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Foods, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2017) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As the perceived health benefits of protein continue to attract consumers, food manufacturers are increasingly sourcing new proteins for their health beneficial and functional foods status. Where novel protein sources are in question, research concerning up-scale technologies, purification, applications and safety exist. This paper discusses the use of dairy processing technologies for the generation, purification and potential optimised production of microalgal isolates and hydrolysates. Utilisation of these methods will help to identify unique selling points for these proteins and should decrease reliance on traditional proteins by consumers. The graphic shows different dairy processing methods which may be applied to microalgae. View this paper
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Article
Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Foods 2017, 6(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050038 - 19 May 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5664
Abstract
Moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in [...] Read more.
Moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R) spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration (n = 64) and independent validation (n = 44). A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR) model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm) yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC) which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Article
In Situ Raman Analysis of CO2—Assisted Drying of Fruit-Slices
Foods 2017, 6(5), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050037 - 15 May 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5463
Abstract
This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside [...] Read more.
This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and 313 K. The Raman spectra reveal: (i) the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and (ii) the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: 532 nm and 785 nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the 532 nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules. It was found that the absorption of CO2 into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Pressure Technologies in Food Processing)
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Article
Molecular Surveillance of Cronobacter spp. Isolated from a Wide Variety of Foods from 44 Different Countries by Sequence Typing of 16S rRNA, rpoB and O-Antigen Genes
Foods 2017, 6(5), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050036 - 11 May 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3696
Abstract
Cronobacter spp. are emerging infectious bacteria that can cause acute meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal and immunocompromised individuals. Although this opportunistic human-pathogenic microorganism has been isolated from a wide variety of food and environmental samples, it has been primarily linked to foodborne [...] Read more.
Cronobacter spp. are emerging infectious bacteria that can cause acute meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal and immunocompromised individuals. Although this opportunistic human-pathogenic microorganism has been isolated from a wide variety of food and environmental samples, it has been primarily linked to foodborne outbreaks associated with powdered infant formula. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration use the presence of these microbes as one of the criteria to assess food adulteration and to implement regulatory actions. In this study, we have examined 195 aliquots of enrichments from the nine major categories of foods (including baby and medical food, dairy products, dried food, frozen food, pet food, produce, ready-to-eat snacks, seafood, and spices) from 44 countries using conventional microbiological and molecular techniques. The typical colonies of Cronobacter were then identified by VITEK2 and real-time PCR. Subsequently, sequence typing was performed on the 51 recovered Cronobacter isolates at the 16S rRNA, rpoB and seven O-antigen loci for species identification in order to accomplish an effective surveillance program for the control and prevention of foodborne illnesses. Full article
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Review
Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products
Foods 2017, 6(5), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050035 - 09 May 2017
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5106
Abstract
Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw [...] Read more.
Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
Article
Geography of Food Consumption Patterns between South and North China
Foods 2017, 6(5), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050034 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4105
Abstract
The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using [...] Read more.
The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 < T2 < T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%: 1.01, 1.68) (OR: Odds Ratio), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%: 1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future. Full article
Review
Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production
Foods 2017, 6(5), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050033 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 240 | Viewed by 13117
Abstract
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. [...] Read more.
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Review
Bioactive Peptides
Foods 2017, 6(5), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050032 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 151 | Viewed by 9425
Abstract
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, [...] Read more.
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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