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Article

Long Term Exposure to Low Ethylene and Storage Temperatures Delays Calyx Senescence and Maintains ‘Afourer’ Mandarins and Navel Oranges Quality

1
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
2
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010019
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
Calyx browning and internal quality loss are major physiological causes for the loss of quality in citrus fruit during storage. While the symptoms of calyx senescence are only superficial, it can affect the appearance and consumer acceptability of citrus fruit. In this study, continuous ethylene exposure at different storage temperatures was investigated to assess their effect on calyx senescence and internal qualities in ‘Afourer’ mandarin and Navel orange fruit during storage. ‘Afourer’ mandarin fruit were stored at ≤0.001 (equivalent to ethylene-free air), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µL L−1 of ethylene at either 5, 10 or 20 °C, whilst in a parallel experiment, Navel oranges were exposed to ≤0.001, 0.1 and 1 µL L−1 ethylene at either 1 or 10 °C. Changes in external and internal postharvest quality parameters were assessed for up to 8 weeks for ‘Afourer’ mandarins and 10 weeks for Navel oranges. At all storage temperatures, high levels of ethylene were found to increase the level of calyx senescence, weight loss, loss of fruit firmness and respiration rates. Also, there were significant effects of ethylene and storage temperatures on total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity (TA), and ethanol accumulation in both citrus species. Continuous exposure to high ethylene also significantly reduced vitamin C and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in ‘Afourer’ mandarins after 8 weeks of storage. Overall, ethylene treatments had a significant effect on both the external and internal qualities of the fruit during storage. The relationship between ethylene concentrations and storage temperatures demonstrate that lowering atmospheric ethylene levels at reduced storage temperatures maintain fruit quality during long term storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus; ethylene; temperature; calyx senescence; mandarins; oranges citrus; ethylene; temperature; calyx senescence; mandarins; oranges
MDPI and ACS Style

Alhassan, N.; Golding, J.B.; Wills, R.B.H.; Bowyer, M.C.; Pristijono, P. Long Term Exposure to Low Ethylene and Storage Temperatures Delays Calyx Senescence and Maintains ‘Afourer’ Mandarins and Navel Oranges Quality. Foods 2019, 8, 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010019

AMA Style

Alhassan N, Golding JB, Wills RBH, Bowyer MC, Pristijono P. Long Term Exposure to Low Ethylene and Storage Temperatures Delays Calyx Senescence and Maintains ‘Afourer’ Mandarins and Navel Oranges Quality. Foods. 2019; 8(1):19. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alhassan, Nasiru, John B. Golding, Ron B. H. Wills, Michael C. Bowyer, and Penta Pristijono. 2019. "Long Term Exposure to Low Ethylene and Storage Temperatures Delays Calyx Senescence and Maintains ‘Afourer’ Mandarins and Navel Oranges Quality" Foods 8, no. 1: 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010019

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