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Foods 2019, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010012

Safety of Yam-Derived (Dioscorea rotundata) Foodstuffs—Chips, Flakes and Flour: Effect of Processing and Post-Processing Conditions

1
College of Food Science and Human Ecology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Ogun State, Nigeria
2
Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Quimica Fina—Laboratorio Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, 4200-375 Porto, Portugal
3
Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ESAC—Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra, 3040-316 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Institute of Nanotechnology NANOTEC, National Research Council CNR, 73100 Lecce, Italy.
Present address: INRA UR370 QuaPA (Qualité de Produit Animaux), 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract

The production of yam-derived (Dioscorea rotundata) foodstuffs is mainly performed by small and medium scale processors that employ old traditional methods. This can lead to differences in quality from processor to processor, and from location to location, with consequent safety concerns. As such, the effects of processing and post-processing phases (i.e., storage, transport, etc.) on the safety of some yam-derived foodstuffs—namely chips, flakes, and flour—has been evaluated, with a focus on bacterial and fungal contamination, aflatoxins, pesticides, and heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). Yams harvested and processed in Nigeria were screened, being that the country is the largest producer of the tuber, with 70–75% of the world production. Results highlighted no presence of pesticides, however, many samples showed high levels of bacterial and fungal contamination, together with heavy metal concentrations above the recommended safety levels. No trend was observed between the items considered; it was noticed, however, that samples purchased from the markets showed higher contamination levels than those freshly produced, especially regarding bacterial and aflatoxins presence. The processing stage was identified as the most critical, especially drying. Nonetheless, post-processing steps such as storage and handling at the point of sale also contributed for chemical contamination, such as aflatoxin and heavy metals. The results suggested that both the processing and post-processing phases have an impact on the safety of yam chips, flakes, and flour. View Full-Text
Keywords: yam; processing; post-processing; bacterial contamination; aflatoxin; heavy metals; pesticide yam; processing; post-processing; bacterial contamination; aflatoxin; heavy metals; pesticide
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Omohimi, C.; Piccirillo, C.; Ferraro, V.; Roriz, M.C.; Omemu, M.A.; Santos, S.M.D.; Da Ressurreição, S.; Abayomi, L.; Adebowale, A.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Obadina, O.; Sanni, L.; Pintado, M.M.E. Safety of Yam-Derived (Dioscorea rotundata) Foodstuffs—Chips, Flakes and Flour: Effect of Processing and Post-Processing Conditions. Foods 2019, 8, 12.

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