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Open AccessArticle

Provitamin A Carotenoids, Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and Minerals in Indigenous Leafy Vegetables from Tanzania

1
Department of Food Technology Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3006, Morogoro, Tanzania
2
Institute of Nutritional Sciences, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 28, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010035
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
The essential micronutrients in indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) could substantially contribute to the micronutrient supply in rural communities in Tanzania, but concentrations differ between species. Provitamin A carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, minerals, and phytate were analysed in 13 different species using HPLC-, ICP-OES, and photometric techniques. Eight of the 13 ILVs, including Amaranthus ssp. and Sesamum angustifolium, had high β-carotene concentrations (2.91–4.84 mg/100 g fresh weight), which could provide ≥50% of vitamin A’s recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Six ILVs including Cleome hirta and Sonchus luxurians had high iron contents (34.5–60.4 mg/100 g, >50% RNI); Amaranthus ssp. represented the ILV with high calcium, magnesium and zinc contents (85%, 207% and 21% of RNI per 100 g); Cleome hirta and Cleome gynandra had high ascorbic acid contents (>15 mg/100 g, 34–35% of RNI), while Sesamum angustifolium was the only ILV with a high tocopherol content (7.34 mg α-TE/100 g). The highest phytate concentration was found in Amaranthus ssp., which could negatively affect its role as a very good source of minerals. Results indicate that the analysed ILVs could make a substantial contribution to the vitamin A and iron supply in the diets of rural Tanzanian populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: leafy vegetables; micronutrients; carotenoids; nutrient intake; Tanzania leafy vegetables; micronutrients; carotenoids; nutrient intake; Tanzania
MDPI and ACS Style

Gowele, V.F.; Kinabo, J.; Jumbe, T.; Kirschmann, C.; Frank, J.; Stuetz, W. Provitamin A Carotenoids, Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and Minerals in Indigenous Leafy Vegetables from Tanzania. Foods 2019, 8, 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010035

AMA Style

Gowele VF, Kinabo J, Jumbe T, Kirschmann C, Frank J, Stuetz W. Provitamin A Carotenoids, Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and Minerals in Indigenous Leafy Vegetables from Tanzania. Foods. 2019; 8(1):35. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gowele, Victoria F.; Kinabo, Joyce; Jumbe, Theresia; Kirschmann, Carolyn; Frank, Jan; Stuetz, Wolfgang. 2019. "Provitamin A Carotenoids, Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and Minerals in Indigenous Leafy Vegetables from Tanzania" Foods 8, no. 1: 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010035

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