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Foods 2018, 7(12), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120194

Characterization of Eucalyptus, Chestnut and Heather Honeys from Portugal Using Multi-Parameter Analysis and Chemo-Calculus

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2
APISMAIA, Produtos & Serviços, Tlm: 962 889 512, Rua Almirante Reis, 91-A-2, 4490-463 Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity)
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Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality and bio-functional properties of Portuguese honeys of different botanical and geographical origins. Quality parameter analyses included the determination of palynological (predominant, secondary, minor and isolated pollen percentage), physicochemical (°Brix, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, total dissolved solids, salinity, vitamin C content and specific weight) including colour-metrics (CIELAB, Pfund and colour intensity determinations), along with volatile compounds identification using solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Bio-activity parameter analysis included the determination of in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Melissopalynological analysis showed that Portuguese honeys were classified as eucalyptus, chestnut and heather, recording significant variations (p < 0.05) among physicochemical, volatile and bio-activity parameter analyses according to both: botanical and geographical origin. Based on the multi-parameter analysis data Portuguese honeys could be characterized by a distinctive colour, a characteristic aroma, whereas conform to the European legislation relating to honey identity and quality. Specific attention should be given in the case of heather honey which showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Parameters that were also highly correlated using bivariate statistics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Portuguese honey; characterization; palynological data; physico-chemical analysis; bio-functionality; volatiles; chemo-calculus Portuguese honey; characterization; palynological data; physico-chemical analysis; bio-functionality; volatiles; chemo-calculus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karabagias, I.K.; Maia, M.; Karabagias, V.K.; Gatzias, I.; Badeka, A.V. Characterization of Eucalyptus, Chestnut and Heather Honeys from Portugal Using Multi-Parameter Analysis and Chemo-Calculus. Foods 2018, 7, 194.

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