Beverage Industry By-Products As Bio-Resources of Functional Compounds

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 20412

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am excited to inform you that a new Special Issue is to be launched, entitled “Beverage Industry Byproducts as Bioresources of Functional Compounds”.

The beverage sector embraces industrial activities that largely pertain to the processing of plant-based material, accompanied by ever-increasing amounts of associated wastes. The residual biomass, which is regularly rejected as a result of plant tissue processing, encompasses materials rich in organic substances, such as small branches, leaves, peels, seeds, roots, etc. The uncontrolled deposition of these side streams in landfills may cause serious environmental problems, due to their exceptionally high polluting load.

As conventional treatments of agri-food industry wastes for safe discharge are thought to be expensive, laborious, and energy-demanding, there is an increasing need for reuse and recycling, with the aim of recovering precious chemicals within a general framework of biorefinery. Beverage processing residues are characterized by a high burden in functional phytochemicals, which are secondary plant metabolites with potential health benefits that are attributed to their antioxidant activity, and the antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. Hence, this waste material is regarded as a low-cost resource for the recovery of substances which may have significant prospects as pharmaceuticals, cosmetic constituents, food additives, and nutritional supplements.

This perspective has led to increasing interest in the development of sustainable tools and methodologies for the effective valorization of agri-food wastes. As circular economy strategies are increasingly dictating the rational valorization of such wastes toward achieving zero-waste goals, the exploitation of beverage manufacturing residues as bioresources of high value-added materials is becoming of paramount importance.

This Special Issue addresses the concept of innovative and emerging strategies that aim at effectively implementing green technologies for the recovery/production of bioactive compounds from beverage manufacturing byproducts. Contributions pertaining to novel green techniques (pulsed electric field, ultrasonication, microwaves, pressurized liquids, supercritical fluids), green solvents (alternative non-petroleum liquids, deep eutectic mixtures), investigation of their properties, sustainable production of isolated bioactive compounds or whole extracts, and their utilization in the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical industries are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dimitris P. Makris
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Beverage Industry By-Products as Bio-Resources of Functional Compounds
by Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020048 - 2 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1233
Abstract
To produce sufficient food for the expanding global population, natural resources are constantly being overused, and at the same time, wastes are being produced at an ever-increasing rate [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 1944 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Waste Orange Peels: Aqueous Antioxidant Polyphenol Extraction as Affected by Organic Acid Addition
by Dimitris Kalompatsios, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Dimitrios Palaiogiannis, Stavros I. Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040071 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Waste orange peels (WOP) are a food processing residue rich in bioactive polyphenols. However, data on aqueous extraction processes for efficient polyphenol recovery are rather limited. The present study dealt with the optimization of WOP polyphenols, using a batch stirred-tank mode and water [...] Read more.
Waste orange peels (WOP) are a food processing residue rich in bioactive polyphenols. However, data on aqueous extraction processes for efficient polyphenol recovery are rather limited. The present study dealt with the optimization of WOP polyphenols, using a batch stirred-tank mode and water as solvent. After a preliminary single-factor examination, the implementation of response surface methodology revealed that optimum extraction time and temperature were 60 min and 55 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction afforded a total polyphenol yield of 26.13 ± 0.78 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry mass. The use of aqueous solutions of citric, tartaric and lactic acid showed that total polyphenol yield may be significantly increased with 1% tartaric acid or equally with 2.5% citric acid. However, the effect on individual polyphenolic constituents was rather negligible, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The discrepancies observed in the antioxidant properties of the extracts produced with water and acidified water were putatively attributed to some differences in the polyphenolic composition. The extraction methodology proposed is environmentally green and of low cost, and it could certainly be used as an effective means of recovering WOP polyphenols. Full article
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18 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antithrombotic Properties of Bioactives from Orange, Sanguine and Clementine Juices and from Their Remaining By-Products
by Alexandros Tsoupras
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030039 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3401
Abstract
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. [...] Read more.
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties of vitamin C and of freshly squeezed juices and their lipid bioactives from the Navalina and Sanguine orange varieties and the Clementine variety of mandarins, as well as from their remaining by-products, were evaluated against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin in platelets, as well as against PAF-biosynthesis in leukocytes. The non-oxidized juices of these citrus fruits and a vitamin C supplement showed stronger anti-PAF and antithrombin effects than their oxidized versions through their general anti-oxidant effect in platelets. The total lipids (TLs) and the HPLC-derived fractions of phenolic compounds and of polar lipid bioactives from both juices and their peels’ by-products showed a more specific stronger inhibitory effect against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of PAF and thrombin in platelets, while these bioactives strongly inhibited also the specific enzyme activities of the main biosynthetic enzymes of PAF in leukocytes. The stronger bioactivity of the dietary bioactives found in the juices of these citrus fruits against specific biochemical pathways of inflammation and thrombosis seems to act with synergy with the anti-oxidant potential of their vitamin C content, which further supports the notion that these juices are functional foods with anti-inflammatory protective health benefits. In addition, the presence of these dietary bioactive phenolic compounds and polar lipid bioactives in the remaining peels’ wastes further enhance the valorization of such food industry by-products as potential sources of anti-inflammatory bioactives to be used as ingredients for novel functional products. Full article
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15 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
The Iconisation of Yeast Spreads—Love Them or Hate Them
by Frank Vriesekoop, Carolyn Russell, Athina Tziboula-Clarke, Céline Jan, Marine Bois, Stephanie Farley and Allison McNamara
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010016 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4471
Abstract
The production of beer yields a number of by-product streams, with spent brewers’ yeast being the second most abundant in volume. The high nutritional value of spent yeast has seen a large proportion of spent brewers’ yeast being used for both food and [...] Read more.
The production of beer yields a number of by-product streams, with spent brewers’ yeast being the second most abundant in volume. The high nutritional value of spent yeast has seen a large proportion of spent brewers’ yeast being used for both food and feed purposes. One of the uses of spent brewers’ yeast for human consumption has been the production of yeast spreads, which came onto the market in the early 20th century, first in the United Kingdom and shortly thereafter in the commonwealth dominions, especially Australia and New Zealand. In this research we investigated the national status of yeast spreads in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. We show that a brewery by-product such as spent brewers’ yeast is more than a mere novel utilisation of a waste stream but have become inherently associated with national identities of these countries to such an extent that some brands have become iconicised. Furthermore, some yeast spread brands have become a symbol of (inter)national polarisation, purely based on its initial sensorial characterisation. Full article
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17 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Integrated Green Process for the Extraction of Red Grape Pomace Antioxidant Polyphenols Using Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin
by Aggeliki Alibante, Achillia Lakka, Eleni Bozinou, Arhontoula Chatzilazarou, Stavros Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030059 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4318
Abstract
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, the present investigation had as objective the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage, and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace (RGP) was shown to be significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted the aqueous extraction. Under optimized conditions, established by response surface methodology, the maximum yield in total polyphenols was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C, requiring a barrier of 10.95 kJ mol−1. The extract produced was significantly enriched in catechin and quercetin, compared to the aqueous extract, exhibiting also increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts. Full article
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Other

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11 pages, 800 KiB  
Brief Report
The Antibacterial Effect of Humulus lupulus (Hops) against Mycobacterium bovis BCG: A Promising Alternative in the Fight against Bovine Tuberculosis?
by James Blaxland, Richard Thomas and Leslie Baillie
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030043 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2953
Abstract
The female flowers of the Humulus lupulus plant or Hops have been used extensively within the brewing industry for their aroma and bitterness properties. It was also found that beer that contained hops was less likely to spoil, thus revealing the antimicrobial potential [...] Read more.
The female flowers of the Humulus lupulus plant or Hops have been used extensively within the brewing industry for their aroma and bitterness properties. It was also found that beer that contained hops was less likely to spoil, thus revealing the antimicrobial potential of these plants. One species of bacteria, Mycobacterium spp., is of particular interest as it is the causative agent of both human and animal forms of tuberculosis (TB). In this study an aqueous extraction process was employed to analyse the antibacterial properties of 50 hop extracts (45 individual variants); against M. bovis BCG. Using an agar well diffusion assay we found that all hops exhibited a level of inhibitory activity which ranged from 1.2 mm (+/− 0.08 mm) in the case of hop variant; Target, to 15.7 mm (+/− 0.45 mm) in the case of hop variant Citra. The Citra variant had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 16% v/v. This is the first study to analyse a wide range of hops for their antimicrobial potential against M. bovis BCG and recommends that further research focuses on other Mycobacteria spp., the potential for antimicrobial synergy and the antibacterial effect of individual components. Full article
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