies observed in the antioxidant properties of the extracts produced with water and acidified water were putatively attributed to some differences in the polyphenolic composition. The extraction methodology proposed is environmentally green and of low cost, and it could certainly be used as an effective means of recovering WOP polyphenols. Full article
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Article
Enhancing the Antioxidant Ability of Momordica grosvenorii Saponin to Resist Gastrointestinal Stresses via Microcapsules of Sodium Alginate and Chitosan and Its Application in Beverage
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040070 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Momordica grosvenorii saponin (MGS), as a promising dietary supplement with remarkable biological properties, has poor stability under acidic conditions and thus hinders its application in functional foods. In this study, capsules of chitosan and sodium alginate were successfully prepared to enhance the stability [...] Read more.
Momordica grosvenorii saponin (MGS), as a promising dietary supplement with remarkable biological properties, has poor stability under acidic conditions and thus hinders its application in functional foods. In this study, capsules of chitosan and sodium alginate were successfully prepared to enhance the stability of MGS. The optimized parameters for preparing MGS capsules were established. Sodium alginate of 20.8 mg/mL and triplication of MGS powder were added to chitosan of 4 mg/mL and calcium chloride of 10 mg/mL at a volume ratio of 3:1, stirring at 1000 r/min for 30 min to form the capsules. In this case, the fresh particles averaged 1687 μm with an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 80.25% MGS. The capsule tolerated acidic environments better, and in vitro MGS could be controlled to release in a stimulated gastrointestinal tract system. The antioxidant activity and delayed release of MGS could be achieved by microencapsulation of chitosan/sodium alginate. Moreover, one drink containing 19 mg/mL MGS was successfully developed for the fruit. Full article
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Article
Simultaneous Determination of Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Wine Quality
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040069 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride for the determination of BAs and AAs in musts, wines, and sparkling wines. The resulting compositional profiles have been exploited as potential descriptors of quality and other oenological issues using chemometric methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial analysis of least squares-discriminants (PLS-DA). Proline is the most abundant compound, and other remarkable species are lysine, ethanolamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Fermented samples (wines and sparkling wines) are much richer in both BAs and free AAs than the initial musts. Significant differences have also been noticed in the quality, as the best products display, in general, lower levels. The dissimilarities in the content of the analytes between the two grape varieties studied (pinot noir and xarel·lo) and those dealing with quality aspects have made it possible to establish a tree to classify the samples based on these two features with excellent classification rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
Non-Thermal Processing of a Protein Functional Beverage Using Pulsed Electric Fields: Escherichia coli Inactivation and Effect on Proteins
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040068 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, suspended in a protein shake beverage and diluted with sterilized distilled water was carried out. Square bipolar pulses in the range of 25–40 kV/cm electric field intensities were applied [...] Read more.
The application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, suspended in a protein shake beverage and diluted with sterilized distilled water was carried out. Square bipolar pulses in the range of 25–40 kV/cm electric field intensities were applied at different frequencies (400–900 Hz) to investigate the effect of different PEF conditions on the microbial population and proteins relevant to this functional beverage. The treatment temperature was kept below the lethal temperature of the microorganism under investigation. As power consumption plays an important role in the efficiency of the PEF application, the dissipated power was also estimated. Four log reductions in the E. coli population were obtained with 10 pulses at a 40 kV/cm field intensity and 25 pulses at a 25 kV/cm field intensity. PEF-treated whey-protein concentrates showed less denaturation in proteins than thermally treated concentrates, especially for lower electric field intensities (0% denaturation ± 0.007 at 25 kV/cm and 900 Hz, 4.41% denaturation ± 0.008 at 40 kV/cm and 400 Hz). Soy protein isolates manifested high sensitivity to PEF processing and resulted in denaturation and aggregation in the protein structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
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Article
Storage Potential of the Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) Fruit Juice and Its Biological and Chemical Evaluation during Fermentation into Cactus Pear Wine
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040067 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is widely cultivated and grown naturally in arid regions because it is adaptive to a wide range of soil and environments. The pear fruit is inhabited by different micro-organisms and has chemical composition suitable for wine [...] Read more.
The cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is widely cultivated and grown naturally in arid regions because it is adaptive to a wide range of soil and environments. The pear fruit is inhabited by different micro-organisms and has chemical composition suitable for wine making. Profiling the contributing micro-organisms and evaluating the chemical parameters of cactus pear wine can assist in selecting reliable microbes for use as starter cultures. Spontaneous fermentation was carried out for 13 days and followed by three months of cold storage. Fermenting microbes were isolated, characterised and identified. The chemical parameters, namely, sugar concentration, ethanol concentration, pH and total acidity, were analysed. A total of 22 micro-organisms were identified, among which nine yeast species, two acetic acid bacteria (Gluconobacter spp.) and eight Bacillus spp. were isolated. The simple sugars were used up, and ethanol was produced to a high concentration of 50.9 g/L. The pH ranged between 2.8 and 2.9; hence, a maximum total acidity of ±25 g/100 mL was achieved. At least 78% of the available tannins were used in the early stages of fermentation. Potassium and magnesium were the highest minerals obtained, and zinc was the lowest. The highest ash content obtained was 7.9 g/100 mL. The vitamin C content was retained and gradually increased throughout the fermentation process. The findings indicate that lasting flavoured wine can be developed from cactus pear fruit because of the fermenting microbes and the chemical composition of the fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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Article
Exploration of Data Fusion Strategies Using Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Factor Analysis
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040066 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
In oenology, statistical analyses are used for descriptive purposes, mostly with separate sensory and chemistry data sets. Cases that combine them are mostly supervised, usually seeking to optimize discrimination, classification, or prediction power. Unsupervised methods are used as preliminary steps to achieving success [...] Read more.
In oenology, statistical analyses are used for descriptive purposes, mostly with separate sensory and chemistry data sets. Cases that combine them are mostly supervised, usually seeking to optimize discrimination, classification, or prediction power. Unsupervised methods are used as preliminary steps to achieving success in supervised models. However, there is potential for unsupervised methods to combine different data sets into comprehensive, information-rich models. This study detailed stepwise strategies for creating data fusion models using unsupervised techniques at different levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple factor analysis (MFA) were used to combine five data blocks (four chemistry and one sensory). The model efficiency and configurational similarity were evaluated using eigenvalues and regression vector (RV) coefficients, respectively. The MFA models were less efficient than PCA, having gradual distributions of eigenvalues across model dimensions. The MFA models were more representative than PCA, as indicated by high RV coefficients between MFA and each individual block. Therefore, MFA approaches were better suited for multi-modal data than PCA. This work approached data fusion systematically and showed the type of decisions that must be made and how to evaluate their consequences. Proper integration of data sets, instead of concatenation, is an important aspect to consider in multi-modal data fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Statistics for Beverages)
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Review
Current Technologies to Accelerate the Aging Process of Alcoholic Beverages: A Review
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040065 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The aging process contributes to the sensory evolution of alcoholic beverages, producing changes in the color and flavor of the final product. Traditionally, aging has occurred by storing beverages in wooden barrels for several months or years. To meet the demand for aged [...] Read more.
The aging process contributes to the sensory evolution of alcoholic beverages, producing changes in the color and flavor of the final product. Traditionally, aging has occurred by storing beverages in wooden barrels for several months or years. To meet the demand for aged beverages, there is a need for large storage areas, a large number of wooden barrels, and, consequently, large volumes of stored product. Evaporation losses can also occur. In addition to the reactions of the beverage itself, there is also a transfer of wood compounds to the drink, which is later modified by successive oxidation reactions. This study addresses the alternative methods for accelerating the aging stage of beverages. These include the use of wood fragments, ultrasound, micro-oxygenation, pulsed electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, and microwave and gamma irradiation. These methods can be applied to optimize the process of extracting wood compounds, promote free radical formation, reduce oxidation reaction time, and accelerate yeast autolysis time. This study provides examples of some of the aforementioned methods. These technologies add value to the aging process, since they contribute to the reduction of production costs and, consequently, can increase commercial competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
Article
Biotechnological Modification of Cider Brewing Processes for the Enhanced Production of 2-Phenylethanol
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040064 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Consumers of Australian cider are currently trending towards higher-quality cider products. As a result, boutique and craft cider breweries are expected to experience a period of growth over the next five years. Supporting this trend and subsequent growth is paramount to rebuilding the [...] Read more.
Consumers of Australian cider are currently trending towards higher-quality cider products. As a result, boutique and craft cider breweries are expected to experience a period of growth over the next five years. Supporting this trend and subsequent growth is paramount to rebuilding the cider industry post-COVID-19. Many current practices and procedures, such as must clarification and biomass reduction in cider brewing, have been adapted from the beer and wine industry. While these practices are beneficial to the quality of cider and often promote the production of favourable volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the targeted enhancement of specific VOCs has not been achieved. This work investigates the specific enhancement of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), which is known to improve the organoleptic properties of cider and provide potential health benefits through its antioxidant properties. The effect of three levels of biomass reduction (90%, 80%, and 0%) and five levels of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) saturation (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g L−1) for the enhanced production of 2-PE during cider fermentation were investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to accurately quantify the concentration of both 2-PE and L-phe, with a root-mean-square deviation (RSMD) of 0.41% and 1.60%, respectively. A significant increase in 2-PE production was achieved for all treatments, with 2-PE levels up to two orders of magnitude higher than respective controls. The highest 2-PE production was achieved by a moderate (80%) biomass reduction at a 2.5 g L−1 L-phe spike. Additionally, the VOC profile of several of the ciders was quantitively determined, and subsequent data underwent extensive chemometric analysis. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that 2-PE and its derivatives (2-phenylethyl pivalate and phenylacetaldehyde) were correlated with the 80% biomass reduction treatment at the highest L-phe spike. Additionally, it was observed that several acids and alkanes were negatively correlated with the production of 2-PE and its derivatives. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed clustering between the 80% and 90% biomass reduction treatments at several L-phe spike concentrations. However, the 0% biomass reduction treatments only showed similarity with other treatments with 0% biomass reduction. This work provides insight into the production of 2-PE during apple cider fermentation while building the foundation for more targeted biotechnological production of favourable compounds to improve cider quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies – 2nd Volume)
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Review
Properties of Water Activated with Low-Temperature Plasma in the Context of Microbial Activity
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040063 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The low-temperature plasma process is an advanced technology that has recently enjoyed great popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and antibacterial efficacy. Plasma-activated water (PAW)—a product of non-thermal plasma reaction with water, containing a rich variety of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species [...] Read more.
The low-temperature plasma process is an advanced technology that has recently enjoyed great popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and antibacterial efficacy. Plasma-activated water (PAW)—a product of non-thermal plasma reaction with water, containing a rich variety of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), is a green prospective solution for decontamination of microorganisms in a wide range of biotechnology aspect. Here, we present a succinct review of the formation of PAW and its properties in the context of inactivation of microorganisms. Among the wide range of articles on plasma-activated water, there is no comprehensive overview of the mechanism of microbial inactivation, the influence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on cell components, or the role of growth phases in PAW effectiveness in inactivation. This review aims to summarize the results of research in this area, taking into account the directions of potential applications of PAW in the field of medical sciences and food technology, indicating the species or strains of inactivated microorganisms. Full article
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Article
Innovative “Soft” Maceration Techniques in Red Grape Fermentation
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040062 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Two innovative soft maceration techniques of vinification based on red grape Cabernet Sauvignon were compared in 2020 and 2021 vintages with the most used system of maceration (pump-over and delestage) in today’s wine sector in order to verify the efficiency in polyphenol extraction [...] Read more.
Two innovative soft maceration techniques of vinification based on red grape Cabernet Sauvignon were compared in 2020 and 2021 vintages with the most used system of maceration (pump-over and delestage) in today’s wine sector in order to verify the efficiency in polyphenol extraction and fermentation rate. Fermentation kinetics and final wine characteristics were evaluated as the main parameters for comparing the systems. The AIR MIX (AIRMIXING M.I.™) technique is based on the use of a fixed sequential small injections of compressed air (3 jets) from the bottom of the tank, aimed at creating waves (resonance waves) able to prevent the cap formation. The ADCF (NECTAR-ADCF™) technique uses the overpressure produced by carbon dioxide in the wine tank during alcoholic fermentation to keep the cap submerged and to favor its disruption by the CO2 outside release through a valve. As a reference, the control vinification consisted of the use of “delestage” and pump-over to facilitate the extraction and good management of the cap. ADCF, at the end, extracted a greater quantity of polyphenols and anthocyanins. AIR MIX speeded up the fermentation, which ended 4–7 days before the control and, initially, provoked a greater extraction of phenols and anthocyanins as ADCF. By the end, the concentration of polyphenols and anthocyanins was the highest in ADCF, followed by control and AIR MIX approximately at the same amount. The control wine had a slightly higher volatile acidity. AIR MIX consumed more than 60% less energy because the nonuse of pump-over and delestage, and also, no personnel was requested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
Why Oxidation Should Be Still More Feared in NABLABs: Fate of Polyphenols and Bitter Compounds
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040061 - 04 Oct 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Nowadays, non-alcoholic (NAB) and low-alcoholic beers (LAB) still significantly suffer from staling defects when fresh, partially due to absence of ethanol as antioxidant. In the current work, the fate of flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers, and trimers) and bitter compounds (isohumulones, humulinones, etc.) of 11 [...] Read more.
Nowadays, non-alcoholic (NAB) and low-alcoholic beers (LAB) still significantly suffer from staling defects when fresh, partially due to absence of ethanol as antioxidant. In the current work, the fate of flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers, and trimers) and bitter compounds (isohumulones, humulinones, etc.) of 11 commercial NABLABs available on the Belgian market was monitored through one year of aging at 20 °C in the dark. Fresh NABLABs contained variable flavan-3-ols and bitter compounds levels (between 3.0–10.0 mg/L and 8.0–39.0 mg/L, respectively), depending on different technological processes used. Chill haze and color were also investigated as potential oxidation markers of fresh and aged beers. Surprisingly, contrary to conventional beers, the oligomers’ concentration (dimer and trimer procyanidins) exhibited a strong correlation (R2 = 0.95) with chill haze before aging, suggesting prematured oxidation of the samples. After a year of storage, significant degradation occurred as for regular dry hopped beers (process very sensitive to oxidation), only 27% remaining for flavan-3-ol dimers and an average 16% for trans-isohumulones. Oxidation risk appears here as the main weakness of NABLABs, which could be probably improved by spiking very efficient antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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Article
Figs (Ficus carica L.) Used as Raw Material for Obtaining Alcoholic Fermented Beverages
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040060 - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The fig tree is one of the oldest species cultivated by mankind. In spite of having high nutraceutical value and a pleasant taste, the fig is not a widely cultivated fruit. Furthermore, figs are extremely perishable, therefore they are usually sold as dried [...] Read more.
The fig tree is one of the oldest species cultivated by mankind. In spite of having high nutraceutical value and a pleasant taste, the fig is not a widely cultivated fruit. Furthermore, figs are extremely perishable, therefore they are usually sold as dried fruits rather than fresh. To harness this valuable fruit, other derived products should also be considered. For instance, the production of alcoholic beverages fermented from figs comes in response to the interest of producers to capitalize on these fruits in other ways than as fresh or dried fruit or jam. The present research focuses on the possibility of obtaining marketable fermented beverages made from three fig varieties cultivated in southwestern Romania. The aim of the study was to provide an optimized technological process for the production of alcoholic beverages fermented from fresh figs and to assess their quality and acceptability. The products were obtained in triplicate from each fig variety and their quality was assessed by determining their main chemical parameters, as well as their sensory properties. This research provided valuable information regarding the technological process to be applied for fig fermented beverages, processes which can still be further refined to better meet the consumer demand. Full article
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Article
Impact of Two Commercial S. cerevisiae Strains on the Aroma Profiles of Different Regional Musts
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040059 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 445
Abstract
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more [...] Read more.
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more reliable results, comparative fermentations on interlaboratory scale of five different regional red grape musts were carried out by five different research units (RUs). For this purpose, the two S. cerevisiae strains were inoculated separately at the same level and under the same operating conditions. The wines were analyzed by means of SPME-GC/MS. Quali-quantitative multivariate approaches (two-way joining, MANOVA and PCA) were used to explain the contribution of strain, must, and their interaction to the final wine volatile fingerprinting. Our results showed that the five wines analyzed for volatile compounds, although characterized by a specific aromatic profile, were mainly affected by the grape used, in interaction with the inoculated Saccharomyces strain. In particular, the AWRI796 strain generally exerted a greater influence on the aromatic component resulting in a higher level of alcohols and esters. This study highlighted that the variable strain could have a different weight, with some musts experiencing a different trend depending on the strain (i.e., Negroamaro or Magliocco musts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
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