Special Issue "Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 5747

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Berta Nogueiro Estevinho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LEPABE, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: microencapsulation; active and natural compounds; spray drying process; electrospinning/electrospraying processes; controlled release studies; biopolymers; functional systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Amparo López-Rubio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Safety and Preservation Department, CSIC - Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de los Alimentos (IATA), Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Interests: micro- and nanoencapsulation; functional foods; controlled delivery; biopolymers for food packaging; nanomaterials for food applications; structural characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Encapsulation has become a challenging approach to design new materials with biotechnological and functional applications, particularly in the food industry. The development of fortified foods and beverages containing a variety of bioactive agents is being investigated to take advantage of their health benefits. However, some of these bioactive compounds are incredibly sensitive to ambient or industrial process conditions. Normally, they are very volatile, react with other components, and are susceptible to heat and moisture. For all these reasons, encapsulation tools have emerged to protect their bioactivity and/or improve their bioaccessibility and bioavailability after ingestion. 

In this Special Issue, we aim at publishing innovative research results and review papers dealing with encapsulation of active and natural compounds. These papers can explore novel encapsulation techniques or encapsulation matrices, physicochemical characteristics of the encapsulation systems and their food applications, including sensorial characteristics, nutritional value of food products containing encapsulated compounds and/or their simulated digestion behavior. 

This Special Issue also seeks to provide a fundamental understanding and the current strategies to improve encapsulation of specific active and natural compounds such as flavors, vitamins, stabilizers, probiotics, essential oils, natural antioxidants, bioactive proteins and enzymes, among others. 

Dr. Berta Nogueiro Estevinho
Prof. Dr. Amparo López-Rubio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Encapsulation of functional compounds 
  • Antioxidant encapsulation 
  • Essential oil encapsulation 
  • Flavor encapsulation 
  • Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation processes 
  • Controlled release studies 
  • Functional supplements 
  • Nutraceutical products 
  • Characterization of microstructures 
  • Kinetic release models

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Encapsulation of EGCG by Zein-Gum Arabic Complex Nanoparticles and In Vitro Simulated Digestion of Complex Nanoparticles
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142131 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has many excellent qualities such as its antitumor, antiradiation and anti-oxidation properties, but its application is limited because its oral bioavailability is low and stability is poor. In this paper, zein and gum arabic (GA) were used as wall materials [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has many excellent qualities such as its antitumor, antiradiation and anti-oxidation properties, but its application is limited because its oral bioavailability is low and stability is poor. In this paper, zein and gum arabic (GA) were used as wall materials to prepare Zein-GA complex nanoparticles for encapsulating and protecting the EGCG. The particle size of Zein-GA-EGCG complex nanoparticles ranged from 128.03–221.23 nm, and the EGCG encapsulation efficiency reached a maximum of 75.23% when the mass ratio of zein to GA was 1:1. The FTIR and XRD results illustrated that the components of the Zein-GA-EGCG complex nanoparticles interacted by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The EGCG release rate of Zein-GA-EGCG nanoparticles (16.42%) was lower than that of Zein-EGCG (25.52%) during gastric digestion, and a large amount of EGCG was released during intestinal digestion, suggesting that the Zein-GA-EGCG nanoparticles could achieve the sustained release of EGCG during in vitro digestion. Hence, using Zein-GA complexes to encapsulate EGCG effectively increased the encapsulation efficiency of EGCG and realized the purpose of sustained release during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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Article
Electrosprayed Agar Nanocapsules as Edible Carriers of Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142093 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Electrosprayed agar nanocapsules were developed using an acetic acid solution as solvent. The role of solution properties (viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity) in the formation of agar particles was assessed, together with the effect of both agar and acetic acid concentrations on the [...] Read more.
Electrosprayed agar nanocapsules were developed using an acetic acid solution as solvent. The role of solution properties (viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity) in the formation of agar particles was assessed, together with the effect of both agar and acetic acid concentrations on the size and morphology of the resulting particles. Agar solutions with a concentration below 10% w/v were not suitable for electrospraying. Furthermore, the agar–acetic acid ratio was also critical for the formation of agar nanostructures (with an optimum ratio of 1:2). A decrease in particle size was also observed when decreasing agar concentration, with particle diameter values ranging between 50 and 400 nm. Moreover, the suitability of the electrosprayed agar nanocapsules as carriers for a model bioactive compound, chlorophyllin sodium copper salt (CHL), was also evaluated. The release profile of encapsulated CHL, with an estimated encapsulation efficiency of around 40%, was carried out in food simulants with different hydrophilicity (10% v/v and 50% v/v ethanol). While the release of the bioactive was negligible in the hydrophilic food simulant, an initial burst release followed by a slower sustained release was observed when the capsules were immersed in 50% ethanol solution. The results open up a broad range of possibilities that deserve further exploration related to the use of these edible polysaccharide-based nanocapsules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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Article
Microencapsulation of a Commercial Food-Grade Protease by Spray Drying in Cross-Linked Chitosan Particles
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142077 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 836
Abstract
In this study, the use of spray-drying technology for encapsulating Flavourzyme® (protease–peptidase complex) was evaluated to overcome the limitations (low encapsulation efficiency and no large-scale production) of other encapsulation processes. To the best of our knowledge, spray drying has not been applied [...] Read more.
In this study, the use of spray-drying technology for encapsulating Flavourzyme® (protease–peptidase complex) was evaluated to overcome the limitations (low encapsulation efficiency and no large-scale production) of other encapsulation processes. To the best of our knowledge, spray drying has not been applied previously for the immobilization of this enzyme. Firstly, bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a model protein, was encapsulated by spray drying in chitosan and tripolyphoshate (TPP) cross-linked-chitosan shell matrices. The results showed that the chitosan–TPP microcapsules provided a high encapsulation efficiency and better protein stability compared to the non-crosslinked chitosan microcapsules. The effect of enzyme concentration and drying temperature were tested during the spray drying of Flavourzyme®. In this regard, an activity yield of 88.0% and encapsulation efficiency of 78.6% were obtained with a concentration of 0.1% (v/v) and an inlet temperature of 130 °C. Flavourzyme®-loaded chitosan microcapsules were also characterized in terms of their size and morphology using scanning electron microscopy and laser diffractometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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Article
Food-Grade Microencapsulation Systems to Improve Protection of the Epigallocatechin Gallate
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131990 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and one of the most abundant polyphenols in green tea, and it is under research for its potential benefit to human health and for its potential to be used in disease treatments, such as for cancer. However, [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and one of the most abundant polyphenols in green tea, and it is under research for its potential benefit to human health and for its potential to be used in disease treatments, such as for cancer. However, the effectiveness of polyphenols depends on preserving their bioactivity, stability, and bioavailability. The EGCG was microencapsulated by a spray-drying process, using different biopolymers as encapsulating agents (gum arabic, modified chitosan and sodium alginate), in order to overcome some of the limitations of this compound. The microparticles showed a diameter around 4.22 to 41.55 µm (distribution in volume) and different morphologies and surfaces, depending on the encapsulating agent used. The EGCG release was total, and it was achieved in less than 21 min for all the formulations tested. The EGCG encapsulation efficiency ranged between 78.5 and 100.0%. The release profiles were simulated and evaluated using three kinetic models: Korsmeyer–Peppas (R2: 0.739–0.990), Weibull (R2: 0.963–0.994) and Baker–Lonsdale (R2: 0.746–0.993). The Weibull model was the model that better adjusted to the experimental EGCG release values. This study proves the success of the EGCG microencapsulation, using the spray-drying technique, opening the possibility to insert dried EGCG microparticles in different food and nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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Article
Mixing Oil-Based Microencapsulation of Garlic Essential Oil: Impact of Incorporating Three Commercial Vegetable Oils on the Stability of Emulsions
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071637 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
The active components in garlic essential oil are easily degradable, which limits its application in the food industry. Vegetable oils (VOs) were used to improve the stability of garlic essential oil (GEO) emulsion. The volatile compounds of GEO and its mixtures with vegetable [...] Read more.
The active components in garlic essential oil are easily degradable, which limits its application in the food industry. Vegetable oils (VOs) were used to improve the stability of garlic essential oil (GEO) emulsion. The volatile compounds of GEO and its mixtures with vegetable oils (VOs), including corn oil (CO), soybean oil (SO), and olive oil (OO) indicated that GEO-VO mixtures had a higher percentage of Diallyl disulfide and Diallyl trisulfide than pure GEO. Adding an appropriate amount of VOs promoted the GEO emulsion (whey protein concentrate and inulin as the wall materials) stability in order of CO > SO > OO. Evaluation of the encapsulation efficiency, controlled release, and antimicrobial activity of GEO-VO microcapsules showed that the GEO was successfully entrapped and slowly released with active antibacterial activities on both E. coli and S. aureus. Collectively, these results implied that VOs, especially for 20% CO, improved the stability of GEO emulsions and the encapsulation efficiency of GEO microcapsules. The mechanism might be related to (1) the regulating effect of density difference between oil and water phases on prevention to gravitational separation, (2) the promotion to the compatibility of GEO and VOs to inhibit the phase separation caused by Ostwald ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Encapsulation for Food Applications)
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