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Foods, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 501-701

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Dietary Carotenoids and the Nervous System
Foods 2015, 4(4), 698-701; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040698 - 10 Dec 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
This issue of Foods is focused on the general topic of carotenoids within the nervous system. The focus is on the effects of the xanthophylls on the central nervous system (CNS), reflecting the majority of work in this area. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
Open AccessCommunication
Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project
Foods 2015, 4(4), 690-697; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040690 - 24 Nov 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or [...] Read more.
This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nitric Oxide and Lutein: Function, Performance, and Protection of Neural Tissue
Foods 2015, 4(4), 678-689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040678 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
The soluble gas neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) serves many important metabolic and neuroregulatory functions in the retina and brain. Although it is necessary for normal neural function, NO can play a significant role in neurotoxicity. This is often seen in disease states that [...] Read more.
The soluble gas neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) serves many important metabolic and neuroregulatory functions in the retina and brain. Although it is necessary for normal neural function, NO can play a significant role in neurotoxicity. This is often seen in disease states that involve oxidative stress and inflammation of neural tissues, such as age-related macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. The dietary xanthophyll carotenoid lutein (L) is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that, if consumed in sufficient amounts, is deposited in neural tissues that require substantial metabolic demand. Some of these specific tissues, such as the central retina and frontal lobes of the brain, are impacted by age-related diseases such as those noted above. The conspicuous correspondence between metabolic demand, NO, and L is suggestive of a homeostatic relationship that serves to facilitate normal function, enhance performance, and protect vulnerable neural tissues. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on these points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Profile and Consumers’ Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese
Foods 2015, 4(4), 665-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040665 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers’ liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe’s milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic [...] Read more.
The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers’ liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe’s milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic cells. Experimental cheeses were denoted: cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste without probiotic (C), cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum (BB), and cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA). Ovine cheese containing probiotic strains highlighted a more intense proteolysis and a greater level of short chain free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid due to the metabolic activity of the adjunct microflora. The sensorial profile of ovine cheese showed lower humidity and gumminess in cheeses containing probiotics as a consequence of differences in the maturing process; furthermore, probiotic cheeses scored higher ratings for salty and pungent attributes. An interaction effect of probiotic, gender, and age of the consumers was detected in the perceived and the expected liking. The higher rate of expected liking in all experimental cheeses is attributed to the information given, regarding not only the presence of probiotic strains but also the farming conditions and cheesemaking technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of R5 and G12 Antibody-Based ELISA Used for the Determination of the Gluten Content in Official Food Samples
Foods 2015, 4(4), 654-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040654 - 09 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Celiac Disease (CD) is one of the most common food intolerances. It comes along with serious damage of the mucosa in the small intestine and is caused by the storage proteins—termed “gluten”—of wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. Sensitive individuals need to stick [...] Read more.
Celiac Disease (CD) is one of the most common food intolerances. It comes along with serious damage of the mucosa in the small intestine and is caused by the storage proteins—termed “gluten”—of wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. Sensitive individuals need to stick to a strict gluten-free diet. The gluten level in food products labeled as “gluten-free”, must not exceed 20 mg/kg. It is obvious that effective test methods are needed to accurately determine the gluten concentration in foods. The determination of the presence of gluten in foodstuffs is mainly done by means of an immunochemical method called ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). To check the suitability of a G12 antibody-based gluten detection kit for its use in official control systems a number of routine samples were tested in parallel with two different test kits, as would be done in a routine lab. The determination of the gluten content was performed on samples entering the official laboratory including samples from official control plans, commercially available and private samples to request gluten-free labels. The results obtained with the G12 antibody ELISA assay were comparable to the official R5 method. A validation of the two different methods was not part of this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan
Foods 2015, 4(4), 645-653; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040645 - 02 Nov 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
Open AccessArticle
Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production—Modeling Environmental Consequences
Foods 2015, 4(4), 622-644; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040622 - 02 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. [...] Read more.
Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N) leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging—grass–clover or a combination of Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne. It was possible to have growing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne (high integration of forage) showed the lowest carbon foot print with 3.12 CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover (low integration of forage) showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic farming systems where direct foraging plays a central role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic food: what about the nutritional value and food safety?)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake
Foods 2015, 4(4), 605-621; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040605 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this [...] Read more.
Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione) have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Child Nutrition and Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children
Foods 2015, 4(4), 594-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040594 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP)—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. [...] Read more.
Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP)—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. 7–10-year-olds (n = 66) underwent cHFP over 2 visits using 11 examiners. Reliability was also assessed in a subsample (n = 46) with only 2 examiners. Among all participants, there was no significant difference between the two sessions (p = 0.59—session 1: 0.61 ± 0.28; session 2: 0.62 ± 0.27). There was no significant difference in the MPOD of boys vs. girls (p = 0.56). There was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.52x + 0.31; R2 = 0.29, p ≤ 0.005), with a reliability of 0.70 (Cronbach’s α). Among the subsample with 2 examiners, there was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.54x + 0.31; R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005), with a reliability of 0.72 (Cronbach’s α). In conclusion, there is moderate reliability for modified cHFP to measure MPOD in preadolescents. These findings provide support for future studies aiming to conduct noninvasive assessments of retinal xanthophylls and study their association with cognition during childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast
Foods 2015, 4(4), 581-593; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040581 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw [...] Read more.
Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview
A Focus on the Death Kinetics in Predictive Microbiology: Benefits and Limits of the Most Important Models and Some Tools Dealing with Their Application in Foods
Foods 2015, 4(4), 565-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040565 - 12 Oct 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Predictive Microbiology (PM) deals with the mathematical modeling of microorganisms in foods for different applications (challenge test, evaluation of microbiological shelf life, prediction of the microbiological hazards connected with foods, etc.). An interesting and important part of PM focuses on the use [...] Read more.
Predictive Microbiology (PM) deals with the mathematical modeling of microorganisms in foods for different applications (challenge test, evaluation of microbiological shelf life, prediction of the microbiological hazards connected with foods, etc.). An interesting and important part of PM focuses on the use of primary functions to fit data of death kinetics of spoilage, pathogenic, and useful microorganisms following thermal or non-conventional treatments and can also be used to model survivors throughout storage. The main topic of this review is a focus on the most important death models (negative Gompertz, log-linear, shoulder/tail, Weibull, Weibull+tail, re-parameterized Weibull, biphasic approach, etc.) to pinpoint the benefits and the limits of each model; in addition, the last section addresses the most important tools for the use of death kinetics and predictive microbiology in a user-friendly way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Lutein and Brain Function
Foods 2015, 4(4), 547-564; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040547 - 09 Oct 2015
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. [...] Read more.
Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle
Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus) and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) on a Retail Level
Foods 2015, 4(4), 524-546; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040524 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) [...] Read more.
An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1) in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89%) and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P) (up to 9) compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5). Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage
Foods 2015, 4(4), 501-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040501 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity) and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity) properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX)) were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Coatings)
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