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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The microbiota is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research, and exerts [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Cold Treatment of Parboiled Rice with Lowered Glycaemic Potency on Consumer Liking and Acceptability
Foods 2018, 7(12), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120207
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
A significant reduction in rice starch digestibility and subsequent postprandial blood glucose responses following extended cold treatment (at 4 °C for 24 h) have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. The impact of cold treatment was more significant [...] Read more.
A significant reduction in rice starch digestibility and subsequent postprandial blood glucose responses following extended cold treatment (at 4 °C for 24 h) have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. The impact of cold treatment was more significant for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties. This study aimed to investigate consumer liking of sensory characteristics that may influence consumer acceptability of three available rice products in the Auckland region (medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice, which were either freshly boiled or cold-treated and reheated). The consumer liking of sensory characteristics (colour, taste, flavour, and texture) of each rice sample were accessed using visual analogue scales (VAS) in a randomized single blind setting. In the second stage, the participants evaluated their acceptability on VAS after the nutritional value and the characteristics of the rice samples were revealed. Sixty-four rice consumers reported higher likings of sensory characteristics of cold-treated parboiled rice and medium grain brown rice. The effect of cold treatment on the liking of sensory characteristics was more significant for parboiled rice (p < 0.05). Participants who are between 36 and 55 years old and consume rice domestically more than 10 times per month preferred cold-treated brown rice (73.8% of the participants’ population (67.4%, 80.2%)) and parboiled rice (74.3% of the participants’ population (67.9%, 80.7%)) (p < 0.001). As a result, cold-treated reheated parboiled rice received higher likings and acceptability and could be recommended and accepted as a healthier replacement of the daily staple meal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Water Quality and Post-Harvest Handling on Microbiological Contamination of Lettuce at Urban and Peri-Urban Locations of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Foods 2018, 7(12), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120206
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
Vegetable production in urban gardens of Ouagadougou contributes to food security, but water for irrigation is often of low quality. This is particularly acute if irrigation water is taken from wastewater polluted channels. This study aimed at (i) verifying to what degree irrigation [...] Read more.
Vegetable production in urban gardens of Ouagadougou contributes to food security, but water for irrigation is often of low quality. This is particularly acute if irrigation water is taken from wastewater polluted channels. This study aimed at (i) verifying to what degree irrigation water quality is correlated with contamination of lettuce with Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and Salmonella spp., and (ii) assessing effects of post-harvest handling on pathogen development during the trade chain. We tested pathogen removal efficiency on lettuce by applying post-harvest washing. Irrigation water of production areas in Ouagadougou (n = 10) showed a mean E. coli load of 2.1 × 105 CFU 100 mL−1. In 60% of the cases, irrigation water did not meet the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) for safe irrigation water, and in 30% of the cases, irrigation water was contaminated with Salmonella spp. Loads of total coliforms on lettuce leaves ranged from 2.9 × 103 CFU g−1 to 1.3 × 106 CFU g−1, while E. coli averaged 1.1 × 102 CFU g−1. Results on post-harvest handling revealed that microbial loads increased along the trade chain. Overall, half of all lettuce samples (n = 60) were tested positively for Salmonella spp. The experiment showed that appropriate post-harvest handling could prevent the increase of total coliforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Foods)
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Open AccessReview Biogenic Amines in Plant-Origin Foods: Are they Frequently Underestimated in Low-Histamine Diets?
Foods 2018, 7(12), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120205
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Low-histamine diets are currently used to reduce symptoms of histamine intolerance, a disorder in histamine homeostasis that increases plasma levels, mainly due to reduced diamine-oxidase (DAO) activity. These diets exclude foods, many of them of plant origin, which patients associate with the onset [...] Read more.
Low-histamine diets are currently used to reduce symptoms of histamine intolerance, a disorder in histamine homeostasis that increases plasma levels, mainly due to reduced diamine-oxidase (DAO) activity. These diets exclude foods, many of them of plant origin, which patients associate with the onset of the symptomatology. This study aimed to review the existing data on histamine and other biogenic amine contents in nonfermented plant-origin foods, as well as on their origin and evolution during the storage or culinary process. The only plant-origin products with significant levels of histamine were eggplant, spinach, tomato, and avocado, each showing a great variability in content. Putrescine has been found in practically all plant-origin foods, probably due to its physiological origin. The high contents of putrescine in certain products could also be related to the triggering of the symptomatology by enzymatic competition with histamine. Additionally, high spermidine contents found in some foods should also be taken into account in these diets, because it can also be metabolized by DAO, albeit with a lower affinity. It is recommended to consume plant-origin foods that are boiled or are of maximum freshness to reduce biogenic amine intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Commercial Oenotannin and Mannoprotein Products on the Chemical and Sensory Properties of Shiraz Wines Made from Sequentially Harvested Fruit
Foods 2018, 7(12), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120204
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The tannin and polysaccharide profiles and therefore sensory properties of wine are influenced by fruit maturity at harvest, and practices employed during winemaking. This study investigated the extent to which commercial winemaking supplements (skin and seed tannins, and mannoprotein (MP)) can enhance the [...] Read more.
The tannin and polysaccharide profiles and therefore sensory properties of wine are influenced by fruit maturity at harvest, and practices employed during winemaking. This study investigated the extent to which commercial winemaking supplements (skin and seed tannins, and mannoprotein (MP)) can enhance the mouthfeel properties of red wine, in particular, wine made from grapes harvested before commercial ripeness (early-harvest). Supplements were added to wines made from Shiraz grapes harvested at 20.8 and 24.5 °Brix. The chemical composition and mouthfeel properties of wines were then determined by high performance liquid chromatography and descriptive analysis (DA), respectively. Wines made from riper grapes had higher levels of tannin than wines made from early-harvest grapes, but similar polysaccharide levels were observed. The addition of seed oenotannin yielded higher tannin levels than addition of skin oenotannin, particularly for wines made from early-harvest grapes. The DA panel perceived sensory differences between H1 and H2 wines, but could not perceive any effect of supplementation on wine mouthfeel properties, with the exception of a minor increase in sweetness, attributed to mannoprotein addition to H1 wines, even when MP was added to wines at 2.5 times the level recommended for use in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Towards By-Product Utilisation of Pea Hulls: Isolation and Quantification of Galacturonic Acid
Foods 2018, 7(12), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120203
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
In order to evaluate by-products from food processing as alternative raw materials for pectin extraction, their amount of galacturonic acid (GalA) has to be analysed as a marker for pectin content. In the present study, significant differences in GalA release using different digestion [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate by-products from food processing as alternative raw materials for pectin extraction, their amount of galacturonic acid (GalA) has to be analysed as a marker for pectin content. In the present study, significant differences in GalA release using different digestion methods are shown for pea hulls, as an example of by-products with a high content of cellulose. Complete digestion of the fibre matrix was assumed for Saeman hydrolysis as a reference protocol. Significantly lower GalA release was achieved by a treatment with trifluoracetic acid (TFA). An alternative treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 11 followed by an enzymatic digestion at pH 4.5 using a combination of polygalacturonase (Vegazyme M) and cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) resulted in a similar release of GalA compared to Seaman hydolysis. Pea hull samples, analysed by this alternative protocol, showed on average a GalA content of 11.2%. Therefore, pea hulls may serve as new raw material for pectin extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle A Microethnographic and Ethnobotanical Approach to Llayta Consumption among Andes Feeding Practices
Foods 2018, 7(12), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120202
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
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Abstract
Llayta is a dietary supplement that has been used by rural communities in Perú and northern Chile since pre-Columbian days. Llayta is the biomass of colonies of a Nostoc cyanobacterium grown in wetlands of the Andean highlands, harvested, sun-dried and sold as an [...] Read more.
Llayta is a dietary supplement that has been used by rural communities in Perú and northern Chile since pre-Columbian days. Llayta is the biomass of colonies of a Nostoc cyanobacterium grown in wetlands of the Andean highlands, harvested, sun-dried and sold as an ingredient for human consumption. The biomass has a substantial content of essential amino acids (58% of total amino acids) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (33% total fatty acids). This ancestral practice is being lost and the causes were investigated by an ethnographic approach to register the social representations of Llayta, to document how this Andean feeding practice is perceived and how much the community knows about Llayta. Only 37% of the participants (mostly adults) have had a direct experience with Llayta; other participants (mostly children) did not have any knowledge about it. These social responses reflect anthropological and cultural tensions associated with a lack of knowledge on Andean algae, sites where to find Llayta, where it is commercialized, how it is cooked and on its nutritional benefits. The loss of this ancestral feeding practice, mostly in northern Chile, is probably associated with cultural changes, migration of the rural communities, and very limited access to the available information. We propose that Llayta consumption can be revitalized by developing appropriate educational strategies and investigating potential new food derivatives based on the biomass from the isolated Llayta cyanobacterium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of 18 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Daily Foods (Hanoi Metropolitan Area) by Gas Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2018, 7(12), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120201
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—a large group of organic compounds—are extremely hazardous to human health. In this study, the 198 samples from six groups of daily food products in the Hanoi metropolitan area were collected and prepared by the QuEChERS sample treatment technique. The [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—a large group of organic compounds—are extremely hazardous to human health. In this study, the 198 samples from six groups of daily food products in the Hanoi metropolitan area were collected and prepared by the QuEChERS sample treatment technique. The detection and identification of PAHs were obtained by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) determination. The results demonstrated that the recovery of PAH compounds ranged approximately between 71% and 110% when the solvent evaporation condition was optimized using the nitrogen gas at a low temperature (1 °C). The in-house method was validated in terms of linearity, extractive condition, repeatability, recovery, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The ranges of average PAH levels were 9.3–9.6 µg/kg (for instant noodles), 0.22–2.48 µg/kg (for cakes) 0.91–4.83 µg/kg (dried vegetables), 5.14–23.32 µg/kg (teas), 4.82–24.35 µg/kg (coffees), and 1.43–25.2 µg/kg (grilled meats). The results indicated that the total concentrations of residual PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene in the instant noodles and grilled meat samples surpassed the maximum limits tolerated by the European Commission (35 µg/kg and 5 µg/kg, respectively) in many investigated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Organic Acid, Trisodium Phosphate and Essential Oil Component Immersion Treatments on the Microbiology of Cod (Gadus morhua) during Chilled Storage
Foods 2018, 7(12), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120200
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
Spoilage is a major issue for the seafood sector with the sale and exportation of fish limited by their short shelf-life. The immediate and storage effects of immersion (30 s at 20 °C) with 5% (w/v) citric acid (CA), [...] Read more.
Spoilage is a major issue for the seafood sector with the sale and exportation of fish limited by their short shelf-life. The immediate and storage effects of immersion (30 s at 20 °C) with 5% (w/v) citric acid (CA), 5% (v/v) lactic acid (LA), 5% (w/v) capric acid (CP) and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) (experiment 1) and essential oil components (EOC) (1% (v/v) citral (CIT), 1% (v/v) carvacrol (CAR), 1% (w/v) thymol (THY) and 1% (v/v) eugenol (EUG)) (experiment 2) on the concentrations of indicator (total viable counts (TVC) (mesophilic and psychrophilic) and total Enterobacteriaceae counts (TEC)), and spoilage organisms (Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium spp. and hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria (HSPB)) on cod (Gadus morhua) (stored aerobically at 2 °C) was investigated. There was no significant reduction for most treatment-bacteria combinations, with the following exceptions; TSP and TVCm (time t = 6), TSP and TVCp (t = 6), CP and LAB (t = 6, 8 and 10), CP and Br. thermosphacta (t = 4, 6, 8, 10, 14 and 16), TSP and Photobacterium spp. (t = 4), CAR and Br. thermosphacta (t = 6) and CAR and HSPB (t = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18). Although the majority of treatments did not significantly (P > 0.05) reduce bacterial counts, the limited success with CP and CAR warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Bioactive Compounds, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Bean Varieties Grown in Semi-Arid Conditions in Zacatecas, Mexico
Foods 2018, 7(12), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120199
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
This research describes the characterization of bioactive compounds, mineral content, and antioxidant capacity in bean varieties grown in semi-arid conditions in Zacatecas, Mexico. This will provide better progress perspectives for agriculture nationwide and will ensure that bean crops are in the condition to [...] Read more.
This research describes the characterization of bioactive compounds, mineral content, and antioxidant capacity in bean varieties grown in semi-arid conditions in Zacatecas, Mexico. This will provide better progress perspectives for agriculture nationwide and will ensure that bean crops are in the condition to satisfy the population’s nutritional needs by placing it not only as one of the foodstuffs comprising Mexico’s basic diet but also as one of the legumes having greater biofortification potential in Mexico. Eleven bean varieties were collected (flor de mayo, bayo, frijola, patola, navy beans, flor de junio, reata beans, Japanese beans, black beans, canary beans, and pinto Saltillo). The evaluation done included the physical and physico-chemical characteristics, as well as the mineral content, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of these bean varieties. Data gathered were subject to a variance and mean separation analysis. The most remarkable individual results were as follows: Canary beans had the highest iron content (105.29 mg/kg), while bayo beans had the highest zinc concentration (48.18 mg/kg) and reata beans had the highest level of protein (26.88%). The varieties showing the most remarkable results with regard to zinc, iron and protein content and antioxidant capacity were as follows: Flor de junio, flor de mayo, reata beans, navy beans and pinto Saltillo; however, the most remarkable variety in comprehensive terms was flor de junio, which showed a reducing power of 0.20%, an antioxidant capacity of 80.62% inhibition, a protein content of 0.17%, in addition to Ca (0.24%), Fe (90.97 mg/kg), Zn (27.23 mg/kg), fiber (3.22%), energy (353.50 kcal), phenols (94.82 mg gallic acid (GA)/g extract) and flavonoids (1.30 mg mg Cat/g−1 dw). Finally, we came to the conclusion that beans grown in Zacatecas, Mexico, offer a huge benefit to consumers as a result of the mineral, protein, fiber, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity contributions such beans provide. Thus, these beans can be used in a biofortification program using micronutrients to improve their nutritional quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tracing of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination Routes in Fermented Sausage Production Chain by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing
Foods 2018, 7(12), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120198
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was assessed along the production process of fermented sausages in a small-scale facility. Following the isolation of the pathogen from the final product (ISO 11290-1), retrospective sampling was performed during the production of a new [...] Read more.
In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was assessed along the production process of fermented sausages in a small-scale facility. Following the isolation of the pathogen from the final product (ISO 11290-1), retrospective sampling was performed during the production of a new batch of sausages, including raw materials, casings, additives, sausage mixtures, sausages during fermentation, and environmental samples. L. monocytogenes was recovered from the following sampling points: the defrosting room and the cuttering, mixing, stuffing, and fermentation phases. Ten strains were isolated, molecularly confirmed as L. monocytogenes by means of a molecular detection system, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. On the basis of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram from Ascl pulsotypes, the strains were indistinguishable (no band difference). The same pulsotypes of strains present in both batches of sausages, as well as in environmental samples, indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in the sausage production unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Screening Olive Leaves from Unexploited Traditional Greek Cultivars for Their Phenolic Antioxidant Dynamic
Foods 2018, 7(12), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120197
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Quality characteristics of olive products significantly depend on cultivar (cv), among other factors. In this study, seven traditional, noncommercial Greek cultivars, along with the commercial Spanish Arbequina cv., were examined for the phenolic antioxidant dynamic of their leaves. Polar extracts (aqueous, methanol, and [...] Read more.
Quality characteristics of olive products significantly depend on cultivar (cv), among other factors. In this study, seven traditional, noncommercial Greek cultivars, along with the commercial Spanish Arbequina cv., were examined for the phenolic antioxidant dynamic of their leaves. Polar extracts (aqueous, methanol, and ethanol) were analyzed for Total Phenol (TP), Flavonoid (TFL), Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives (THAD), Flavonol (TFLVN) contents, DPPH radical scavenging ability, and Ferric Reducing Capacity (FRAP). Selective characteristics of olive leaf methanol extracts for all cultivars were re-examined on a second sampling period. Olive leaf is considered a rich source of phenolic antioxidants total phenol content reaching 29.3 ± 1.3, 30.6 ± 0.4, and 27.0 ± 1.1 mg caffeic acid/g dry leaf for aqueous, methanol, and ethanol extracts, respectively) and all cultivars were considered of equal bioactive dynamic. TP data derived from Folin–Ciocalteu and another spectrophotometric assay employed presented a high correlation for all examined cases (R2 = 71.5–86.9%). High correlation (R2 = 0.92) was also found between TP and FRAP findings of aqueous extracts. Olive leaf is considered a promising source of phenolic antioxidants irrelevant to cultivar and therefore even cultivars less effective for oil or table olive production could be efficiently exploited for the bioactive dynamic of their leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Mining Milk for Factors which Increase the Adherence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis to Intestinal Cells
Foods 2018, 7(12), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120196
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Bifidobacteria play a vital role in human nutrition and health by shaping and maintaining the gut ecosystem. In order to exert a beneficial effect, a sufficient population of bifidobacteria must colonise the host. In this study, we developed a miniaturised high-throughput in vitro [...] Read more.
Bifidobacteria play a vital role in human nutrition and health by shaping and maintaining the gut ecosystem. In order to exert a beneficial effect, a sufficient population of bifidobacteria must colonise the host. In this study, we developed a miniaturised high-throughput in vitro assay for assessing the colonising ability of bacterial strains in human cells. We also investigated a variety of components isolated from different milk sources for their ability to increase the adherence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697, a common member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of breastfed infants, to HT-29 cells. Both conventional and miniaturised colonisation assays were employed to examine the effect of 13 different milk-derived powders on bacterial adherence, including positive controls which had previously resulted in increased bifidobacterial adherence (human milk oligosaccharides and a combination of 3′- and 6′-sialylactose) to intestinal cells. Immunoglobulin G enriched from bovine whey and goat milk oligosaccharides resulted in increased adhesion (3.3- and 8.3-fold, respectively) of B. infantis to the intestinal cells and the miniaturised and conventional assays were found to yield comparable and reproducible results. This study highlights the potential of certain milk components to favourably modulate adhesion of bifidobacteria to human intestinal cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessReview One Health, Fermented Foods, and Gut Microbiota
Foods 2018, 7(12), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120195
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health [...] Read more.
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health concerns. The microbiota is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research, and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods and beverages are generally defined as products made by microbial organisms and enzymatic conversions of major and minor food components. Further to the commonly-recognized effects of nutrition on the digestive health (e.g., dysbiosis) and well-being, there is now strong evidence for the impact of fermented foods and beverages (e.g., yoghurt, pickles, bread, kefir, beers, wines, mead), produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms, on general health, namely their significance on the gut microbiota balance and brain functionality. Fermented products require microorganisms, i.e., Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, yielding alcohol and lactic acid. Ingestion of vibrant probiotics, especially those contained in fermented foods, is found to cause significant positive improvements in balancing intestinal permeability and barrier function. Our guts control and deal with every aspect of our health. How we digest our food and even the food sensitivities we have is linked with our mood, behavior, energy, weight, food cravings, hormone balance, immunity, and overall wellness. We highlight some impacts in this domain and debate calls for the convergence of interdisciplinary research fields from the United Nations’ initiative. Worldwide human and animal medicine are practiced separately; veterinary science and animal health are generally neither considered nor inserted within national or international Health discussions. The absence of a clear definition and subsequent vision for the future of One Health may act as a barrier to transdisciplinary collaboration. The point of this mini review is to highlight the role of fermented foods and beverages on gut microbiota and debate if the need for confluence of transdisciplinary fields of One Health is feasible and achievable, since they are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Eucalyptus, Chestnut and Heather Honeys from Portugal Using Multi-Parameter Analysis and Chemo-Calculus
Foods 2018, 7(12), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120194
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality and bio-functional properties of Portuguese honeys of different botanical and geographical origins. Quality parameter analyses included the determination of palynological (predominant, secondary, minor and isolated pollen percentage), physicochemical (°Brix, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality and bio-functional properties of Portuguese honeys of different botanical and geographical origins. Quality parameter analyses included the determination of palynological (predominant, secondary, minor and isolated pollen percentage), physicochemical (°Brix, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, total dissolved solids, salinity, vitamin C content and specific weight) including colour-metrics (CIELAB, Pfund and colour intensity determinations), along with volatile compounds identification using solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Bio-activity parameter analysis included the determination of in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Melissopalynological analysis showed that Portuguese honeys were classified as eucalyptus, chestnut and heather, recording significant variations (p < 0.05) among physicochemical, volatile and bio-activity parameter analyses according to both: botanical and geographical origin. Based on the multi-parameter analysis data Portuguese honeys could be characterized by a distinctive colour, a characteristic aroma, whereas conform to the European legislation relating to honey identity and quality. Specific attention should be given in the case of heather honey which showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Parameters that were also highly correlated using bivariate statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Saudi Mothers
Foods 2018, 7(12), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120193
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 25 November 2018
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Abstract
This study examines food safety knowledge and practices of mothers in Saudi Arabia. A total of 979 respondents participated in the study and completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of food storage, food handling, usage, and maintenance of kitchen facilities, personal hygiene, [...] Read more.
This study examines food safety knowledge and practices of mothers in Saudi Arabia. A total of 979 respondents participated in the study and completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of food storage, food handling, usage, and maintenance of kitchen facilities, personal hygiene, and food poisoning. Results showed that mothers in Saudi Arabia had moderate knowledge of food storage (passing rate 64.9%) and usage and maintenance of kitchen facilities (passing rate 66.5%). While they had good knowledge of personal hygiene (passing rate 83.8%) and food poisoning (passing rate 78.5%), their knowledge with regard to food handling was poor (passing rate 30.4%). Results also highlighted that food safety knowledge and practices amongst mothers in Saudi Arabia improved with the level of education, while their age, employment status, monthly income, and number of children had no significant association with their food safety knowledge and practices. This research revealed the importance of education and that advance education and training program can further improve mothers’ food safety knowledge and practices and thereby result in reducing the risks of foodborne illnesses at homes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fat Replacers in Baked Food Products
Foods 2018, 7(12), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120192
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 25 November 2018
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Abstract
Fat provides important sensory properties to baked food products, such as colour, taste, texture and odour, all of which contribute to overall consumer acceptance. Baked food products, such as crackers, cakes and biscuits, typically contain high amounts of fat. However, there is increasing [...] Read more.
Fat provides important sensory properties to baked food products, such as colour, taste, texture and odour, all of which contribute to overall consumer acceptance. Baked food products, such as crackers, cakes and biscuits, typically contain high amounts of fat. However, there is increasing demand for healthy snack foods with reduced fat content. In order to maintain consumer acceptance whilst simultaneously reducing the total fat content, fat replacers have been employed. There are a number of fat replacers that have been investigated in baked food products, ranging from complex carbohydrates, gums and gels, whole food matrices, and combinations thereof. Fat replacers each have different properties that affect the quality of a food product. In this review, we summarise the literature on the effect of fat replacers on the quality of baked food products. The ideal fat replacers for different types of low-fat baked products were a combination of polydextrose and guar gum in biscuits at 70% fat replacement (FR), oleogels in cake at 100% FR, and inulin in crackers at 75% FR. The use of oatrim (100% FR), bean puree (75% FR) or green pea puree (75% FR) as fat replacers in biscuits were equally successful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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