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Foods, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 20 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy), Tunisia and Spain
Foods 2016, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010020 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that [...] Read more.
We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that belongs to traditional Italian food products (P.A.T.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. The obtained results suggest that the concentrations of the considered elements may serve as geographical indicators for the discrimination of the origin of the different samples. In particular, we found a relatively high content of Selenium in the garlic variety known as Nubia red garlic, and, indeed, it could be used as an anticarcinogenic agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient
Foods 2016, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010019 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, [...] Read more.
There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain
Foods 2016, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010018 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour
Foods 2016, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010017 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3252
Abstract
Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are [...] Read more.
Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Yellowfin Tuna during Cold Storage
Foods 2016, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010016 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in raw yellowfin tuna during refrigeration and frozen storage were studied. Growth of Salmonella was inhibited in tuna during refrigerated storage, while L. monocytogenes was able to multiply significantly during refrigerated storage. Populations of Salmonella in tuna [...] Read more.
Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in raw yellowfin tuna during refrigeration and frozen storage were studied. Growth of Salmonella was inhibited in tuna during refrigerated storage, while L. monocytogenes was able to multiply significantly during refrigerated storage. Populations of Salmonella in tuna were reduced by 1 to 2 log after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C, regardless levels of contamination. However, populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A, M0507, and SFL0404 in inoculated tuna (104–105 CFU/g) increased by 3.31, 3.56, and 3.98 log CFU/g, respectively, after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C. Similar increases of L. monocytogenes cells were observed in tuna meat with a lower inoculation level (102–103 CFU/g). Populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes declined gradually in tuna samples over 84 days (12 weeks) of frozen storage at −18 °C with Salmonella Newport 6962 being decreased to undetectable level (<10 CFU/g) from an initial level of 103 log CFU/g after 42 days of frozen storage. These results demonstrate that tuna meat intended for raw consumption must be handled properly from farm to table to reduce the risks of foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by Some Chemicals in Food Using a Reporter Gene Assay
Foods 2016, 5(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010015 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a simple bioassay used for the detection of dioxins (DXNs) could be applied to detect trace amounts of harmful DXN-like substances in food products. To identify substances with possible DXN-like activity, we assessed the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a simple bioassay used for the detection of dioxins (DXNs) could be applied to detect trace amounts of harmful DXN-like substances in food products. To identify substances with possible DXN-like activity, we assessed the ability of various compounds in the environment to bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that binds specifically to DXNs. The compounds tested included 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 PAH derivatives (nitrated, halogenated, and aminated derivatives), 23 pesticides, six amino acids, and eight amino acid metabolites. The AhR binding activities (AhR activity) of these compounds were measured using the chemical activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) reporter gene assay system. The majority of the PAHs exhibited marked AhR activity that increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was a positive link between AhR activity and the number of aromatic rings in the PAH derivatives. Conversely, there appeared to be a negative correlation between AhR activity and the number of chlorine residues present on halogenated PAH derivatives. However, there was no correlation between AhR activity and the number and position of substituents among nitrated and aminated derivatives. Among the pesticides tested, the indole-type compounds carbendazim and thiabendazole showed high levels of activity. Similarly, the indole compound tryptamine was the only amino acid metabolite to induce AhR activity. The results are useful in understanding the identification and characterization of AhR ligands in the CALUX assay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Essential Oils and Combination of Copper and Lactic Acid on the Growth of E. coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium
Foods 2016, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010014 - 23 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
In this study, we compared the effectiveness of armoise and clove bud essential oils (EOs) and the combination of low concentrations of copper (Cu) and lactic acid (LA) against E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory medium. Three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC700599, [...] Read more.
In this study, we compared the effectiveness of armoise and clove bud essential oils (EOs) and the combination of low concentrations of copper (Cu) and lactic acid (LA) against E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory medium. Three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC700599, ATCC51659, and ATCC43895) were used in this study. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the turbidity of a broth medium and by determination of bacterial populations. Our results showed that armoise (0.15% v/v), clove bud (0.1% v/v) EOs, or Cu (50 ppm) in combination with LA (0.2% v/v) caused a minimum 5.0 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in the laboratory medium. Cu in combination with LA may thus be preferable to EOs in food in order to control the growth of foodborne pathogens. In addition, the combination treatment of Cu and LA could provide the food industry with a practical approach to reducing the risk of foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessReview
Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Cultured Dairy Products: A Review
Foods 2016, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010013 - 23 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis [...] Read more.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12) from the linoleic acid (LA) present in milk or in synthetic media. CLA isomers can be synthesized in vitro by LAB using vegetable oils rich in LA. The aim of this review is to present an update on the studies that have been conducted on the production of CLA isomers from LA mainly by LAB and of the factors that influence this conversion (source and concentration of LA and fermentation conditions). In addition, this review presents the relationship between the consumption of CLA isomers and their health benefits in humans such as anti-atherosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. There is considerable variation between the studies concerning the beneficial effects of CLA in animal models, which have not been reflected in human studies. This can be attributed to the differences in the doses of CLA isomers used and to the different sources of CLA. Furthermore, the regulatory and scientific information classifying the physiological properties of CLA, which serve as support for the claims of its potential as a functional ingredient, are presented. More research is needed to determine whether CLA production by LAB can be enhanced and to determine the optimal requirements for these microbial cultures. Furthermore, safety and efficacy of CLA consumption have to be investigated in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Probiotics)
Open AccessArticle
Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite
Foods 2016, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010012 - 22 Feb 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3665
Abstract
Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine [...] Read more.
Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control), in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury) led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury) compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001) or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003). A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense) signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008). Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage
Foods 2016, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010010 - 18 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2519
Abstract
Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of [...] Read more.
Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Irradiation)
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Open AccessArticle
Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context
Foods 2016, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010011 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, [...] Read more.
Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Modelling)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Foods in 2015
Foods 2016, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010009 - 22 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The editors of Foods would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Phytosanitary Irradiation
Foods 2016, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010008 - 20 Jan 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is [...] Read more.
Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Irradiation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Can Xanthophyll-Membrane Interactions Explain Their Selective Presence in the Retina and Brain?
Foods 2016, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010007 - 12 Jan 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3852
Abstract
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that a high dietary intake of carotenoids may offer protection against age-related macular degeneration, cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Humans cannot synthesize carotenoids and depend on their dietary intake. Major carotenoids that have been found in human plasma can [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that a high dietary intake of carotenoids may offer protection against age-related macular degeneration, cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Humans cannot synthesize carotenoids and depend on their dietary intake. Major carotenoids that have been found in human plasma can be divided into two groups, carotenes (nonpolar molecules, such as β-carotene, α-carotene or lycopene) and xanthophylls (polar carotenoids that include an oxygen atom in their structure, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin). Only two dietary carotenoids, namely lutein and zeaxanthin (macular xanthophylls), are selectively accumulated in the human retina. A third carotenoid, meso-zeaxanthin, is formed directly in the human retina from lutein. Additionally, xanthophylls account for about 70% of total carotenoids in all brain regions. Some specific properties of these polar carotenoids must explain why they, among other available carotenoids, were selected during evolution to protect the retina and brain. It is also likely that the selective uptake and deposition of macular xanthophylls in the retina and brain are enhanced by specific xanthophyll-binding proteins. We hypothesize that the high membrane solubility and preferential transmembrane orientation of macular xanthophylls distinguish them from other dietary carotenoids, enhance their chemical and physical stability in retina and brain membranes and maximize their protective action in these organs. Most importantly, xanthophylls are selectively concentrated in the most vulnerable regions of lipid bilayer membranes enriched in polyunsaturated lipids. This localization is ideal if macular xanthophylls are to act as lipid-soluble antioxidants, which is the most accepted mechanism through which lutein and zeaxanthin protect neural tissue against degenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Addition of Vital Wheat Gluten to Enhance the Quality Characteristics of Frozen Dough Products
Foods 2016, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010006 - 06 Jan 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat gluten at the levels of 2%, 4%, 5%, and 6% of flour weight. The characteristics of baked samples were determined through weight loss, specific volume, crust, and crumb color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Dough behavior at sub-zero temperatures was further examined for control samples and samples with 6% gluten using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), while their low molecular sugar content (fructose, glucose, sucrose) was measured using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), as it can be associated with yeast viability and dough freezing point depression. The most stable samples were those with 4% and 6% gluten (for white flour) and those with 4% and 5% gluten (for whole-wheat flour). Gluten addition raised the freezing point of dough samples and preserved low molecular sugar generation after prolonged storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Foods 2016, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010005 - 05 Jan 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated [...] Read more.
Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons
Foods 2016, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010004 - 04 Jan 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4589
Abstract
Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major [...] Read more.
Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents
Foods 2016, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010003 - 26 Dec 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1) were developed by incorporating neem (NO) and oregano essential oils (OEO). First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem [...] Read more.
In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1) were developed by incorporating neem (NO) and oregano essential oils (OEO). First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil) against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger) was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%), while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%). S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Profiling of Nutritional and Health-Related Compounds in Oat Varieties
Foods 2016, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010002 - 25 Dec 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5125
Abstract
The use of oats in the human diet has decreased over the past 70 years. This is an unfortunate development from the perspective of human health because oats have a high nutritional value and contain many compounds, including β-glucan, polyphenols, vitamins, and unsaturated [...] Read more.
The use of oats in the human diet has decreased over the past 70 years. This is an unfortunate development from the perspective of human health because oats have a high nutritional value and contain many compounds, including β-glucan, polyphenols, vitamins, and unsaturated fatty acids that are able to maintain or may even improve consumer’s health. In addition, oats fit into a gluten-free diet of celiac disease patients because they lack the T-cell stimulating epitopes from wheat, rye, and barley. We focused on the presence of health-related compounds in oats and how their levels vary among varieties in response to the type of soil. Ten oat varieties were grown in the Netherlands in sandy and clay soil and were analyzed for the presence and concentration of healthy compounds (β-glucan, fatty acids, vitamin E, and antioxidant activity), avenin composition, total protein and starch content, and agronomical characteristics. Principal component analysis showed that genetic background influenced the levels of all analyzed components. Protein, starch, β-glucan, and antioxidants were also affected by the type of soil. The obtained results showed that this kind of analysis can be used to profile oat varieties in general and enables the selection of specific varieties with specific compound characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Sorption Isotherm of Pea Starch Edible Films and Prediction Models
Foods 2016, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5010001 - 24 Dec 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2832
Abstract
The moisture sorption isotherm of pea starch films prepared with various glycerol contents as plasticizer was investigated at different storage relative humidities (11%–96% RH) and at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1, 25 ± 1 and 40 ± 1 °C by using gravimetric [...] Read more.
The moisture sorption isotherm of pea starch films prepared with various glycerol contents as plasticizer was investigated at different storage relative humidities (11%–96% RH) and at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1, 25 ± 1 and 40 ± 1 °C by using gravimetric method. The results showed that the equilibrium moisture content of all films increased substantially above aw = 0.6. Films plasticized with glycerol, under all temperatures and RH conditions (11%–96%), adsorbed more moisture resulting in higher equilibrium moisture contents. Reduction of the temperature enhanced the equilibrium moisture content and monolayer water of the films. The obtained experimental data were fitted to different models including two-parameter equations (Oswin, Henderson, Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller (BET), Flory–Huggins, and Iglesias–Chirife), three-parameter equations Guggenhiem–Anderson–deBoer (GAB), Ferro–Fontan, and Lewicki) and a four-parameter equation (Peleg). The three-parameter Lewicki model was found to be the best-fitted model for representing the experimental data within the studied temperatures and whole range of relative humidities (11%–98%). Addition of glycerol increased the net isosteric heat of moisture sorption of pea starch film. The results provide important information with estimating of stability and functional characteristics of the films in various environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Coatings)
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