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Foods 2017, 6(5), 33;

Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

Food Biosciences Department, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland
School of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Health and Environment, Sustainability and Health Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher J. Smith
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed; microalgae; peptides; phycobiliproteins; biorefinery; bioavailability; extraction methods; legislation seaweed; microalgae; peptides; phycobiliproteins; biorefinery; bioavailability; extraction methods; legislation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bleakley, S.; Hayes, M. Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production. Foods 2017, 6, 33.

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