Next Article in Journal
Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Carotenoids and the Nervous System
Previous Article in Journal
Sensory Profile and Consumers’ Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Foods 2015, 4(4), 678-689;

Nitric Oxide and Lutein: Function, Performance, and Protection of Neural Tissue

Nutritional Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher J. Smith
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
Full-Text   |   PDF [589 KB, uploaded 11 November 2015]   |  


The soluble gas neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) serves many important metabolic and neuroregulatory functions in the retina and brain. Although it is necessary for normal neural function, NO can play a significant role in neurotoxicity. This is often seen in disease states that involve oxidative stress and inflammation of neural tissues, such as age-related macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. The dietary xanthophyll carotenoid lutein (L) is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that, if consumed in sufficient amounts, is deposited in neural tissues that require substantial metabolic demand. Some of these specific tissues, such as the central retina and frontal lobes of the brain, are impacted by age-related diseases such as those noted above. The conspicuous correspondence between metabolic demand, NO, and L is suggestive of a homeostatic relationship that serves to facilitate normal function, enhance performance, and protect vulnerable neural tissues. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on these points. View Full-Text
Keywords: lutein; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; inflammation lutein; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; inflammation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stringham, J.M.; Stringham, N.T. Nitric Oxide and Lutein: Function, Performance, and Protection of Neural Tissue. Foods 2015, 4, 678-689.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top