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Chemosensors, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Deposition Time and Annealing Effects of ZnO Seed Layer on Enhancing Vertical Alignment of Piezoelectric ZnO Nanowires
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Well aligned crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) on ZnO/Au/Ti/Si substrates were grown by so-called “hydrothermal synthesis”. ZnO seed layers with different thicknesses ranging from 5 to 100 nm, achieved by controlling the deposition time, were prepared by radio-frequency sputtering, followed by a [...] Read more.
Well aligned crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) on ZnO/Au/Ti/Si substrates were grown by so-called “hydrothermal synthesis”. ZnO seed layers with different thicknesses ranging from 5 to 100 nm, achieved by controlling the deposition time, were prepared by radio-frequency sputtering, followed by a post-annealing treatment in air at 400 °C. The effects of deposition time and annealing treatment of ZnO seed layers on the subsequent growth of ZnO NWs were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results reveal that the quality and growth behaviors of ZnO NWs are strongly dependent on both the thickness and the heat treatment of the ZnO seed layers. This work is an optimization step of an easy, cost-effective, and industrially scalable process flow recently developed for the fabrication of a high performance, nanocomposite-based stretchable nanogenerator (SNG) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The morphological improvement of hydrothermally grown ZnO NWs may therefore lead to higher performance SNGs for the targeted application of mechanical energy harvesting, in order to supply flexible and wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Efforts for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Impedance Study of Dopamine Effects after Application on 2D and 3D Neuroblastoma Cell Cultures Developed on a 3D-Printed Well
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, the assessment of the interactions of a bioactive substance applied to immobilized cells in either a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) arrangement mimicking in vivo tissue conditions is presented. In particular, dopamine (DA) was selected as a stimulant for the [...] Read more.
In this work, the assessment of the interactions of a bioactive substance applied to immobilized cells in either a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) arrangement mimicking in vivo tissue conditions is presented. In particular, dopamine (DA) was selected as a stimulant for the implementation of an impedance analysis with a specific type of neural cells (murine neuroblastoma). The aim of this study was the extraction of calibration curves at various frequencies with different known dopamine concentrations for the description of the behavior of dopamine applied to 2D and 3D cell cultures. The results present the evaluation of the mean impedance value for each immobilization technique in each frequency. The differential responses showed the importance of the impedance when frequency is applied in both 2D and 3D immobilization cases. More specifically, in 2D immobilization matrix impedance shows higher values in comparison with the 3D cell culture. Additionally, in the 3D case, the impedance decreases with increasing concentration, while in the 2D case, an opposite behavior was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electroanalytical Tools for De-Centralized Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence-Based Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene, and Cumene (BTEXC) Compounds in Fuel-Contaminated Snow Environments
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Reported herein is the sensitive and selective cyclodextrin-promoted fluorescence detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and cumene (BTEXC) fuel components in contaminated snow samples collected from several locations in the state of Rhode Island. This detection method uses cyclodextrin as a supramolecular scaffold [...] Read more.
Reported herein is the sensitive and selective cyclodextrin-promoted fluorescence detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and cumene (BTEXC) fuel components in contaminated snow samples collected from several locations in the state of Rhode Island. This detection method uses cyclodextrin as a supramolecular scaffold to promote analyte-specific, proximity-induced fluorescence modulation of a high-quantum-yield fluorophore, which leads to unique fluorescence responses for each cyclodextrin-analyte-fluorophore combination investigated and enables unique pattern identifiers for each analyte using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This detection method operates with high levels of sensitivity (sub-micromolar detection limits), selectivity (100% differentiation between structurally similar compounds, such as ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene isomers), and broad applicability (for different snow samples with varying chemical composition, pH, and electrical conductivity). The high selectivity, sensitivity, and broad applicability of this method indicate significant potential in the development of practical detection devices for aromatic toxicants in complex environments. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Chemosensors in 2018
Received: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]
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Open AccessReview Thin Films Sensor Devices for Mycotoxins Detection in Foods: Applications and Challenges
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Mycotoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by different species of filamentous fungi and pose serious threats to food safety due to their serious human and animal health impacts such as carcinogenic, teratogenic and hepatotoxic effects. Conventional methods for the detection of [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by different species of filamentous fungi and pose serious threats to food safety due to their serious human and animal health impacts such as carcinogenic, teratogenic and hepatotoxic effects. Conventional methods for the detection of mycotoxins include gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry or other detectors (fluorescence or UV detection), thin layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These techniques are generally straightforward and yield reliable results; however, they are time-consuming, require extensive preparation steps, use large-scale instruments, and consume large amounts of hazardous chemical reagents. Rapid detection of mycotoxins is becoming an increasingly important challenge for the food industry in order to effectively enforce regulations and ensure the safety of food and feed. In this sense, several studies have been done with the aim of developing strategies to detect mycotoxins using sensing devices that have high sensitivity and specificity, fast analysis, low cost and portability. The latter include the use of microarray chips, multiplex lateral flow, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and biosensors using nanoparticles. In this perspective, thin film sensors have recently emerged as a good candidate technique to meet such requirements. This review summarizes the application and challenges of thin film sensor devices for detection of mycotoxins in food matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Film Based Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Frequency Tracking of an Electro-Thermal Piezoresistive Cantilever Resonator with ZnO Nanorods for Chemical Sensing
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
The asymmetric resonance response in electro-thermal piezoresistive cantilever resonators causes a need of an optimization treatment for taking parasitic actuation-sensing effects into account. An electronic reference circuit for signal subtraction, integrated with the cantilever resonator has the capability to reduce the effect of [...] Read more.
The asymmetric resonance response in electro-thermal piezoresistive cantilever resonators causes a need of an optimization treatment for taking parasitic actuation-sensing effects into account. An electronic reference circuit for signal subtraction, integrated with the cantilever resonator has the capability to reduce the effect of parasitic coupling. Measurement results demonstrated that a symmetric amplitude shape (Lorentzian) and an optimized phase characteristic (i.e., monotonically decreasing) were successfully extracted from an asymmetric resonance response. With the monotonic phase response, real-time frequency tracking can be easier to implement using a phase-locked loop (PLL) system. In this work, an electro-thermal piezoresistive cantilever resonator functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of chitosan-covered ZnO nanorod arrays as sensitive layers has been investigated under different relative humidity (rH) levels. Enhancement of resonance phase response has been demonstrated by implementing the reference signal subtraction. Subsequently, a lock-in amplifier integrated with PLL system (MFLI, Zurich Instruments, Zurich, Switzerland) was then employed for continuously tracking the resonant frequency. As a result, we find a good correlation of frequency shift (∆f0) with change in rH monitored using a commercial reference sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Efforts for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemically Prepared Unzipped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes-MnO2 Nanostructure Composites for Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Sensing
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
Amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose biosensors based on unzipped carbon nanotubes with modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical oxidative method. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of this new form [...] Read more.
Amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose biosensors based on unzipped carbon nanotubes with modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical oxidative method. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of this new form of carbon nanomaterial as a substrate electrode material for fabricating sensitive platform for H2O2 and glucose sensors. For this purpose, the manganese oxide (MnO2)/unzipped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) film was synthesized by the cyclic voltammetry method. The developed sensing film, MnO2/unzipped SWCNTs/GCE, displayed a satisfactory analytical performance for H2O2, including a wide linear range of 2.0 × 10−6 to 5.0 × 10−3 M with a detection limit of 0.31 × 10−6 M (10.7 ppb). This film was further applied for glucose sensing with a linearity range of 0.01 to 1.2 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9822 in the physiological pH (7.4). This facile, fast, environmentally-friendly, and economical preparation strategy of carbon nanomaterial-based electrode materials opens up the possibility of developing high quality biocompatible hydrogen peroxide and glucose sensors. Full article
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