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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 173 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The impact of different industrial practices at lamb export abattoirs in Ireland on the microbial and quality attributes of fresh vacuum-packed (VP) lamb leg joints, including Clean Livestock Policy (CLP), fleece clipping, carcass chilling times and vacuum pack storage, at typical chill and retail display temperatures was investigated. Five separate slaughter batches of lamb (ranging in size from 38 to 60 lambs) were followed at two lamb export plants over a two-year period, accounting for seasonal variation. In general, fleece clipping resulted in significantly lower microbial contamination on the fleece than the use of CLP alone. View this paper
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Article
Flaxseed Polysaccharide Alters Colonic Gene Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Energy Metabolism in Obese Rats
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131991 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges. Recently, we found that flaxseed polysaccharides (FPs) had an anti-obesity effect through promoting lipid metabolism, but the obesity-inhibiting pathway of FP is still unclear. In this study, after FP intervention in an obese [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges. Recently, we found that flaxseed polysaccharides (FPs) had an anti-obesity effect through promoting lipid metabolism, but the obesity-inhibiting pathway of FP is still unclear. In this study, after FP intervention in an obese rat model, a transcriptome study was performed to further investigate how FP intervention alters the gene expression of colonic epithelial tissues (CETs). The results showed that there were 3785 genes differentially expressed due to the FP intervention, namely 374 downregulated and 3411 upregulated genes. After analyzing all the differentially expressed genes, two classical KEGG pathways were found to be related to obesity, namely the PPAR-signaling pathway and energy metabolism, involving genes Fabp1–5, Lpl, Gyk, Qqp7, Pparg, Rxrg, Acsl1, Acsl4, Acsl6, Cpt1c, Car1–4, Ca5b, Car8, Car12–14, Cps1, Ndufa4l2, Cox6b2, Atp6v1g2, Ndufa4l2 and Cox4i2. QRT-PCR results showed a consistent expression trend. Our results indicate that FP promotes lipid metabolism by changing the expression of some key genes of CETs, thus inhibiting obesity. Full article
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Article
Food-Grade Microencapsulation Systems to Improve Protection of the Epigallocatechin Gallate
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131990 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and one of the most abundant polyphenols in green tea, and it is under research for its potential benefit to human health and for its potential to be used in disease treatments, such as for cancer. However, [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and one of the most abundant polyphenols in green tea, and it is under research for its potential benefit to human health and for its potential to be used in disease treatments, such as for cancer. However, the effectiveness of polyphenols depends on preserving their bioactivity, stability, and bioavailability. The EGCG was microencapsulated by a spray-drying process, using different biopolymers as encapsulating agents (gum arabic, modified chitosan and sodium alginate), in order to overcome some of the limitations of this compound. The microparticles showed a diameter around 4.22 to 41.55 µm (distribution in volume) and different morphologies and surfaces, depending on the encapsulating agent used. The EGCG release was total, and it was achieved in less than 21 min for all the formulations tested. The EGCG encapsulation efficiency ranged between 78.5 and 100.0%. The release profiles were simulated and evaluated using three kinetic models: Korsmeyer–Peppas (R2: 0.739–0.990), Weibull (R2: 0.963–0.994) and Baker–Lonsdale (R2: 0.746–0.993). The Weibull model was the model that better adjusted to the experimental EGCG release values. This study proves the success of the EGCG microencapsulation, using the spray-drying technique, opening the possibility to insert dried EGCG microparticles in different food and nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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Article
Biochemical and Molecular Characteristics of a Novel Hyaluronic Acid Lyase from Citrobacter freundii
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131989 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 396
Abstract
The Gram-negative strain of Citrobacter freundii, YNLX, has the ability to degrade hyaluronic acid. In this study, we expressed a C. freundii hyaluronic acid lyase, from polysaccharide lyase family 8, in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rHynACF8) showed a substantially higher [...] Read more.
The Gram-negative strain of Citrobacter freundii, YNLX, has the ability to degrade hyaluronic acid. In this study, we expressed a C. freundii hyaluronic acid lyase, from polysaccharide lyase family 8, in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rHynACF8) showed a substantially higher cleavage activity of hyaluronic acid than chondroitin sulfate. We found that its optimal pH and temperature are 5.5 and 35 °C, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity was not notably affected by most metal ions. Km and kcat of rHynACF8 towards HA were 1.5 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 30.9 ± 0.5 /s, respectively. rHynACF8 is an endo-acting enzyme. Its cleavage products had dramatically increased antioxidant activity than hyaluronic acid in vitro (p < 0.001). As the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid decreased, the intramolecular interactions among antioxidant functional groups were removed; in the process of the cracking reaction, new double bonds formed and conjugated with the carbonyl group. We presumed that the structural change is the critical factor influencing antioxidant capacity. Overall, we found that rHynACF8 from Gram-negative bacteria with metal ion resistance, indicated the relationship between the function and structure of its antioxidant cleavage product. Full article
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Review
Myristicin and Elemicin: Potentially Toxic Alkenylbenzenes in Food
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131988 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Alkenylbenzenes represent a group of naturally occurring substances that are synthesized as secondary metabolites in various plants, including nutmeg and basil. Many of the alkenylbenzene-containing plants are common spice plants and preparations thereof are used for flavoring purposes. However, many alkenylbenzenes are known [...] Read more.
Alkenylbenzenes represent a group of naturally occurring substances that are synthesized as secondary metabolites in various plants, including nutmeg and basil. Many of the alkenylbenzene-containing plants are common spice plants and preparations thereof are used for flavoring purposes. However, many alkenylbenzenes are known toxicants. For example, safrole and methyleugenol were classified as genotoxic carcinogens based on extensive toxicological evidence. In contrast, reliable toxicological data, in particular regarding genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity is missing for several other structurally closely related alkenylbenzenes, such as myristicin and elemicin. Moreover, existing data on the occurrence of these substances in various foods suffer from several limitations. Together, the existing data gaps regarding exposure and toxicity cause difficulty in evaluating health risks for humans. This review gives an overview on available occurrence data of myristicin, elemicin, and other selected alkenylbenzenes in certain foods. Moreover, the current knowledge on the toxicity of myristicin and elemicin in comparison to their structurally related and well-characterized derivatives safrole and methyleugenol, especially with respect to their genotoxic and carcinogenic potential, is discussed. Finally, this article focuses on existing data gaps regarding exposure and toxicity currently impeding the evaluation of adverse health effects potentially caused by myristicin and elemicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plant-Based Food)
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Article
The Effect of Different Freshness of Raw Material on Lipid Quality and Sensory Acceptance of Canned Sardines
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131987 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
We studied how storing fresh sardines (Sardina pilchardus) on ice for 0–15 days would affect lipid quality and sensory acceptance after the sardines were later canned. Average moisture and diacylglycerol contents showed a decreasing trend during storage time for sardines stored [...] Read more.
We studied how storing fresh sardines (Sardina pilchardus) on ice for 0–15 days would affect lipid quality and sensory acceptance after the sardines were later canned. Average moisture and diacylglycerol contents showed a decreasing trend during storage time for sardines stored for to 0–10 days and an increasing trend for samples stored for 13–15 days. Total lipid and triacylglycerol average values increased with storage time of 0–10 days. In contrast, sardines stored for 13–15 days showed decreased values of lipids and triacylglycerols. Increased storage times also led to increased average saturated fatty acid (STFA) content and browning and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) values and PUFA/STFA and ω3/ω6 ratios. Notably, the effect of storage time on PUFA/STFA and ω3/ω6 ratios and browning development was found significant (p < 0.05). Sensory descriptors revealed only slight quality differences with previous storage on ice for 0-10 days. In contrast, a substantial (p < 0.05) decrease (appearance and texture) was detected in samples corresponding to a 13–15-day period, such samples being considered unacceptable. Storage on ice not exceeding 10 days is recommended for sardines before being shipped to canneries for further processing. Furthermore, the use of efficient storage including preserving technologies would be desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood: Quality, Shelf Life and Sensory Attributes)
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Article
The Effect of Partial Substitution of Beef Tallow on Selected Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Profile and PAH Content of Grilled Beef Burgers
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131986 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of partial replacement of beef tallow with sunflower, canola, linseed, olive oil and milk fat on physical properties, oxidation stability, fatty acid profile and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) content of beef burgers. Studies [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of partial replacement of beef tallow with sunflower, canola, linseed, olive oil and milk fat on physical properties, oxidation stability, fatty acid profile and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) content of beef burgers. Studies have shown a strong relationship between the fatty acid profile and the PAH content (especially of the heavy PAHs). The partial replacement of beef tallow with oils and milk fat (MF) contributed to a change in the fatty acid profile and a reduction in the hardness of the burgers. The highest PAH content was found in samples with canola oil (CO), which had the highest levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and in the control group (CON) without fat substitution, which had the highest levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans conformations. Substitution of animal fat with vegetable oils contributed to a change in the color of the burgers’ surface, as there was a statistically significant increase in the L* color component and a decrease in the a* component. The burgers with canola oil (CO) and linseed oil (LO) were the most susceptible to oxidation, whereas the burgers with reduced fat content (CON_LOW FAT) were the most stable in terms of oxidation, where the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was 32.8% lower compared with the control group (CON). The studies confirm that partial replacement of beef tallow with vegetable oils and milk fat and reduction in fat content in burgers to be grilled can be an effective way to change their fatty acid profile and reduce the cyclization reaction of organic compounds leading to the formation of PAH. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that there is a relationship between fatty acid profile and the presence of selected PAHs in grilled beef burgers. The results of this study indicate that replacing beef tallow with vegetable oils is a promising approach in designing meat products with controlled PAH content. Full article
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Communication
Improving the Aromatic Profile of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives: Effect of Myoglobin Addition on Volatiles
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131985 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Market demand for palatable plant-based meat alternatives is on the rise. One of the challenges is formulating products with sensorial characteristics similar to conventional meat. In this study, the effect of myoglobin on the aromatic profile of plant-based meat alternatives was assessed. Plant-based [...] Read more.
Market demand for palatable plant-based meat alternatives is on the rise. One of the challenges is formulating products with sensorial characteristics similar to conventional meat. In this study, the effect of myoglobin on the aromatic profile of plant-based meat alternatives was assessed. Plant-based burgers were made with soy-textured protein, supplemented with three levels of myoglobin (0, 0.5 and 1.0%, the latter two mimicking endogenous myoglobin levels in meat), and grilled for 12 min at 250 °C. To evaluate the aromatic profile of the compounds, raw and grilled samples were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis was then performed to visualize the interaction between grilling and myoglobin addition, and the effect exerted on the resulting aromatic profile. Myoglobin significantly affected several classes of volatile compounds, either by itself or in conjunction with grilling. A notable increase in aldehydes and a decrease in hydrocarbons were noted after adding myoglobin. As expected, an increase in pyrazines was observed after grilling. The results suggest myoglobin positively influences the aromatic profile of plant-based meat alternatives, contributing to a profile closer to the one of conventional meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionality and Food Applications of Plant Proteins)
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Article
Consumption of Grapes Modulates Gene Expression, Reduces Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Extends Longevity in Female C57BL/6J Mice Provided with a High-Fat Western-Pattern Diet
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1984; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131984 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
A key objective of this study was to explore the potential of dietary grape consumption to modulate adverse effects caused by a high-fat (western-pattern) diet. Female C57BL/6J mice were purchased at six-weeks-of-age and placed on a standard (semi-synthetic) diet (STD). At 11 weeks-of-age, [...] Read more.
A key objective of this study was to explore the potential of dietary grape consumption to modulate adverse effects caused by a high-fat (western-pattern) diet. Female C57BL/6J mice were purchased at six-weeks-of-age and placed on a standard (semi-synthetic) diet (STD). At 11 weeks-of-age, the mice were continued on the STD or placed on the STD supplemented with 5% standardized grape powder (STD5GP), a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 5% standardized grape powder (HFD5GP). After being provided with the respective diets for 13 additional weeks, the mice were euthanized, and liver was collected for biomarker analysis, determination of genetic expression (RNA-Seq), and histopathological examination. All four dietary groups demonstrated unique genetic expression patterns. Using pathway analysis tools (GO, KEGG and Reactome), relative to the STD group, differentially expressed genes of the STD5GP group were significantly enriched in RNA, mitochondria, and protein translation related pathways, as well as drug metabolism, glutathione, detoxification, and oxidative stress associated pathways. The expression of Gstp1 was confirmed to be upregulated by about five-fold (RT-qPCR), and, based on RNA-Seq data, the expression of additional genes associated with the reduction of oxidative stress and detoxification (Gpx4 and 8, Gss, Gpx7, Sod1) were enhanced by dietary grape supplementation. Cluster analysis of genetic expression patterns revealed the greatest divergence between the HFD5GP and HFD groups. In the HFD5GP group, relative to the HFD group, 14 genes responsible for the metabolism, transportation, hydrolysis, and sequestration of fatty acids were upregulated. Conversely, genes responsible for lipid content and cholesterol synthesis (Plin4, Acaa1b, Slc27a1) were downregulated. The two top classifications emerging as enriched in the HFD5GP group vs. the HFD group (KEGG pathway analysis) were Alzheimer’s disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), both of which have been reported in the literature to bear a causal relationship. In the current study, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was indicated by histological observations that revealed archetype markers of fatty liver induced by the HFD. The adverse response was diminished by grape intervention. In addition to these studies, life-long survival was assessed with C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were received at four-weeks-of-age and placed on the STD. At 14-weeks-of-age, the mice were divided into two groups (100 per group) and provided with the HFD or the HFD5GP. Relative to the HFD group, the survival time of the HFD5GP group was enhanced (log-rank test, p = 0.036). The respective hazard ratios were 0.715 (HFD5GP) and 1.397 (HFD). Greater body weight positively correlated with longevity; the highest body weight of the HFD5GP group was attained later in life than the HFD group (p = 0.141). These results suggest the potential of dietary grapes to modulate hepatic gene expression, prevent oxidative damage, induce fatty acid metabolism, ameliorate NAFLD, and increase longevity when co-administered with a high-fat diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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Article
Role of Short Chain Fatty Acids to Counteract Inflammatory Stress and Mucus Production in Human Intestinal HT29-MTX-E12 Cells
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131983 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate (BUT), are known to promote intestinal health, but their role in the protection of intestinal barrier integrity is poorly characterized. The aim of the study was to set up an in vitro model of human colon [...] Read more.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate (BUT), are known to promote intestinal health, but their role in the protection of intestinal barrier integrity is poorly characterized. The aim of the study was to set up an in vitro model of human colon epithelium using HT29-MTX-E12 cells to delineate the potential role of SCFAs under stress conditions. Accordingly, the HT29-MTX-E12 cells were differentiated for 42 days and subsequently exposed to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Further, the effects of BUT or its mixture with acetate and propionate (SCFAs-MIX) were tested to study proliferation, epithelial integrity and mucus production. The results showed that the concentration of 10% DSS for 24 h decreased the TEER about 50% compared to the control in HT29-MTX-E12 cells. The pre-treatment on HT29-MTX-E12 cells with BUT or SCFAs-MIX at specific concentrations significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the DSS-induced damage on epithelial cell integrity and permeability. Further, the treatment with specific concentrations of BUT and SCFAs-MIX for 24 h significantly promoted ZO-1, MUC2 and MUC5AC mRNA expression (p < 0.005). The present study demonstrated the suitability of HT29-MTX-E12 cells treated with DSS as an in vitro stress model of inflammatory bowel disease, which enabled us to understand the effect of bioactive SCFAs on the intestinal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals for Gut Health)
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Systematic Review
The Effect of MUFA-Rich Food on Lipid Profile: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized and Controlled-Feeding Trials
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131982 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Since the effects of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on lipid profile are still controversial, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted in the present study to assess the effect of MUFA-rich food on lipid profiles. The study was designed, conducted, and reported [...] Read more.
Since the effects of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on lipid profile are still controversial, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted in the present study to assess the effect of MUFA-rich food on lipid profiles. The study was designed, conducted, and reported according to the guidelines of the 2020 preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. A systematic and comprehensive search was performed in several databases from inception up to 30 January 2022. The results showed that the intake of edible oil-derived MUFA (EDM) could increase the blood HDL-C level (mean difference = 0.08; 95%CI: −0.01, 0.17, p = 0.03), but did not affect the level of TC, TG, or LDL-C. Moreover, the consumption of other food-derived MUFA (ODM) significantly decreased TG concentration (mean difference = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.61, −0.09, p = 0.01)), but did not affect the level of TC, LDL-C, or HDL-C. Findings from this study suggest that MUFA-rich food might be beneficial to modulate the blood lipid profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Metabolic Profiling of Bulgarian Potato Cultivars
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131981 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the fourth most economically important crop in the world. They have a short period of vegetation and are an excellent source of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, organic acids, minerals and phenolics as antioxidant substances. Potato can be [...] Read more.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the fourth most economically important crop in the world. They have a short period of vegetation and are an excellent source of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, organic acids, minerals and phenolics as antioxidant substances. Potato can be a major dietary source of various bioactive compounds. In this study, we applied gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolite profiling to classify eight Bulgarian potato cultivars bred in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute (VCRI), Plovdiv, according to their metabolite contents. Altogether, we determine their flavonoids/phenolics to evaluate their nutritive quality for the breeding program with the target of determining strong health-promoting compounds. The “Kalina” cultivar is highlighted as the best one with the highest number of metabolites, containing 14 out of the 26 evaluated; it was selected as the highest-quality cultivar, compared with the other seven cultivars studied. According to the grouping of the cultivars in principal component analysis PCA, their positive distribution is explained mainly by them having the highest contents of aminobutyric and isocitric acids, methionine and alanine and lower levels of fumaric acid, pyroglutamic acid and glycine, in contrast to the cultivars distributed negatively, which had high contents of carbohydrates and relatively low contents of most of the amino acids. The highest number of amino acids was found in the cultivar “Kalina”, followed by “Perun” and “Bor”. The highest number of carbohydrates was found in “Pavelsko” and “Iverce”, while the prominent accumulation of organic acids was found in “Kalina”, “Bor” and “Rozhen”. The highest number of flavonoids in the flesh of the tubers was found in the cultivars “Nadezhda” and “Pavelsko”, followed by “Bor”. The highest ratio of flavonoids/phenolics in the flesh was found in “Pavelsko” and in “Nadezhda”, followed by “Iverce”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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Article
Is Stress Taking the Pleasure Out of Food?—A Characterization of the Food Pleasure Profiles, Appetite, and Eating Behaviors of People with Chronic Stress
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131980 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Psychological stressors frequently occur in modern society, and are associated with general anhedonic traits (inability to experience pleasure) and altered eating behavior. As eating behavior is largely motivated by a desire for pleasure, the Food Pleasure Scale (FPS) was introduced as a new [...] Read more.
Psychological stressors frequently occur in modern society, and are associated with general anhedonic traits (inability to experience pleasure) and altered eating behavior. As eating behavior is largely motivated by a desire for pleasure, the Food Pleasure Scale (FPS) was introduced as a new research tool for investigating aspects of pleasure from food-related experiences. Thereby, insights on whether some aspects of pleasure are more affected by stress than others can be investigated, and can help explain why changes in eating behavior are seen when under the influence of stress. A consumer survey including n = 190 Danish consumers all with moderate or high levels of perceived stress was conducted to explore the perception of pleasure from food, general appetite, meal patterns, as well as specific food preferences. The study showed that the majority found pleasure in the sensory modalities of food, as well as in the ‘comforting’ aspects of food pleasure. Furthermore, the moderately stressed respondents had fewer main meals and more post-dinner snacks and night meals, as compared to before falling ill, whereas the highly stressed group showed signs of anhedonic traits and losing appetite altogether. The present study contributes to our understanding of how a common condition, such as chronic stress, can affect individual, as well as public, health. Full article
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Article
Analysis of the Physical and Structure Characteristics of Reformulated Pizza Bread
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131979 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The current study deciphers the processing of different proportions of white flour and whole wheat flour (100:0, 75:25, 50:50: 25:75, and 0:100) into a pizza base using yeast-based fermentation. The bread making using the yeast system resulted in significant changes in the characteristics [...] Read more.
The current study deciphers the processing of different proportions of white flour and whole wheat flour (100:0, 75:25, 50:50: 25:75, and 0:100) into a pizza base using yeast-based fermentation. The bread making using the yeast system resulted in significant changes in the characteristics of bread, ranging from the porous structure development to the crumb cellular structure modifications. An increase in the proportions of whole wheat flour resulted in the formation of golden yellow pizza bases. The lightness of the crust was decreased, whereas the yellowness index was increased as the whole wheat flour contents were increased. The pore size of the pizza base was decreased while the pore density was increased as the whole wheat flour content was raised within the bread. The microscopic study also showed the formation of porous structures on the bulk of the pizza base. The texture analysis of the bread also suggested an increase in the formation of the rigid network structure when the amount of whole wheat flour was increased. The springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience were comparable for all the prepared samples. On the other hand, the values for hardness, gumminess, and chewiness showed an increasing trend with the increase in the whole wheat flour content. The impedance of the samples decreased when there was an increase in the whole wheat flour content. Overall, the pizza base that was developed with 50% whole wheat flour and 50% white flour ratio displayed acceptably firm yet sufficient viscoelastic properties for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Application of a Newly Developed Chitosan/Oleic Acid Edible Coating for Extending Shelf-Life of Fresh Pork
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131978 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of a newly-developed chitosan/oleic acid edible coating for extending the shelf-life of fresh pork under aerobic-packaging conditions. Various coating formulations were used: 2% chitosan alone (CHI), 0.5% (v/v) oleic acid in 2% [...] Read more.
This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of a newly-developed chitosan/oleic acid edible coating for extending the shelf-life of fresh pork under aerobic-packaging conditions. Various coating formulations were used: 2% chitosan alone (CHI), 0.5% (v/v) oleic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/0.5%OA) and 1% (v/v) oleic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/1%OA) were prepared. For coating, fresh pork slices were fully immersed in the coating solutions for 30 s and dried naturally at 4 °C for 30 min. The coated samples were placed on trays, over-wrapped with plastic film, stored at 4 °C for 21 days, and were analyzed for shelf-life stability. Samples without coating were used as control. It was found that the aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content were almost two to three times lower in the CHI/OA-coated samples compared to the control after 21 days of storage (p < 0.05). The CHI/OA coating combination completely inhibited growth of E. coli, and protected the meat from discoloration after 21 days of storage. In particular, the addition of OA increased the concentration of volatiles associated with pleasant aromas. This study provides an application potential of chitosan/oleic acid edible coating in preservation of fresh pork to prolong the shelf-life and improve safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Food Processing and Preservation)
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Review
Kombucha: Perceptions and Future Prospects
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131977 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Background: Kombucha is an increasingly consumed product classified as a nutraceutical. Legislative efforts about these products remain confusing and without global harmonization. This natural product has been developed to improve or promote physical and mental health. However, it needs regulatory guidelines to control [...] Read more.
Background: Kombucha is an increasingly consumed product classified as a nutraceutical. Legislative efforts about these products remain confusing and without global harmonization. This natural product has been developed to improve or promote physical and mental health. However, it needs regulatory guidelines to control the production and guarantee the product’s efficacy and safety. Aim: The study intends to draw attention to the need for regulatory guidelines and the potential of this product in the market and peoples’ health. Key findings and conclusions: The lack of regulation and the low level of literacy about this product can limit its development, marketing, and impact on health. Thus, it is essential to highlight the potential value of this product and invest in its development and marketing. Likewise, it is important to spread awareness among the population of these products and their impacts on people’s health. Thus, this study focuses on a pertinent theme and alerts to the need for legislation for these products, to draw attention to the inexistent legislative control and the consequent need for regulatory guidelines for better and safer production and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Eating Behaviors, Gut Microbiota, and Human Health)
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Review
Origin and Fate of Acrolein in Foods
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131976 - 03 Jul 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Acrolein is a highly toxic agent that may promote the occurrence and development of various diseases. Acrolein is pervasive in all kinds of foods, and dietary intake is one of the main routes of human exposure to acrolein. Considering that acrolein is substantially [...] Read more.
Acrolein is a highly toxic agent that may promote the occurrence and development of various diseases. Acrolein is pervasive in all kinds of foods, and dietary intake is one of the main routes of human exposure to acrolein. Considering that acrolein is substantially eliminated after its formation during food processing and re-exposed in the human body after ingestion and metabolism, the origin and fate of acrolein must be traced in food. Focusing on molecular mechanisms, this review introduces the formation of acrolein in food and summarises both in vitro and in vivo fates of acrolein based on its interactions with small molecules and biomacromolecules. Future investigation of acrolein from different perspectives is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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Article
Use of Large-Scale Genomics to Identify the Role of Animals and Foods as Potential Sources of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli That Cause Human Illness
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131975 - 03 Jul 2022
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) cause urinary tract and potentially life-threatening invasive infections. Unfortunately, the origins of ExPEC are not always clear. We used genomic data of E. coli isolates from five U.S. government organizations to evaluate potential sources of ExPEC infections. Virulence [...] Read more.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) cause urinary tract and potentially life-threatening invasive infections. Unfortunately, the origins of ExPEC are not always clear. We used genomic data of E. coli isolates from five U.S. government organizations to evaluate potential sources of ExPEC infections. Virulence gene analysis of 38,032 isolates from human, food animal, retail meat, and companion animals classified the subset of 8142 non-diarrheagenic isolates into 40 virulence groups. Groups were identified as low, medium, and high relative risk of containing ExPEC strains, based on the proportion of isolates recovered from humans. Medium and high relative risk groups showed a greater representation of sequence types associated with human disease, including ST-131. Over 90% of food source isolates belonged to low relative risk groups, while >60% of companion animal isolates belonged to medium or high relative risk groups. Additionally, 18 of the 26 most prevalent antimicrobial resistance determinants were more common in high relative risk groups. The associations between antimicrobial resistance and virulence potentially limit treatment options for human ExPEC infections. This study demonstrates the power of large-scale genomics to assess potential sources of ExPEC strains and highlights the importance of a One Health approach to identify and manage these human pathogens. Full article
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Article
The Use of Hemispherical Directional Reflectance to Evaluate the Interaction of Food Products with Radiation in the Solar Spectrum
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131974 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Food product packaging should block light to protect nutrients, color and active ingredients in functional food from degradation. Currently, packages are not optimized in terms of the solar radiation impact on the products they contain. The aim of this study was to develop [...] Read more.
Food product packaging should block light to protect nutrients, color and active ingredients in functional food from degradation. Currently, packages are not optimized in terms of the solar radiation impact on the products they contain. The aim of this study was to develop a method of quantifying the interaction of food products with solar radiation, which would enable the optimization and selection of packaging that would protect the product from the spectral range specifically absorbed by it. In order to determine the reflectance of chocolate, the total reflectance ratio was measured. For this purpose, a SOC 410 Solar DHR reflectometer from Surface Optics Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA was used. Directional reflectance was measured for seven discrete spectral ranges from 335 to 2500 nm, which correspond to the spectrum of solar radiation. The value of total reflectance for chocolate differed significantly in the studied spectral ranges. The highest reflectance ratio, averaged for all the tested chocolate, was recorded for the spectral range 700–1100 nm and the lowest for the 335–380 nm range. The total reflectance was significantly correlated with the cocoa content and the brightness of the chocolate. The proposed method of hemispheric directional reflectance enables the measurement of the total reflectance of food products. It can be used as a measure of exposure to radiation. Thus, it is possible to design a package that will protect the product from the spectral range that is most harmful for it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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Article
Pasteurization Modifies the Sensorial Attributes and Nutritional Profile of Orange Pulp By-Product
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131973 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
After orange processing, different by-products are generated, i.e., peels, seeds and pulps. The pulp is highly perishable, being an unstable food matrix that needs a preservation process to be stored and used again in the food production chain. Pasteurization is the technique of [...] Read more.
After orange processing, different by-products are generated, i.e., peels, seeds and pulps. The pulp is highly perishable, being an unstable food matrix that needs a preservation process to be stored and used again in the food production chain. Pasteurization is the technique of choice before aseptically packaging and storing under refrigerated conditions. In this study, the effect of pasteurization has been evaluated on the chemical, functional and sensorial profiles. Ash content decreased (p < 0.05) after the thermal treatment. Indeed, magnesium, calcium and zinc diminished, although copper was found to be higher (p < 0.05) in the pasteurized product. Total dietary fiber decreased (p < 0.05), but soluble dietary fiber raised (p < 0.05) due to hydrolysis caused by pasteurization. SDF:IDF ratio, hydration properties, and fat binding capacity were improved. Total soluble phenolic compounds remained similar but FRAP and DPPH scavenging activity decreased (p < 0.05) in the pasteurized by-product. Regarding the sensorial profile, pasteurization produced darkening, appearance of a cooked smell and an increase in bitterness. Therefore, pasteurization deteriorates the sensorial profile being able to change the attributes of an added-pasteurized-pulp juice; however, it is a good choice to preserve the orange pulp by-product to formulate food products different from juices or other beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agro-Food Waste as Source of Nutraceuticals)
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Review
Date Fruits as Raw Material for Vinegar and Non-Alcoholic Fermented Beverages
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131972 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Currently, foods and beverages with healthy and functional properties, especially those that claim to prevent chronic diseases, are receiving more and more interest. As a result, numerous foods and beverages have been launched onto the market. Among the products with enhanced properties, vinegar [...] Read more.
Currently, foods and beverages with healthy and functional properties, especially those that claim to prevent chronic diseases, are receiving more and more interest. As a result, numerous foods and beverages have been launched onto the market. Among the products with enhanced properties, vinegar and fermented beverages have a high potential for growth. Date palm fruits are a versatile raw material rich in sugars, dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds; thus, they are widely used for food production, including date juice, jelly, butter, and fermented beverages, such as wine and vinegar. Furthermore, their composition makes them suitable for the formulation of functional foods and beverages. Microbial transformations of date juice include alcoholic fermentation for producing wine as an end-product, or as a substrate for acetic fermentation. Lactic fermentation is also documented for transforming date juice and syrup. However, in terms of acetic acid bacteria, little evidence is available on the exploitation of date juice by acetic and gluconic fermentation for producing beverages. This review provides an overview of date fruit’s composition, the related health benefits for human health, vinegar and date-based fermented non-alcoholic beverages obtained by acetic acid bacteria fermentation. Full article
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Article
Chinese Consumers’ Trust in Food Safety Surveillance Sampling of Commonly Consumed Foods
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131971 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
In China, food has become safer over the past five years, especially commonly consumed foods. Food supervision sampling has played an important role in improving food safety. However, consumer acceptance of the results of food safety supervision have not kept pace. Communicating actual [...] Read more.
In China, food has become safer over the past five years, especially commonly consumed foods. Food supervision sampling has played an important role in improving food safety. However, consumer acceptance of the results of food safety supervision have not kept pace. Communicating actual food safety risks to consumers and improving the public trust in food safety supervision sampling inspection has become an important issue. This study focused on food safety surveillance sampling of commonly consumed foods. In total, 4408 adult consumers were surveyed between August and October 2021. Structural equation modeling was performed for data analysis. This study found significant differences along gender lines and across different cities and levels of education with respect to evaluating competence trust and care trust on food supervision sampling inspection. This study identified the public’s competence trust, care trust, and perception of food safety as factors that significantly affect one’s attitude toward supervision sampling inspection. Care trust showed a more pronounced effect on trust enhancement than competence trust. The present study also provides some practical measures for food safety supervisors to improve public trust in the national food inspection. Specifically, the sampling process should be open and transparent. Full article
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Article
The Effectiveness of Clove Extract on Oxidization-Induced Changes of Structure and Gelation in Porcine Myofibrillar Protein
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131970 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the structural characteristics and gelation behavior of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) with or without clove extract (CE) at different oxidation times (0, 1, 3, and 5 h). Circular dichroism spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that samples with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the structural characteristics and gelation behavior of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) with or without clove extract (CE) at different oxidation times (0, 1, 3, and 5 h). Circular dichroism spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that samples with CE addition had significantly higher α-helix content after oxidation than those without CE addition. However, prolonged oxidation (5 h) would make the effect of CE addition less pronounced. Similarly, the ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectra analysis revealed that CE controlled the oxidative stretching of the protein tertiary structure and reduced the exposure of aromatic amino acids. In addition, the particle size and turbidity values of the CE group significantly decreased after oxidation compared to the non-CE group. CE increased the gel strength by 10.05% after 5 h of oxidation, which could be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as a more homogeneous, dense, less porous, network-like gel structure. Therefore, these results showed that oxidation induced significant changes in the structure and gel properties of MPs, but the addition of CE effectively inhibited these destructive changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting Flavour, Taste and Colour of Meat)
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Article
Recovery and Concentration of Polyphenols from Roasted Hazelnut Skin Extract Using Macroporous Resins
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131969 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Hazelnut skin is a rich source of polyphenols but is generally discarded during the roasting process of hazelnuts. Previous studies reported the extraction and identification of these compounds using different solvents and procedures; however, there are few reports on their enrichment and purification. [...] Read more.
Hazelnut skin is a rich source of polyphenols but is generally discarded during the roasting process of hazelnuts. Previous studies reported the extraction and identification of these compounds using different solvents and procedures; however, there are few reports on their enrichment and purification. In this study, three types of Amberlite macroporous resins (XAD 16, XAD 4, and XAD 7) were compared to evaluate the enrichment of polyphenols via adsorption and desorption mechanisms. The operating condition parameters for polyphenol adsorption/desorption of each resin were determined, the kinetics of adsorption were examined, and a method for polyphenol recovery was developed using static and dynamic adsorption/desorption. Antioxidant activity and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection were used to confirm the increase in polyphenols obtained using the adsorption/desorption technique. XAD16 showed the highest adsorption capacity, with a recovery of 87.7%, and the adsorption kinetics fit well with a pseudo-second-order model. The highest poly-phenol desorption ratio was observed using an ethanol/water solution (70% v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 bed volume/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Food Processing By-Products)
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Article
Bioaccessibility of Macrominerals and Trace Elements from Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Farmers’ Varieties
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131968 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Traditional farmers’ varieties of tomato grown under extensive farming techniques are considered delicious and healthy foods and are preferred by local consumers. Tomatoes are an important component of a healthy diet, as they provide essential micronutrients, including minerals, which are vital to healthy [...] Read more.
Traditional farmers’ varieties of tomato grown under extensive farming techniques are considered delicious and healthy foods and are preferred by local consumers. Tomatoes are an important component of a healthy diet, as they provide essential micronutrients, including minerals, which are vital to healthy development, disease prevention, and wellbeing. Given the considerable dietary intake of tomatoes and the scarcity of information about the bioaccessibility of inorganic constituents in this fruit, this study was carried out to evaluate the content and bioaccessibility of minerals (macro- and microelements) in tomato farmers’ varieties widely cultivated in northeastern Portugal homegardens. Among the macroelements, K stood out as the most abundant mineral in the studied varieties, followed by Mg, Ca, and Na. Regarding the microelements, while the yellow tomato had higher concentrations of Fe and Cu, the round tomato had more Zn and Mn. The in vitro bioaccessibility assessment showed that, among the macroelements, Mg was more bioaccessible than Ca and K when all the tomato varieties were considered together. Among the microelements, Cu seemed to be the most bioaccessible. Although the contribution of a 100 g serving of the studied tomato farmers’ varieties to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) of minerals is relatively low, this food could contribute to reaching these mineral requirements, as it is included in the diet of most of the population, especially in Mediterranean regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient-Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet)
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Editorial
Non-Bovine Milk: Sources and Future Prospects
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131967 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Milk is the first food that mammals are exposed to [...] Full article
Article
Hygroscopic Properties of Three Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch Products: Application of BET and GAB Models
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131966 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
This study aimed to compare hygroscopicity properties of three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) products: native starch powder (NS), fermented starch powder (FS), and starch granulate (SG). The analyzed properties were compared based on the statistical evaluation of differences in the course of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare hygroscopicity properties of three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) products: native starch powder (NS), fermented starch powder (FS), and starch granulate (SG). The analyzed properties were compared based on the statistical evaluation of differences in the course of sorption isotherms and the identification and comparison of parameters in two theoretical models of sorption. Empirical data were generated by means of the static-desiccator method. Measurements were made using AquaLab apparatus. The size, shape, and number of tapioca particles were characterized using a Morphology automatic particle analyzer. The study demonstrated that in-depth exploration of empirical data describing hygroscopicity of samples with the use of mathematical tools allows evaluating their physical parameters. The results obtained were analyzed in terms of correlations between physical and physicochemical properties determining utility traits of cassava starch. The NS and SS featured significantly higher hygroscopicity than SG, as evidenced by the values of all parameters analyzed in this study. The study results provided new information related to the management of the production process, safety, and stability of these products. Full article
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Article
Stepwise Approach for Tracing the Geographical Origins of the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum Using Dual-Element Isotopes and Carbon Isotopes of Fatty Acids
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131965 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
While there are many studies that have reported methods for tracing the geographical origin of seafoods, most of them have focused on identifying parameters that can be used effectively and not the direct application of these methods. In this study, we attempted to [...] Read more.
While there are many studies that have reported methods for tracing the geographical origin of seafoods, most of them have focused on identifying parameters that can be used effectively and not the direct application of these methods. In this study, we attempted to differentiate the geographical origins of the Manila clam R. philippinarum collected from different sites in Korea, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and China using a combination of analyses based on dual-element isotopes, fatty acids (FAs), and compound-specific isotopic analysis of FAs. We hypothesized that a stepwise application of new parameters to unclassified samples could achieve this objective by integrating new information while reducing time and labor. The FA profiles and compound-specific carbon isotopic values of FAs were found to enhance the discrimination power of determining the geographic origin up to 100%. Our findings demonstrate the advantageousness of using several parameters simultaneously over the conventional method of employing individual analytical methods when identifying geographic origins of the Manila clam, which could have implications for tracing the origins of different shellfish species or other food products as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geographical Traceability of Food Products)
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Article
Chemical Characterization, α-Glucosidase, α-Amylase and Lipase Inhibitory Properties of the Australian Honey Bee Propolis
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131964 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The use of functional foods and nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity has steadily increased over the past few decades. With the aim of exploring the therapeutic potentials of Australian propolis, this study [...] Read more.
The use of functional foods and nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity has steadily increased over the past few decades. With the aim of exploring the therapeutic potentials of Australian propolis, this study reports the chemical and biological investigation of a propolis sample collected in the Queensland state of Australia which exhibited a potent activity in an in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory screening. The chemical investigation of the propolis resulted in the identification of six known prenylated flavonoids including propolins C, D, F, G, H, and solophenol D. These compounds potently inhibited the α-glucosidase and two other enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity, α-amylase, and lipase on in vitro and in silico assays. These findings suggest that this propolis is a potential source for the development of a functional food to prevent type 2 diabetes and obesity. The chemical analysis revealed that this propolis possessed a chemical fingerprint relatively similar to the Pacific propolis found in Okinawa (South of Japan), Taiwan, and the Solomon Islands. This is the first time the Pacific propolis has been identified in Australia. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Pesticide Residues Occurrence in Random Samples of Organic Fruits and Vegetables Marketed in Poland
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131963 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
In recent years, organic food, produced with the use of natural means and production methods, has been gaining more and more popularity among consumers. This is due, inter alia, to their belief that it is more abundant in health-promoting bioactive compounds and safer [...] Read more.
In recent years, organic food, produced with the use of natural means and production methods, has been gaining more and more popularity among consumers. This is due, inter alia, to their belief that it is more abundant in health-promoting bioactive compounds and safer than conventional food. Consumers are increasingly aware of the harmfulness of plant protection products used in intensive agriculture, which are not allowed in organic production. At the same time, it is reported that a certain share of organic products on the EU market are contaminated with pesticide residues, which may raise consumer concerns and lead to a loss of trust in organic food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the problem of pesticide residues occurrence in random samples of organically produced fruits and vegetables (apples, potatoes, carrots, and beetroots) commonly used in the Polish households, and which are available directly from the organic producers in open markets in Poland. For simultaneous analysis of 375 pesticides, an LC-MS/MS system consisting of an Eksigent expert ultraLC 100-XL coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer QTRAP 6500 and GC Agilent 6890 N equipped with ECD/NPD system were used. Among the 96 vegetable and fruit samples studied, 89 samples (92.7%) were free from detectable pesticide residues, 7 samples (7.3%) of carrot (5) and potato (2) were contaminated, and in 1 of them (1.0%) the detected residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). None of the tested apple and beetroot samples were found to contain detectable residues. These findings are important for Polish consumers who look for high-quality organic food. However, the presence of detectable residues in a small proportion of the organic samples indicates a need to strengthen the monitoring of pesticides in organic crops, to educate farmers and to raise their awareness regarding the risks of unauthorized use of pesticides banned in organic farming, which can damage the reputation of the whole organic sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Systematic Review
Effect of Cocoa Beverage and Dark Chocolate Consumption on Blood Pressure in Those with Normal and Elevated Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131962 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Cocoa is a major dietary source of polyphenols, including flavanols, which have been associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). While earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown significant effects of cocoa consumption on systolic BP, limitations include small sample sizes and study heterogeneity. [...] Read more.
Cocoa is a major dietary source of polyphenols, including flavanols, which have been associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). While earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown significant effects of cocoa consumption on systolic BP, limitations include small sample sizes and study heterogeneity. Questions regarding food matrix and dose of polyphenols, flavanols, or epicatechins remain. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of ≥2 weeks of cocoa consumption as a beverage or dark chocolate in those with normal or elevated (< or ≥130 mmHg) systolic BP measured in the fasted state or over 24-h. A systematic search conducted on PubMed and Cochrane Library databases up to 26 February 2022 yielded 31 suitable articles. Independent of baseline BP, cocoa consumption for ≥2 weeks was associated with reductions in systolic and diastolic BP (p < 0.05, all). Compared with cocoa, chocolate lowered the weighted mean of resting systolic BP (−3.94 mmHg, 95% CI [−5.71, −2.18]) more than cocoa beverage (−1.54 mmHg, 95% CI [−3.08, 0.01]). When the daily dose of flavanols was ≥900 mg or of epicatechin ≥100 mg, the effect was greater. Future, adequately powered studies are required to determine the optimal dose for a clinically significant effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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