Special Issue "Seafood Processing and Safety"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016) | Viewed by 28719

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Michael Jahncke
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center Director Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Hampton, VA 23669, USA
Interests: food safety; food quality; food handling and processing; HACCP; microbiology; aquaculture
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fishery products are highly perishable. Many of the same procedures used to ensure food safety also contribute to higher quality fishery products and longer shelf life of these products. The first step to ensure safety and maximum product quality is to follow Best Management Practices (BMPs) on commercial fishing vessels, at aquaculture farms, during harvest, handling/processing, storage, and shipping. After harvest, product safety and quality can be ensured by reducing or eliminating microbial activity and retarding quality-degrading chemical reactions. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a risk management food safety program for food processors, to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level potential food safety hazards that may be present in fishery products. The support programs for HACCP are Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs). Food microorganisms are found on all surfaces (skin and gills) and in the intestines of the fishery products. There are several different types of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with fishery products. Spoilage bacteria are generally harmless, but do cause changes in the color, flavor, odor, texture, and reduce the shelf-life of these products. In contrast, pathogenic bacteria are illness-causing organisms that can produce toxins or cause infections. Controlling these microorganisms requires diligence and attention to detail. Reduced shelf life and quality deterioration of fishery products is also associated with chemical/enzymatic changes that occur during refrigerated and frozen storage. Marine species contain many long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These omega-3 fatty acids, which are good for cardiovascular health, are also much more susceptible to oxidation and hydrolysis. Quick cooling/quick freezing and stable low storage temperatures will slow deleterious changes in texture, color, and flavor due to chemical/biochemical activity. The three Ps (i.e., Product Characteristics/Processing Methods/Package Types) have a profound effect on the quality and shelf life of chilled and frozen fishery products.

Michael Jahncke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Seafood Processing and Safety
Foods 2016, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020034 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Food microorganisms are found on all surfaces (skin and gills) and in the intestines of fishery products.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)

Research

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Communication
Seafood Safety and Quality: The Consumer’s Role
Foods 2016, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5040071 - 28 Oct 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer [...] Read more.
All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer to eat than, other foods. When you hear “seafood safety”, think of a safety net designed to protect you, the consumer, from food-borne illness. Every facet of the seafood industry, from harvester to consumer, plays a role in holding up the safety net. The role of state and federal agencies, fishermen, aquaculturists, retailers, processors, restaurants, and scientists is to provide, update, and carry out the necessary handling, processing, and inspection procedures to give consumers the safest seafood possible. The consumer’s responsibility is to follow through with proper handling techniques, from purchase to preparation. It doesn’t matter how many regulations and inspection procedures are set up; the final edge of the safety net is held by the consumer. This article will give you the information you need to educate yourself and be assured that the fish and shellfish you consume are safe. The most common food-borne illnesses are caused by a combination of bacteria naturally present in our environment and food handling errors made in commercial settings, food service institutions, or at home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Article
Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon
Foods 2016, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020022 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that [...] Read more.
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
Article
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Yellowfin Tuna during Cold Storage
Foods 2016, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010016 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4344
Abstract
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in raw yellowfin tuna during refrigeration and frozen storage were studied. Growth of Salmonella was inhibited in tuna during refrigerated storage, while L. monocytogenes was able to multiply significantly during refrigerated storage. Populations of Salmonella in tuna [...] Read more.
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in raw yellowfin tuna during refrigeration and frozen storage were studied. Growth of Salmonella was inhibited in tuna during refrigerated storage, while L. monocytogenes was able to multiply significantly during refrigerated storage. Populations of Salmonella in tuna were reduced by 1 to 2 log after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C, regardless levels of contamination. However, populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A, M0507, and SFL0404 in inoculated tuna (104–105 CFU/g) increased by 3.31, 3.56, and 3.98 log CFU/g, respectively, after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C. Similar increases of L. monocytogenes cells were observed in tuna meat with a lower inoculation level (102–103 CFU/g). Populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes declined gradually in tuna samples over 84 days (12 weeks) of frozen storage at −18 °C with Salmonella Newport 6962 being decreased to undetectable level (<10 CFU/g) from an initial level of 103 log CFU/g after 42 days of frozen storage. These results demonstrate that tuna meat intended for raw consumption must be handled properly from farm to table to reduce the risks of foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Article
Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus) and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) on a Retail Level
Foods 2015, 4(4), 524-546; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040524 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3635
Abstract
An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) [...] Read more.
An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1) in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89%) and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P) (up to 9) compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5). Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Review

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Review
Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products
Foods 2016, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5030048 - 28 Jun 2016
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 4645
Abstract
This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation [...] Read more.
This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
Review
A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations’ Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country’s Approach
Foods 2016, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020031 - 29 Apr 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this [...] Read more.
It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Review
Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish
Foods 2016, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020029 - 18 Apr 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, [...] Read more.
Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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