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Foods, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2015) , Pages 263-500

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Open AccessArticle
Infant Milk Formulas: Effect of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Powdered Products towards Autoxidation
Foods 2015, 4(3), 487-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030487 - 22 Sep 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Thirty samples of powdered infant milk formulas containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been stored at four different temperatures (20, 28, 40 and 55 °C) and periodically monitored for their malondialdehyde (MDA) content up to one year. MDA levels ranged between 250 and [...] Read more.
Thirty samples of powdered infant milk formulas containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been stored at four different temperatures (20, 28, 40 and 55 °C) and periodically monitored for their malondialdehyde (MDA) content up to one year. MDA levels ranged between 250 and 350 ng/kg in sealed samples with a maximum of 566 ng/kg in samples stored at 28 °C for three weeks after opening of their original packages, previously maintained for ten months at 20 °C. Sample stored at 40° and 55 °C were also submitted to CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) colorimetric analysis, since color is the first sensorial property that consumers may evaluate. Overall, the results demonstrated a good stability of PUFA-enriched infant milk formulas in terms of MDA content. However, some care has to be paid when these products are not promptly consumed and stored for a long time after first opening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Child Nutrition and Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”
Foods 2015, 4(3), 477-486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030477 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp [...] Read more.
Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1) in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene) in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg), followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg), and immature fruits (18.82 mg). Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis) and α-carotene (34.1%). Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3%) and mature (34.5%) fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04) vs. raw pulp (0.96). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods
Foods 2015, 4(3), 463-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030463 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with [...] Read more.
Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Child Nutrition and Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden
Foods 2015, 4(3), 440-462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030440 - 15 Sep 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic food: what about the nutritional value and food safety?)
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Open AccessArticle
A Pilot Investigation of the Relationship between Climate Variability and Milk Compounds under the Bootstrap Technique
Foods 2015, 4(3), 420-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030420 - 11 Sep 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
This study analyzes the linear relationship between climate variables and milk components in Iran by applying bootstrapping to include and assess the uncertainty. The climate parameters, Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) are computed from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the linear relationship between climate variables and milk components in Iran by applying bootstrapping to include and assess the uncertainty. The climate parameters, Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) are computed from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA) reanalysis (2002–2010). Milk data for fat, protein (measured on fresh matter bases), and milk yield are taken from 936,227 milk records for the same period, using cows fed by natural pasture from April to September. Confidence intervals for the regression model are calculated using the bootstrap technique. This method is applied to the original times series, generating statistically equivalent surrogate samples. As a result, despite the short time data and the related uncertainties, an interesting behavior of the relationships between milk compound and the climate parameters is visible. During spring only, a weak dependency of milk yield and climate variations is obvious, while fat and protein concentrations show reasonable correlations. In summer, milk yield shows a similar level of relationship with ETI, but not with temperature and THI. We suggest this methodology for studies in the field of the impacts of climate change and agriculture, also environment and food with short-term data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying
Foods 2015, 4(3), 400-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030400 - 09 Sep 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > [...] Read more.
Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Modelling)
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Open AccessCommunication
Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties in Cereals: Study of Some Traditional Italian Wheats
Foods 2015, 4(3), 391-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030391 - 07 Sep 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the [...] Read more.
Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the first step in the evaluation of food potential health benefits. This research focused on the determination of antioxidant properties in grains and whole flours of some traditional Italian wheats. Results showed that hydrolysable polyphenols in grains are 85% of total polyphenols and contribute 95% of the total antioxidant properties, which indicates that hydrolysable polyphenols represent an important fraction of polyphenols in cereals. The distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants was shown to be of paramount importance for an adequate determination of antioxidant capacity in cereals and represents a key element in the definition of potential nutritional value of the food matrix under consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of “Sweetheart” Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis)
Foods 2015, 4(3), 376-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030376 - 26 Aug 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart”) were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and [...] Read more.
Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart”) were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to “Sweetheart” purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Irradiation)
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional Signatures of Conventional, Free Range, and Organic Pork Meat Using Fingerprint Techniques
Foods 2015, 4(3), 359-375; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030359 - 25 Aug 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Consumers’ interest in the way meat is produced is increasing in Europe. The resulting free range and organic meat products retail at a higher price, but are difficult to differentiate from their counterparts. To ascertain authenticity and prevent fraud, relevant markers need to [...] Read more.
Consumers’ interest in the way meat is produced is increasing in Europe. The resulting free range and organic meat products retail at a higher price, but are difficult to differentiate from their counterparts. To ascertain authenticity and prevent fraud, relevant markers need to be identified and new analytical methodology developed. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize pork belly meats of different animal welfare classes by their fatty acid (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester—FAME), non-volatile compound (electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry—ESI-MS/MS), and volatile compound (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry—PTR-MS) fingerprints. Well-defined pork belly meat samples (13 conventional, 15 free range, and 13 organic) originating from the Netherlands were subjected to analysis. Fingerprints appeared to be specific for the three categories, and resulted in 100%, 95.3%, and 95.3% correct identity predictions of training set samples for FAME, ESI-MS/MS, and PTR-MS respectively and slightly lower scores for the validation set. Organic meat was also well discriminated from the other two categories with 100% success rates for the training set for all three analytical approaches. Ten out of 25 FAs showed significant differences in abundance between organic meat and the other categories, free range meat differed significantly for 6 out of the 25 FAs. Overall, FAME fingerprinting presented highest discrimination power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic food: what about the nutritional value and food safety?)
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Open AccessArticle
Prebiotic Effects and Fermentation Kinetics of Wheat Dextrin and Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum in an In Vitro Batch Fermentation System
Foods 2015, 4(3), 349-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030349 - 21 Aug 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Scientific research demonstrates that two indigenous gut bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can contribute to human health. Although these bacteria can be consumed as probiotics, they can also be produced in the gut by bacteria, and are then called prebiotics. The primary objective of [...] Read more.
Scientific research demonstrates that two indigenous gut bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can contribute to human health. Although these bacteria can be consumed as probiotics, they can also be produced in the gut by bacteria, and are then called prebiotics. The primary objective of this in vitro study was to quantitatively analyze at the genus level how two dietary fibers, wheat dextrin (WD) and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) changed the levels of these two gut bacteria at 12 and 24 h, via real time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Secondary objectives were changes in fecal pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and total gas volume produced. At 12 h WD was more bifidogenic (9.50 CFU log10/mL) than PHGG (9.30 CFU log10/mL) (p = 0.052), and also at 24 h WD (9.41 CFU log10/mL) compared with PHGG (9.27 CFU log10/mL) (p = 0.043). WD produced less total SCFAs at both 12 and 24 h than PHGG, and produced significantly lower amounts of gas at 12 and 24 h (p < 0.001). Both PHGG and WD also promoted growth of Lactobacilli when measured at 12 and 24 h compared with the 0 h analysis, indicating that both fibers are lactogenic. These results demonstrate the prebiotic effect of WD and PHGG. Based on fermentation kinetics, PHGG is more rapidly fermented than WD, and both fibers show prebiotic effects as early as 12 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle
Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae): Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients
Foods 2015, 4(3), 338-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030338 - 21 Aug 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The [...] Read more.
Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Refrigerated Shelf Life of a Coconut Water-Oatmeal Mix and the Viability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Lp 115-400B
Foods 2015, 4(3), 328-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030328 - 10 Aug 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B (L. plantarum) as a starter culture. [...] Read more.
Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B (L. plantarum) as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P) and probiotic and prebiotic (PP) added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C) and the viability of L. plantarum, pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Phytone Peptone to Optimize Growth and Cell Density of Lactobacillus reuteri
Foods 2015, 4(3), 318-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030318 - 10 Aug 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the use of phytone peptone to optimize the growth and cell density of Lactobacillus reuteri. Four strains of L. reuteri (DSM 20016, SD 2112, CF 2-7F, and MF 2-3,) were used in this study. An [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the use of phytone peptone to optimize the growth and cell density of Lactobacillus reuteri. Four strains of L. reuteri (DSM 20016, SD 2112, CF 2-7F, and MF 2-3,) were used in this study. An overnight culture of individual strains was inoculated into fresh basal media with various protein sources (peptone, tryptone, proteose peptone #3, phytone peptone, tryptic soy broth, yeast extract, and beef extract). Samples were then mixed well and incubated at 37 °C for 15 h. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring turbidity (optical density 610 nm) at different time intervals during the incubation period. At the end of incubation, samples were plated on de-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar to determine the bacterial population. Our results showed that phytone peptone promoted the growth of L. reuteri (p < 0.05) by 1.4 log CFU/mL on average compared to the control samples. Therefore, phytone peptone could be included in laboratory media to enhance growth and increase the cell density of L. reuteri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Tetracyclines Residues and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Conventional and Organic Baby Foods
Foods 2015, 4(3), 306-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030306 - 22 Jul 2015
Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A) and tet(B), between [...] Read more.
Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A) and tet(B), between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet(A) gene were higher than those containing tet(B), and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic food: what about the nutritional value and food safety?)
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation
Foods 2015, 4(3), 283-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030283 - 17 Jul 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. [...] Read more.
In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a) bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1); (b) bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2); (c) monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3); (d) imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4). A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meat Products and Meat Processing Plants in Spain
Foods 2015, 4(3), 271-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030271 - 14 Jul 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in several types of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and in the environment of meat processing plants. A total of 129 samples of RTE meat products and 110 samples from work [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in several types of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and in the environment of meat processing plants. A total of 129 samples of RTE meat products and 110 samples from work surfaces and equipment were analyzed. L. monocytogenes was detected in 6 out of 35 cooked products (17.14%), 21 out of 57 raw-cured products (36.84%), and 9 out of 37 dry-cured, salted products (24.32%). The number of sample units that exceeded the food safety limit of 100 cfu/g decreased from the manufacture date to half shelf life, and then it was further reduced at the end of shelf life. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25 out of 110 (22.72%) food contact surfaces. The number of positive and negative results from both food and environmental samples were cross-tabulated and the calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) was 0.3233, indicating a fair agreement in terms of Listeria contamination. L. monocytogenes was recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures in four plants, highlighting the importance of thorough cleaning and disinfection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology Safety of Meat Products)
Open AccessReview
Organic Food: A Comparative Study of the Effect of Tomato Cultivars and Cultivation Conditions on the Physico-Chemical Properties
Foods 2015, 4(3), 263-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030263 - 10 Jul 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
The objective of this review was to present an update of the currently managed studies on the characterization physical, chemical, and sensory analysis of several tomato cultivars. This review has indicated the importance of farming system and genotype on sensory and biochemical characteristics. [...] Read more.
The objective of this review was to present an update of the currently managed studies on the characterization physical, chemical, and sensory analysis of several tomato cultivars. This review has indicated the importance of farming system and genotype on sensory and biochemical characteristics. It is necessary to use selected genotypes responding positively to organic farming in terms of sensory, biochemical characteristics and productivity aspects and to evaluate systems over more than one year of sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic food: what about the nutritional value and food safety?)
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