Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 June 2023) | Viewed by 63733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Food Bioscience Group, Department of Bioactivity and Food Analysis, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Autonoma University of Madrid (UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: food security and nutrition; food bioactive compounds; food chemistry and biochemistry; nutrition and health; sustainability
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Guest Editor
The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wroclaw University ofEnvironmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 37/41, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: drying technology; food preservation; food engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-based foods are an important part of the human diet worldwide and a valuable source of natural biologically active compounds. Their availability in a fresh form during the year is limited, and due to their seasonality, processing becomes a key factor for maintaining the availability of these health-promoting components for daily consumption. Currently, in line with the newest trends connected with food waste reduction, the processing of industrial by-products, side streams, or wastes is also of high importance for the re-circulation of natural bioactive constituents, among other things. Furthermore, their conversion into novel types of food sustainably meets consumer demands by achieving a sustainable food chain. At present, traditional plant-based foods, especially produced from local products, are gaining attention from consumers and scientists due to the latest trends linked to the re-use of natural resources from the surrounding environment. The knowledge about their chemical composition, including the presence and quantity of bioactives that is linked to their biological activity, allow for the design of new food products with improved functional properties. In most cases, different processing techniques and parameters are applied, altering the composition of plant-based merchandise. This is connected with the modification of their structure and physico-chemical properties that may significantly moderate the biological effects of final products. The recognition of this effect of natural-based molecules present in complex food matrices being subjected to process-induced changes requires knowledge from different scientific disciplines. Due to the numerous possible interactions of individual bioactives between themselves, and between the bioactives and the constituents of complex food matrices, the evaluation of their process-moderated functions is crucial for the evaluation of their influence on health and disease, in model systems as well as complex foods. Furthermore, the effects of the composition of these processed products on digestibility has yet to be fully discovered. 

In the present Special Issue, we welcome original articles and narrative or systematic reviews on the impact of food matrix, food processing, and human digestion on the structure and function of the bioactive compounds composing plant-based foods products including botanicals, raw foods, processed foods, functional foods, food supplements, food-based powders, plant by-products, and medicinal plants.

Dr. Dolores Del Castillo
Dr. Anna Michalska-Ciechanowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bioactivity
  • bioavailability
  • digestibility
  • functional foods
  • health-promoting properties
  • plant bioactives
  • plant-based powders
  • plant-based supplements
  • processing
  • sustainability
  • traditional foods

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Intracellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Bioactive Profiles of Coffee Cascara and Black Tea Kombucha Beverages
by Amanda L. Sales, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Juliana DePaula, Mafalda Ribeiro, Isabel M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira, Marco Antonio L. Miguel, María Dolores del Castillo and Adriana Farah
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091905 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
Kombucha is a functional beverage obtained through fermentation of sweetened Camellia sinensis infusion by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts that exerts many beneficial biological effects, mostly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Alternative raw materials have been used to create [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a functional beverage obtained through fermentation of sweetened Camellia sinensis infusion by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts that exerts many beneficial biological effects, mostly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Alternative raw materials have been used to create new kombucha or kombucha-like products. Coffee is the most important food commodity worldwide and generates large amounts of by-products during harvest and post-harvest processing. The main coffee by-product is the dried fruit skin and pulp, popularly known as cascara. To date, no studies have evaluated the potential bioactivity of coffee cascara kombucha. In this study, we aimed to measure and compare the effects of infusions and kombuchas made with arabica coffee cascaras (n = 2) and black tea leaves (n = 1), fermented for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days on the intracellular production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Nitric Oxide (NO) in model cells. Oxidative stress was induced in HK-2 cells with indoxyl sulfate (IS) and high glucose (G). Inflammation was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophage. The contents of phenolic compounds, caffeine, and other physicochemical parameters were evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information on the bioactive profile and on the potential biological effects of coffee cascara kombucha. Fermentation caused the release of bound phenolic compounds from the infusions, especially total chlorogenic acids, with an average increase from 5.4 to 10.7 mg/100 mL (98%) and 2.6–3.4 mg/100 mL (30%) in coffee cascara and black tea kombucha, respectively, up to day 9. All evaluated beverages reduced (p < 0.0001) similarly the intracellular ROS (41% reduction, on average) and uric acid (10–55%) concentrations in HK-2 model cells, reversing the induced oxidative stress. All beverages also reduced (p < 0.0001, 81–90%) NO formation in LPS-induced macrophages, exhibiting an anti-inflammatory effect. These potential health benefits may be mostly attributed to polyphenols and caffeine, whose contents were comparable in all beverages. Coffee cascara showed similar potential to C. sinensis to produce healthy beverages and support sustainable coffee production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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12 pages, 6874 KiB  
Article
Anti-Leukemic Effects on a U937 Cell Line of Fresh and Steamed Chinese Kale Juice and Their Pro-Apoptotic Effects via a Caspase-Dependent Pathway
by Siriphorn Pungpuag, Somchai Boonpangrak and Yaneenart Suwanwong
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071471 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Chinese kale is a vegetable belonging to the family Brassicaceae in which members of this family produce unique metabolites called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. These substances have been found to exhibit many benefits to human health. This study aimed to investigate and compare the [...] Read more.
Chinese kale is a vegetable belonging to the family Brassicaceae in which members of this family produce unique metabolites called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. These substances have been found to exhibit many benefits to human health. This study aimed to investigate and compare the contents of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, and the anti-leukemic activity of fresh and steamed Chinese kale juice (CKJ). Cell viability and proliferation activity of U937 cells treated with CKJ were determined. Cell apoptosis and alterations of apoptosis-related protein expression were studied. Results showed that CKJ significantly decreased the viability of leukemic cells and inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with 5% v/v fresh and steamed CKJ for 24 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased to 53% and 36%, respectively. Increased amounts of cleaved caspase-3 in U937 cells treated with CKJ were observed, indicating that CKJ can trigger apoptotic cell death through a caspase-dependent pathway. Fresh CKJ was found to be more effective than steamed CKJ in suppressing cell survival and inducing cell apoptosis. The results suggest that Chinese kale possesses an anti-leukemic potential and could be further developed for cancer therapy and prevention. However, thermal cooking could reduce its beneficial function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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13 pages, 567 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Use of Different Polysaccharide Coatings on the Stability of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Chokeberry Hydrogel Microcapsules Obtained by Indirect Extrusion
by Marcelina Stach and Joanna Kolniak-Ostek
Foods 2023, 12(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030515 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the use of different polysaccharides and their mixtures on the structure of chokeberry hydrogel microcapsules and the stability of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity during one month of refrigerated storage. As a [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the use of different polysaccharides and their mixtures on the structure of chokeberry hydrogel microcapsules and the stability of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity during one month of refrigerated storage. As a coating material, alginate and its mixtures with pectin, carrageenan, and chitosan were used, while chokeberry juice and preparation of polyphenolic compounds were used as a core. In non-stored capsules, the addition of carrageenan, pectin, and chitosan to alginate increased the content of total polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. When compared to non-encapsulated juice, the capsules had a greater decrease in antioxidant capacity during storage. The coating variant composed of alginate and carrageenan was found to be the most beneficial for the preservation of the capsules’ phenolic compounds. The findings revealed that proper polysaccharide coating selection is critical for the proper course of the microencapsulation process, the polyphenolic content of chokeberry capsules, and their antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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11 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Varietal Effect on Composition and Digestibility of Seedless Table Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) under In Vitro Conditions
by Marianela Desireé Rodríguez, Joaquin García-Cordero, Diana Suárez-Coca, Maria Luisa Ruiz del Castillo, Gracia Patricia Blanch and Sonia de Pascual-Teresa
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243984 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Grapes are one of the richest sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet and, therefore, a very good source of antioxidants in the human diet. For practical reasons, in recent years the market for seedless grape varieties has grown exponentially. These varieties are [...] Read more.
Grapes are one of the richest sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet and, therefore, a very good source of antioxidants in the human diet. For practical reasons, in recent years the market for seedless grape varieties has grown exponentially. These varieties are not well characterized yet, and therefore it is necessary to study the changes in composition that these new varieties bring in. Likewise, the effect of digestion on the bioavailability of polyphenols in foods of plant origin is well known, which, consequently, will also affect antioxidant activity and, in general, bioactivity. In this work, we studied the effect of the grape variety on the initial grape composition and on the absorbable fraction, as it would reach the intestine after in vitro digestion. Our results showed that black and red varieties have great potential for increasing the antioxidant content of the diet. Additionally, we have concluded that all polyphenols, with the exception of flavanols, see their bioavailable fraction diminished under in vitro conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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19 pages, 4190 KiB  
Article
Comparison of an Artificial Neural Network and a Response Surface Model during the Extraction of Selenium-Containing Protein from Selenium-Enriched Brassica napus L.
by Tao Yang, Hongkun Lai, Zimo Cao, Yinyin Niu, Jiqian Xiang, Chi Zhang and Longchen Shang
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3823; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233823 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
In this study, the extraction conditions for selenium-enriched rape protein (SEP) were optimized by applying a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) model, and then, the optimal conditions were obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA). Then, the antioxidant power of [...] Read more.
In this study, the extraction conditions for selenium-enriched rape protein (SEP) were optimized by applying a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) model, and then, the optimal conditions were obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA). Then, the antioxidant power of the SEP was examined by using the DPPH, ABTS, and CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit-8), and its anticancer activities were explored by conducting a cell migration test. The results showed that compared with the RSM model, the ANN model was more accurate with a higher determination coefficient and fewer errors when it was applied to optimize the extraction method. The data obtained for SEP using a GA were as follows: the extraction temperature was 59.4 °C, the extraction time was 3.0 h, the alkaline concentration was 0.24 mol/L, the liquid-to-material ratio was 65.2 mL/g, and the predicted content of protein was 58.04 mg/g. The protein was extracted under the conditions obtained by the GA; the real content of protein was 57.69 mg/g, and the protein yield was 61.71%. Finally, as the concentration of the selenium-containing protein increased, it showed increased ability in scavenging free radicals and was influential in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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14 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.) in Three Forms: In Vitro Digestion Model and Metabolomics Approach
by Ziying Hu, Yanan Ma, Jun Liu, Yijun Fan, Anran Zheng, Pengyan Gao, Liang Wang and Dunhua Liu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223731 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L., LBL) is a good source of carotenoids, while the bioaccessibility of various types of LBL carotenoids has not been explored. In the study, eight carotenoids, three carotenoid esters and two carotenoid glycosylated derivatives were identified by a [...] Read more.
Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L., LBL) is a good source of carotenoids, while the bioaccessibility of various types of LBL carotenoids has not been explored. In the study, eight carotenoids, three carotenoid esters and two carotenoid glycosylated derivatives were identified by a non−targeted metabolomics approach. The dried LBL (DRI), LBL in water (WAT), and LBL in “Baijiu” (WIN) were used to recreate the three regularly chosen types of utilization, and the in vitro digestion model showed that the bioaccessibility of the carotenoids increased significantly from the oral to the gastric and intestinal phase (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of LBL carotenoids was the most elevated for DRI (at 28.2%), followed by WIN and WAT (at 24.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Among the three carotenoids, zeaxanthin dipalmitate showed the highest bioaccessibility (51.8–57.1%), followed by β−carotene (51.1–55.6%) and zeaxanthin (45.2–56.3%). However, the zeaxanthin from DRI exhibited significantly higher bioaccessibility (up to 58.3%) than WAT and WIN in both the gastric and intestinal phases (p < 0.05). Results of antioxidant activity tests based on DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS showed that the addition of lipids improved the bioaccessibility of the carotenoids. (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Health-Promoting Nutrients and Potential Bioaccessibility of Breads Enriched with Fresh Kale and Spinach
by Marta Czarnowska-Kujawska, Małgorzata Starowicz, Veronika Barišić and Wojciech Kujawski
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213414 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
Bread is a staple food and can be a potential product to be enriched with various deficient nutrients. The objective of the study was to characterize the nutritional properties of toasted bread enriched with 10% and 20% of kale and wholemeal bread with [...] Read more.
Bread is a staple food and can be a potential product to be enriched with various deficient nutrients. The objective of the study was to characterize the nutritional properties of toasted bread enriched with 10% and 20% of kale and wholemeal bread with 20% and 40% of spinach. The supplementation increased the phenolic content up to 2–3 times in the bread with the addition of 20% spinach and 40% kale. The highest antioxidant properties were noticed in extracts of bread with 20% kale. The in vitro digestion released the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidative compounds, leading to higher bioaccessibility of the breads enriched with these selected green vegetables. Even more than a 2-fold increase in folate content was observed in breads with the greatest addition of kale (20%) and spinach (40%), from 18.1 to 45.3 µg/100 g and from 37.2 to 83.2 µg/100 g, respectively, compared to the non-enriched breads. Breads with spinach showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher contents of all of the tested minerals, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, and P, whereas kale enriched breads showed most of them. The results suggest that the addition of fresh green vegetables can enhance the daily supply of micronutrients and significantly increase the bioavailability of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
16 pages, 3392 KiB  
Article
Study on the Drying Technology of Tomato Pulp with Phytoene, Phytofluene and Lycopene Retention as Inspection Indexes
by Liying Li, Cheng Yang, Jian Zhang and Lianfu Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213333 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
The objective was to design a feasible drying method to increase the retention rates of phytoene (PT), phytofluene (PTF) and lycopene (LYC) in tomato powder. The method was to compare the effects of vacuum freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD) and hot-air drying (HAD) [...] Read more.
The objective was to design a feasible drying method to increase the retention rates of phytoene (PT), phytofluene (PTF) and lycopene (LYC) in tomato powder. The method was to compare the effects of vacuum freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD) and hot-air drying (HAD) technologies on tomato pulp rich in PT, PTF and LYC. When dried by HAD, the retention rates of PT, PTF and LYC decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only when the water content decreased from 30% to 3.5%. When dried by VD, the temperatures had no significant effect on the retention rates, and only alkaline conditions (pH = 9), Fe3+ and Al3+ could significantly reduce the retention rates (p < 0.05). Therefore, a combined drying process (CDP) was designed: before the water content decreased to 50%, HD (60 °C) technology was used; then, the paste was dried via VD (80 °C, 0.08 MPa) technology till the water content reached 5 ± 2%; loading weight was 40 g (thinkness 5.70 mm) for each batch. Compared with VD alone, the CDP technology improved the retention rates of PT and LYC by 12% and 36%, respectively, while PTF decreased by only 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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11 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
A Rapid Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of Eugenol, Linalool and Fatty Acid Composition in Basil Leaves
by Lucia Lenti, Daniela Rigano, Sheridan L. Woo, Ancuta Nartea, Deborah Pacetti, Filippo Maggi and Dennis Fiorini
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213315 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Eugenol and linalool are often the most abundant volatile compounds found in basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) leaves, and they are interesting for the aroma they provide and for their numerous beneficial bioactivities. Their determination is thus needed for several purposes. In [...] Read more.
Eugenol and linalool are often the most abundant volatile compounds found in basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) leaves, and they are interesting for the aroma they provide and for their numerous beneficial bioactivities. Their determination is thus needed for several purposes. In the present study, to avoid the previous isolation of essential oil, the direct solvent extraction is proposed coupled with a transmethylation to convert acyl lipids into fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs), thus assessing the possible simultaneous analysis of eugenol and linalool with FAMEs by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The method has been validated and applied to ten basil leaves samples in which eugenol and linalool were found in mean concentrations of 2.80 ± 0.15 and 1.01 ± 0.04 g kg−1 (dry weight), respectively. FAMEs composition was dominated by linolenic acid (52.1–56.1%) followed by palmitic acid (19.3–22.4%) and linoleic acid (9.6–11.3%). The ratio of n6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)/n3-PUFAs was in the range of 0.17–0.20 in the investigated samples. The proposed method exploits a rapid procedure requiring 40 min, making use of a small amount of solvent and allowing the simultaneous determination of molecules contributing to assess the quality of this worldwide appreciated herb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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15 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Instant Mushroom Soup Enriched with Jerusalem artichoke and Cauliflower
by Badr Saed, Mohammed El-Waseif, Hany Fahmy, Hamdy Shaaban, Hatem Ali, Manal Elkhadragy, Hany Yehia and Amr Farouk
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3260; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203260 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
The present study aimed to develop instant mushroom soup fortified with mixed Jerusalem artichoke and Cauliflower powders (JACF) instead of wheat flour at different levels (5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry weight as natural sources of protein, ash, fiber, inulin, and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to develop instant mushroom soup fortified with mixed Jerusalem artichoke and Cauliflower powders (JACF) instead of wheat flour at different levels (5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry weight as natural sources of protein, ash, fiber, inulin, and bioactive components. Based on the proximate analysis, adding JACF with 20% recorded the highest contents of protein, ash, fibers, and inulin as 24.73, 3.67, 9.67, and 9.17%, respectively. In the same line, macro- and microelements and essential amino acids showed a significant increase during fortification with 5–20% JACF compared to the control. In contrast, the total carbohydrate content and caloric values were decreased with the raised JACF concentration in the soup. The highest content of total phenolic acids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was detected in mushroom soup with a 20% JACF mixture, which coincides with the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic (20.81–94.34 mg/100 g DW) and protocatechuic (13.63–58.53 mg/100 g) acids predominated among the phenolic acids identified in the mushroom-JACF soup samples, while rutin was the main flavonoid (7.52–18.2 mg/100 g). The increase of the JACF mixture in the soup significantly enhanced the rehydration ratio, total soluble solids, color parameters, and the sensory properties of the samples. In conclusion, using JACF in mushroom soup is necessary to improve the physicochemical characteristics and nutritional impact by containing phytochemicals and enhancing the organoleptic properties of the food product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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19 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of the Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme and Chestnut Honey by Addition of Bee Products
by Vanesa Sánchez-Martín, Paloma Morales, Amelia V. González-Porto, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Marta B. López-Parra, María Dolores Del Castillo, Xavier F. Hospital, Manuela Fernández, Eva Hierro and Ana I. Haza
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193118 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Honey consumption and imports have increased in recent years, and it is considered by consumers to be a healthy alternative to more commonly used sweeteners. Honey contains a mixture of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds, and the botanical origin and geographical area of collection [...] Read more.
Honey consumption and imports have increased in recent years, and it is considered by consumers to be a healthy alternative to more commonly used sweeteners. Honey contains a mixture of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds, and the botanical origin and geographical area of collection play an important role on its chemical composition. The present study investigated the physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Spanish thyme honey and chestnut honey, and their mixtures with royal jelly (2% and 10%) and propolis (2% and 10%). The analysis of the physicochemical parameters of both honey samples showed values within the established limits. Propolis showed the highest value of total phenolic content (17.21–266.83 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ORAC and ABTS assays; 0.63–24.10 µg eq. Tx/g, 1.61–40.82 µg eq. Tx/g and 1.89–68.54 µg eq. Tx/g, respectively), and significantly reduced ROS production in human hepatoma cells. In addition, mixtures of honey with 10% of propolis improved the results obtained with natural honey, increasing the value of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. A significant positive correlation was observed between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity could be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in the samples, at least partially. In conclusion, our results indicated that thyme and chestnut honey supplemented with propolis can be an excellent natural source of antioxidants and could be incorporated as a potential food ingredient with biological properties of technological interest, added as a preservative. Moreover, these mixtures could be used as natural sweeteners enriched in antioxidants and other bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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25 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Grapes Modulates Gene Expression, Reduces Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Extends Longevity in Female C57BL/6J Mice Provided with a High-Fat Western-Pattern Diet
by Asim Dave, Eun-Jung Park, Avinash Kumar, Falguni Parande, Diren Beyoğlu, Jeffrey R. Idle and John M. Pezzuto
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1984; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131984 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 35123
Abstract
A key objective of this study was to explore the potential of dietary grape consumption to modulate adverse effects caused by a high-fat (western-pattern) diet. Female C57BL/6J mice were purchased at six-weeks-of-age and placed on a standard (semi-synthetic) diet (STD). At 11 weeks-of-age, [...] Read more.
A key objective of this study was to explore the potential of dietary grape consumption to modulate adverse effects caused by a high-fat (western-pattern) diet. Female C57BL/6J mice were purchased at six-weeks-of-age and placed on a standard (semi-synthetic) diet (STD). At 11 weeks-of-age, the mice were continued on the STD or placed on the STD supplemented with 5% standardized grape powder (STD5GP), a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 5% standardized grape powder (HFD5GP). After being provided with the respective diets for 13 additional weeks, the mice were euthanized, and liver was collected for biomarker analysis, determination of genetic expression (RNA-Seq), and histopathological examination. All four dietary groups demonstrated unique genetic expression patterns. Using pathway analysis tools (GO, KEGG and Reactome), relative to the STD group, differentially expressed genes of the STD5GP group were significantly enriched in RNA, mitochondria, and protein translation related pathways, as well as drug metabolism, glutathione, detoxification, and oxidative stress associated pathways. The expression of Gstp1 was confirmed to be upregulated by about five-fold (RT-qPCR), and, based on RNA-Seq data, the expression of additional genes associated with the reduction of oxidative stress and detoxification (Gpx4 and 8, Gss, Gpx7, Sod1) were enhanced by dietary grape supplementation. Cluster analysis of genetic expression patterns revealed the greatest divergence between the HFD5GP and HFD groups. In the HFD5GP group, relative to the HFD group, 14 genes responsible for the metabolism, transportation, hydrolysis, and sequestration of fatty acids were upregulated. Conversely, genes responsible for lipid content and cholesterol synthesis (Plin4, Acaa1b, Slc27a1) were downregulated. The two top classifications emerging as enriched in the HFD5GP group vs. the HFD group (KEGG pathway analysis) were Alzheimer’s disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), both of which have been reported in the literature to bear a causal relationship. In the current study, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was indicated by histological observations that revealed archetype markers of fatty liver induced by the HFD. The adverse response was diminished by grape intervention. In addition to these studies, life-long survival was assessed with C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were received at four-weeks-of-age and placed on the STD. At 14-weeks-of-age, the mice were divided into two groups (100 per group) and provided with the HFD or the HFD5GP. Relative to the HFD group, the survival time of the HFD5GP group was enhanced (log-rank test, p = 0.036). The respective hazard ratios were 0.715 (HFD5GP) and 1.397 (HFD). Greater body weight positively correlated with longevity; the highest body weight of the HFD5GP group was attained later in life than the HFD group (p = 0.141). These results suggest the potential of dietary grapes to modulate hepatic gene expression, prevent oxidative damage, induce fatty acid metabolism, ameliorate NAFLD, and increase longevity when co-administered with a high-fat diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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14 pages, 613 KiB  
Review
Ornamental Flowers Grown in Human Surroundings as a Source of Anthocyanins with High Anti-Inflammatory Properties
by Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Foods 2022, 11(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070948 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
Flowers have always accompanied people thanks to their manifold aesthetic properties. Some species have also become a component of the human diet. Recent years have seen an increased interest in edible flowers and, consequently, research has been undertaken to determine their chemical composition. [...] Read more.
Flowers have always accompanied people thanks to their manifold aesthetic properties. Some species have also become a component of the human diet. Recent years have seen an increased interest in edible flowers and, consequently, research has been undertaken to determine their chemical composition. Dyes that are abundantly contained in flowers, whose role is to attract pollinating animals, are recognized substances with health-promoting properties. Anthocyanins are a group of dyes that are very common in petals and other parts of flowers. Studies carried out in the twentieth and twenty-first century on flowers growing in temperate climates have found very strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanins. Therefore, flowers used by humans for centuries to decorate their surroundings may become an easily available source of nutrients and health-promoting substances. This paper discusses the health-promoting properties of anthocyanins and collects literature on anthocyanin content in edible flowers commonly grown on balconies, terraces, and roofs in countries of temperate climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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