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Educ. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Democracy and Education through the Eyes of Kuwaiti Politicians: A Phenomenological Study
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010060 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Kuwait’s Constitution defines the small Arab Gulf nation as a constitutional democracy led by a hereditary emirate, although outside observers have questioned the degree to which it is indeed democratic. Despite such scepticism, Kuwait has undoubtedly taken some steps to promote democratization, including [...] Read more.
Kuwait’s Constitution defines the small Arab Gulf nation as a constitutional democracy led by a hereditary emirate, although outside observers have questioned the degree to which it is indeed democratic. Despite such scepticism, Kuwait has undoubtedly taken some steps to promote democratization, including the introduction of the Constitution and Human Rights (CHR) module to the national curriculum to teach high students about civics, democracy and rights. While previous studies have explored the perspectives of Kuwaiti students and teachers towards democracy in general and the CHR in particular, the perspectives of Kuwaiti politicians have not been previously explored. To better understand their perspectives of and experiences towards democracy and education for democracy, this study employed a phenomenological approach involving 15-to-30-minute semi-structured interviews with five Kuwait politicians who have served as either Members of the Kuwaiti National Assembly or Ministers or both. The themes that emerged included Active Versus Passive Democracy, Homegrown Versus Imported Democracy, Culture and Democracy and Education for Democracy, which are discussed in greater detail in the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Democracy, Justice, and Human Rights Education)
Open AccessArticle Different Grouping Strategies for Cooperative Learning in English Majored Seniors and Juniors at Can Tho University, Vietnam
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010059 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
We present research on the attitudes of seniors and juniors doing a major in English toward different grouping strategies for cooperative learning at Can Tho University, Can Tho city, Vietnam. The collected data is analyzed by a means of quantitative approach. The findings [...] Read more.
We present research on the attitudes of seniors and juniors doing a major in English toward different grouping strategies for cooperative learning at Can Tho University, Can Tho city, Vietnam. The collected data is analyzed by a means of quantitative approach. The findings not only facilitate the further understanding of English majors’ opinions on different grouping strategies, but also provide teachers and lecturers who employ cooperative learning as one of their teaching strategies with useful clues on which group formation they should use. More importantly, we hope to give an insight to the characteristics of different grouping strategies, in order to find out the group forming method(s) that simultaneously boosts group dynamics, students’ satisfaction, and academic achievements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Engineering Student Learning Style Trends by Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010058
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to use group technology to classify students at the classroom level into clusters according to their learning style preferences. Group technology is used, due to the realization that many problems are similar, and that by grouping similar problems, single solutions [...] Read more.
This study aims to use group technology to classify students at the classroom level into clusters according to their learning style preferences. Group technology is used, due to the realization that many problems are similar, and that by grouping similar problems, single solutions can be found for a set of problems. The Felder and Silverman style, and the index learning style (ILS) are used to find student learning style preferences; students are grouped into clusters based on the similarities of their preferences, by using multivariate statistical analysis. Based on the developed groups, instructors can use the proper teaching style to teach their students. The formation of clusters based on the statistical analyses of two sets of data collected from students of two classes at the same level, belonging to same engineering department indicates that each class has different learning style preferences. This is an eye-opener to educators, in that different teaching styles can be used for their students, based on the students’ learning styles, even though the students seem to have a common interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Issues and Trends in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Information Technology for Communication and Learning in Secondary School Students with a Hearing Disability
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010057
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Information technology (IT) is important to meet the needs of students with a hearing disability in special Thai school settings. The aim of this paper was to research the use and opinion of IT for communication and learning from students with a hearing [...] Read more.
Information technology (IT) is important to meet the needs of students with a hearing disability in special Thai school settings. The aim of this paper was to research the use and opinion of IT for communication and learning from students with a hearing disability in schools for the deaf. The IT in this study included information devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, and tablets. This study used the stratified random sampling method for enrolling its participants. Data collected from 192 students with a hearing disability using a self-administered questionnaires. Results found that most of these students knew about chat applications, for example, Line, Facebook, Messenger and face-to-face conversation apps. Furthermore, most of these students contacted people with hearing problems by sending messages through Facebook, Line and face-to-face applications. The main reasons why they used IT was for convenience and general conversation. A study of opinions on the use of IT by students with a hearing disability found that most of them agreed that IT equipment contributed to their participation in various activities, including conversations with their relatives and friends on social networking. Conclusion and discussions were included. Full article
Open AccessArticle Qualitative Analysis of Satisfying and Dissatisfying Factors in a University–Industry Cooperation Programme
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010056
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Using qualitative semistructured interviews, this study aims to analyse the satisfying and dissatisfying factors in a university–industry cooperation programme. Work experience, monetary benefit, HR policies, language and time are important factors determining the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of students towards a university–industry cooperation programme. [...] Read more.
Using qualitative semistructured interviews, this study aims to analyse the satisfying and dissatisfying factors in a university–industry cooperation programme. Work experience, monetary benefit, HR policies, language and time are important factors determining the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of students towards a university–industry cooperation programme. Results help in evaluating and identifying the sustainability of a programme. Marketing practitioners can consider the results in designing corresponding marketing strategies, and HR managers and programme coordinators can formulate guidelines for future improvements of related programmes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Student Assessment of the Use of Kahoot in the Learning Process of Science and Mathematics
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010055
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
One of the main objectives in education is to increase the motivation of the students to achieve meaningful learning. The use of technologies in classrooms which students are familiarized with such as the smartphone or the tablet, is a way to achieve this [...] Read more.
One of the main objectives in education is to increase the motivation of the students to achieve meaningful learning. The use of technologies in classrooms which students are familiarized with such as the smartphone or the tablet, is a way to achieve this goal. On the other hand, it has been proven that the inclusion of scenarios supported by games and competition enhance the active participation of students. Therefore, in this work we present the results of a study based on of the application Kahoot with students of secondary education, in the subjects of mathematics, biology & geology and physics & chemistry, during the academic year 2017/2018. This tool allows students to answer to on-line questionnaires created by the teacher, through mobile devices, and check their results in a few seconds as well as those of their classmates. The results obtained on the assessment of the tool by students, in terms of the benefits in the learning process, have been very positive and help us to examine the potential of the use of on-line questionnaires in the classrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in STEM education)
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Open AccessArticle An Entrepreneurship Venture for Training K–12 Teachers to Use Engineering as a Context for Learning
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010054
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the authors present their experiences from participating in a National Science Foundation (NSF) I-Corps L training program established for business startups, using Blank’s Lean LaunchPad, Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas, and associated tools. They used the entrepreneurial skills acquired through this [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors present their experiences from participating in a National Science Foundation (NSF) I-Corps L training program established for business startups, using Blank’s Lean LaunchPad, Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas, and associated tools. They used the entrepreneurial skills acquired through this training to scale-up their emerging innovation, the Cincinnati Engineering Enhanced Math and Science Program (CEEMS), which had been developed, implemented, and evaluated with successful results over a period of seven years in a targeted 14 school-district partnership in Greater Cincinnati. The overriding goal was to improve student learning and success rates in K–12 math and science courses by helping to accelerate the process of bringing effective educational innovation, CEEMS, to scale. In CEEMS, teachers were trained in using challenge-based learning (CBL) and the engineering design process (EDP), teaching pedagogies to transform their classrooms into student-centered, hands-on learning environments, while also assisting students to improve their evaluation scores related to science, math, and engineering instruction. CEEMS teachers acquired the necessary skills through coursework, professional development (PD) workshops, and longitudinal professional guidance provided by assigned coaches over a period of two years to become proficient in developing CBL–EDP curriculum, teaching it, and assessing student learning and reflecting after teaching. The authors have documented how they used customer market research conducted during the I-Corps L training to define their minimum viable product (MVP) to duplicate the successful CEEMS methodology through a condensed (≤16 week) self-paced, completely online training program with virtual coaching support. The authors also describe the process they used to move forward very quickly from an MVP to a more complete product offering, its branding, the process of trademarking it, and finally licensing it to an established non-profit organization (NPO) for future marketing. Details of the whole experience are presented with the hope that it will serve as a useful guide for other venture creators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Learning Ecological Concepts in Secondary Schools of the Northeast of Spain
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010053
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Ecological concepts are not a recent matter; international organizations have already increased their efforts to provide better environmental education and ecological consciousness, although despite these efforts, a lack of attitudes and concepts were detected in the northeast of Spain. We evaluated the acquisition [...] Read more.
Ecological concepts are not a recent matter; international organizations have already increased their efforts to provide better environmental education and ecological consciousness, although despite these efforts, a lack of attitudes and concepts were detected in the northeast of Spain. We evaluated the acquisition of concepts related to environmental education in the students as proposed by current legislation, as well as their relation to different parameters, such as geographical location, type of school, and gender. The result suggests that the students achieve a meaningful learning of the concepts proposed by legislation and that acquisition of this knowledge is related to gender and geographical location, but not to the type of secondary school. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Dialogical Turn in Normative Political Theory and the Pedagogy of Human Rights Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010052
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore a capacity-building pedagogical approach to human rights education as a complement to the “declarationist” approach. The basic premise of this philosophical paper is the idea of human rights as justified claims and/or demands; as such, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to explore a capacity-building pedagogical approach to human rights education as a complement to the “declarationist” approach. The basic premise of this philosophical paper is the idea of human rights as justified claims and/or demands; as such, ethical and moral justification is presupposed in the very idea of rights itself. It is argued that a dialogical turn in moral and political philosophy, in particular theoretical justifications of principles of justice, such as rights, has taken place. Given that ethical and moral justification is central to the meaning of human rights, the significance of this dialogical turn for the idea of human rights and human rights education is explored from within the idea of the logical structure of disciplines of knowledge, a discipline’s fundamental ideas and forms of thought (methods of inquiry). From within this perspective, it is argued that the dialogical nature of justification central to rights should structure the pedagogy of human rights education. It is suggested that this pedagogy entails three forms of normative dialogue—ethical, moral, and critical—that can form the normative structure of a pedagogy of human rights education. It is concluded that while awareness and respect are necessary conditions to the realization of human rights, the development of the capacity of future citizens to make, to justify, and to critique human rights claims is also necessary for the realization of human rights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Democracy, Justice, and Human Rights Education)
Open AccessArticle Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: A Bibliometric Study on its Impact in the Scientific Literature
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010051
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Artificial intelligence has experienced major developments in recent years and represents an emerging technology that will revolutionize the ways in which human beings live. This technology is already being introduced in the field of higher education, although many teachers are unaware of its [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence has experienced major developments in recent years and represents an emerging technology that will revolutionize the ways in which human beings live. This technology is already being introduced in the field of higher education, although many teachers are unaware of its scope and, above all, of what it consists of. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to analyse the scientific production on artificial intelligence in higher education indexed in Web of Science and Scopus databases during 2007–2017. A bespoke methodology of bibliometric studies was used in the most relevant databases in social science. The sample was composed of 132 papers in total. From the results obtained, it was observed that there is a worldwide interest in the topic and that the literature on this subject is just at an incipient stage. We conclude that, although artificial intelligence is a reality, the scientific production about its application in higher education has not been consolidated. Full article
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Open AccessReview Metasynthesis of Preservice Professional Preparation and Teacher Education Research Studies
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010050
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Results from a metasynthesis of the relationships between 14 different types of preservice teacher preparation practices and teaching quality, preschool to university student performance, and university student and beginning teacher belief appraisals are reported. Each type of preservice practice (e.g., course-based student learning) [...] Read more.
Results from a metasynthesis of the relationships between 14 different types of preservice teacher preparation practices and teaching quality, preschool to university student performance, and university student and beginning teacher belief appraisals are reported. Each type of preservice practice (e.g., course-based student learning) included different kinds of instructional methods (e.g., problem-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and project-based learning). The metasynthesis included 118 meta-analyses and 12 surveys of more than three million study participants. Findings clearly indicated that active university student and beginning teacher involvement in mastering the use of instructional practices and both knowledge and skill acquisition by far stood out as the most important preservice teacher preparation practices. These included extended student teaching experiences, simulated instructional practices and microteaching, faculty coaching and mentoring, clinical supervision, different types of cooperative learning practices, and course-based active student learning methods. The pattern of results helped identify high leverage and high impact teacher preparation practices. Implications for future research and improving teacher preparation are described. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Investigation of Students’ Use of a Computational Science Simulation in an Online High School Physics Class
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010049
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
Science educators have begun to explore how students have opportunities to not only view and manipulate simulations, but also to analyze the complex sources of data they generate. While scholars have documented the characteristics and the effects of using simulations as a source [...] Read more.
Science educators have begun to explore how students have opportunities to not only view and manipulate simulations, but also to analyze the complex sources of data they generate. While scholars have documented the characteristics and the effects of using simulations as a source of data in face-to-face, K-12 classrooms, how simulations can be taken up and used in such a way in fully-online classes is less-explored. In this study, we present results from our initial qualitative investigation of students’ use of a simulation in such a way across three lessons in an online, Advanced Placement high school physics class. In all, 13 students participated in the use of a computational science simulation that we adapted to output quantitative data across the lesson sequence. Students used the simulation and developed a class data set, which students then used to understand, interpret, and model a thermodynamics-related concept and phenomenon. We explored the progression of students’ conceptual understanding across the three lessons, students’ perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the simulation, and how students balanced explaining variability and being able to interpret their model of the class data set. Responses to embedded assessment questions indicated that a few developed more sophisticated conceptual understanding of the particle nature of matter and how it relates to diffusion, while others began the lesson sequence with an already-sophisticated understanding, and a few did not demonstrate changes in their understanding. Students reported that the simulation helped to make a complex idea more accessible and useful and that the data generated by the simulation made it easier to understand what the simulation was representing. When analyzing the class data set, some students focused on fitting the data, not considering the interpretability of the model as much, whereas other students balanced model fit with interpretability and usefulness. In all, findings suggest that the lesson sequence had educational value, but that modifications to the design of the simulation and lesson sequence and to the technologies used could enhance its impact. Implications and recommendations for future research focus on the potential for simulations to be used to engage students in a variety of scientific and engineering practices in online science classes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plant Classification Knowledge and Misconceptions among University Students in Morocco
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010048
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to assess learning outcomes and identify students’ misconceptions in plant classification. We conducted a questionnaire survey with undergraduate and master’s students. The qualitative analysis of the students’ responses made it possible to shed light on the difficulties of assimilation of [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess learning outcomes and identify students’ misconceptions in plant classification. We conducted a questionnaire survey with undergraduate and master’s students. The qualitative analysis of the students’ responses made it possible to shed light on the difficulties of assimilation of many notions and also to identify the different misconceptions constructed during their learning courses about plant organisms. The findings indicate that some students are not motivated to take the course on plant classification. This demotivation is reinforced further by students’ perceptions of plant classification, especially that it is not important and not useful for learning other biology specialities. The findings also show that more than half of the students who participated in this study consider plant systematics a difficult subject. We also note that some of the students surveyed seem not to have acquired many concepts of plant biology including concepts related to the biology, reproduction and evolution of plants. Thanks to this, we could see different types of problems in plant classification, which constitute misconceptions hindering learning. Initial training in plant biology does not appear to have a significant effect in modifying students’ misconceptions related to plant classification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Blindness in Seeing: A Philosophical Critique of the Visible Learning Paradigm in Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010047
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
An international consensus seems to have developed in educational research—and among educational planners and policymakers—during the last 10–15 years proclaiming that learning is, and must be, a visible phenomenon. This paper questions this predominant view and serves an assemblage of points offering educational [...] Read more.
An international consensus seems to have developed in educational research—and among educational planners and policymakers—during the last 10–15 years proclaiming that learning is, and must be, a visible phenomenon. This paper questions this predominant view and serves an assemblage of points offering educational scientists at least four profound perspectives to reflect upon. First of all, learning is not immediately visible to the learning subject. It demands and deserves a qualitative lifelong perspective and—not to be underestimated—autonomous reflections to come to know and acknowledge what learning is and can be in an existential perspective. For the individual, it is always worth asking the question whether or not the things ‘learned’ in the first place were worth learning. Secondly, no one can examine the complex synaptic wiring process in the changeable and ‘learning’ brain (i.e., human neuroplasticity); the body-phenomenological depths and growth of a human being; or the manifold processes constituting the totality of historical social interactions surrounding the learning process and reduce them to something simple and already ‘known’ (a figure, a score, an effect, an answer in a test, an evaluation statement, etc). Thirdly, so-called visible learning for teachers has to be differentiated from both conscious and unconscious learning for pupils and students. The attempts to objectify and sometimes even instrumentalize learning risk running into obvious problems and fostering serious mistakes. Besides, the teacher and the ‘learner’ do not share the same perspectives and they often also have different interests. Fourthly, the concept of learning is not a value-neutral term and should only be used with an awareness of its historical development as a concept. I will argue that character formation—edification of character (Bildung), in light of the rich German geisteswissenschaftliche tradition—and the capability to think and become a vivid language user and creator demand much more than learning. Moreover, teaching is much more than a method to ‘produce’ learning, and to reproduce learning goals, and the purpose of education must transcend a teleological implementation of strategic national and international learning goals. In this paper, the revitalized concept of Bildung both serves as a critique of the visible learning paradigm and as a take-off of an alternative and more fertile way to conceptualize the task and possibilities of education. The line of the argument and ambition of the paper is to depict how blindness seems to be an inevitable part of educational seeing. The thesis is that powerful scientific and political adherents of learning cannot see what they cannot see—neither when they see what they (think they) see, nor when they do not see what they do not (want to) see. Full article
Open AccessArticle Promoting Young Children’s Interest in Learning English in EFL Context: The Role of Mothers
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010046
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a mother’s motivation for providing English education to a young child on the provision of English education and the child’s interest in learning English. Also, the mediating role of the type of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a mother’s motivation for providing English education to a young child on the provision of English education and the child’s interest in learning English. Also, the mediating role of the type of English education provided (English interaction at home and English private lessons) between a mother’s motivation and a child’s interest in learning English was examined. In total, 414 Korean mothers of 3-to-5-year-olds reported their motivation for providing English education to their child, frequency of English interaction at home, and the duration of English private lessons the child experienced. The degree of a child’s interest in learning English was measured by both the child’s mother and the teacher. The main results are as follows. First, a mother’s integrative motivation had a positive effect on the provision of English education. On the other hand, a mother’s instrumental motivation did not have a significant effect on the provision of English education. Also, a mother’s integrative motivation had an indirect effect on a child’ interest in learning English through English interaction at home. A mother’s integrative motivation had a direct effect on a child’s interest in learning English as well. This study is theoretically meaningful in that the concept of integrative and instrumental motivation of foreign language learners is extended to the mothers who provide foreign language education to their young children. Also, this study provides practical implications for early childhood mothers by highlighting the importance of integrative motivation and English interaction at home to enhance the child’s interest in learning English. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Secondary Students’ Alternative Conceptions about Engineering Design Technology
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010045
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents the assessment items that were developed by science and technology teachers in Québec to explore their students’ alternative ideas about engineering design technology and technological systems. These assessment items were administered to Secondary Cycle One students in Francophone and Anglophone [...] Read more.
This paper presents the assessment items that were developed by science and technology teachers in Québec to explore their students’ alternative ideas about engineering design technology and technological systems. These assessment items were administered to Secondary Cycle One students in Francophone and Anglophone schools in Québec to elicit their ideas about the foundational technology concepts included in the science and technology curriculum. Students’ responses are presented to share their alternative and scientific explanations. In addition, various approaches to facilitate a deeper understanding of scientific models and mechanistic reasoning in students are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Project Management Competences by Teaching and Research Staff for the Sustained Success of Engineering Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010044
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Projects have become an essential instrument for the success of universities. In a context of globalization and increasing complexity, they must sharpen their resourcefulness to face these challenges and adapt to this changing environment. To reach these objectives, they undertake a series of [...] Read more.
Projects have become an essential instrument for the success of universities. In a context of globalization and increasing complexity, they must sharpen their resourcefulness to face these challenges and adapt to this changing environment. To reach these objectives, they undertake a series of activities of a unique, concrete and temporary nature, not always technical but managerial ones. If universities work with people on projects in the production, transmission and dissemination of knowledge, then they link with society to solve its problems. For this reason, teaching and research staff (TRS) should promote a range of professional project management (PM) competences in different areas for the proper management of the projects in which they take part. Through a Delphi technique, a panel of twenty-four accredited teaching experts who are carrying out significant research and holding directive roles, measured the importance of acquiring and/or improving professional PM competences by their TRS. Consensus and stability reached after two rounds of consultation confirmed there are a series of crucial competences for the practice of relevant teaching and pioneer research. Results obtained are the basis for a gap plan that allows the TRS to participate in and/or lead university projects with greater self-confidence and personal motivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education and Technological / Professional Learning)
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Open AccessArticle Reflections on the Adult Education Professoriate in Canada
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010043
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Drawing on an autoethnographic approach, we offer a retrospective and current reflection on the Adult Education Professoriate within the Canadian university system. Through our autographic texts as professors within the field of adult education, as well as a review of relevant adult education [...] Read more.
Drawing on an autoethnographic approach, we offer a retrospective and current reflection on the Adult Education Professoriate within the Canadian university system. Through our autographic texts as professors within the field of adult education, as well as a review of relevant adult education literature, we consider the historical and current societal and academic trends that informed the growth and associated struggles in this academic program over the past six decades, including the launch of the Canadian Association for Studies in Adult Education. Reflecting on lessons from the past, we argue that we need to remain vigilant as professors within Canadian universities and realize that the programs we promote and offer will only thrive if we continue to survive as a valued and visible field of scholarship and practice. We further assert that our survival is contingent upon ramping up our engagement with and educating of colleagues from other disciplines, as well as work and learning contexts. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Visual Representation of Redox Reactions in Secondary Chemistry Textbooks from Different Chinese Communities
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010042
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
This study provides an analysis of selected aspects of the intended curriculum related to redox reactions as represented in secondary chemistry textbooks from the People’s Republic of China, with a special view also on Hong Kong, Shanghai, Taiwan, and the Chinese minority in [...] Read more.
This study provides an analysis of selected aspects of the intended curriculum related to redox reactions as represented in secondary chemistry textbooks from the People’s Republic of China, with a special view also on Hong Kong, Shanghai, Taiwan, and the Chinese minority in Malaysia. This study reveals how chemistry textbooks deal with visual representations related to redox reactions and whether or not the visualizations provide any indication for the orientation of the intended curriculum, characterized by contexts suggested for chemistry learning. Specific criteria were derived from a literature review of the discussion on different levels of chemical representations and from a total of 346 visual representations related to redox reactions identified and analyzed from the textbooks. Based on the frequencies and levels of visual representations in the textbooks, this study showed that representations in textbooks from the People’s Republic of China mostly focus on the macro and macro-symbolic levels and indicate some aspects of everyday life as well as orientations towards industry and technology. The findings show that the textbook from Taiwan uses multiple macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic representations to illustrate the redox reactions. The textbook from Hong Kong has a strong orientation along the content structure of chemistry, with mostly macro level representations. The textbook from the Chinese minority in Malaysia follows a strong structure-of-discipline orientation with limited visual support. Full article
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Open AccessReview Ecological Citizenship Education and the Consumption of Animal Subjectivity
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010041
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
The unfolding of the ecological disaster has led authors to reconsider the position of the human subject and his/her relationship with the earth. One entry point is the concept of ecological citizenship, which emphasizes responsibility, community, and care. However, the discourse of ecological [...] Read more.
The unfolding of the ecological disaster has led authors to reconsider the position of the human subject and his/her relationship with the earth. One entry point is the concept of ecological citizenship, which emphasizes responsibility, community, and care. However, the discourse of ecological citizenship often reduces the human subject to a critical consumer-citizen and citizenship education to the production of such a subject. The position outlined in this paper provides a more fundamental critique of consumption as a way of being in and relating to the world. In particular, it foregrounds objectification, commodification, and its impacts on human and nonhuman subjectivity and the possibility of care within a multi-species community. The paper brings animal-sensitive work in environmental education research and political theory into dialogue with a more general critique of culture and pedagogy in consumer society. From this perspective, ecological citizenship education seeks to liberate human and nonhuman beings from predetermined behavioral results and functions, and opens the time and space for the subjectification of human and nonhuman citizens within the complex dynamics of a multi-species community. With this proposition, the paper contributes to an ecocentric understanding of ecological citizenship education that builds on the continuity of life and subjective experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecocentric Education)
Open AccessArticle Exploring Turkish Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions and Views of Digital Literacy
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010040
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate digital literacy perceptions of preservice teachers, and to identify quantity characteristics of first and second year preservice teachers’ digital literacy at a public university in Turkey. That is, pre-service teachers’ perceptions of digital literacy and their patterns of [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate digital literacy perceptions of preservice teachers, and to identify quantity characteristics of first and second year preservice teachers’ digital literacy at a public university in Turkey. That is, pre-service teachers’ perceptions of digital literacy and their patterns of knowledge and use of digital literacy were measured within the scope of this study. Multiple sources of data, including a Likert scale and open-ended questions were collected to address the topic. Various statistical techniques and tests such as ANOVA, t-test, and Tukey HSD test were used in the analysis of the obtained data. Qualitative data was analyzed by using the content analysis method. The findings indicated that the model showed a good fit with the data and standardized regression weights indicated that attitude, technical, cognitive, and social factors were significant predictors of digital literacy. In addition, it was identified that the pre-service teachers had high and positive perceptions of digital literacy. However, it was observed in the open-ended questions that they lack the refined cognitive skills to find, evaluate, create, and communicate. The findings were then discussed in light of the relevant literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Affects Middle School Students’ English Anxiety in the EFL Context? Evidence from South Korea
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010039
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper examines what affects adolescents’ English anxiety in the English as Foreign Langauage (EFL) context. A total of 414 adolescents in South Korea participated in the study and the AMOS 20.0 was used in structural equation modeling for statistical analysis. The results [...] Read more.
This paper examines what affects adolescents’ English anxiety in the English as Foreign Langauage (EFL) context. A total of 414 adolescents in South Korea participated in the study and the AMOS 20.0 was used in structural equation modeling for statistical analysis. The results are as follows. Girls showed a higher level of English anxiety and self-directed learning ability than boys. Second, adolescents’ English self-efficacy had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between parental pressure expectation and English anxiety. Third, parental pressure expectation had a significant effect on English anxiety through self-directed learning and English self-efficacy. Fourth, a gender difference in the paths of the models was significant. This provides supporting evidence to many educators and parents for the implementation of effective support practices for adolescents who learn English in EFL contexts similar to Korea to reduce thier English anxiety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Texas–Mexico Border vs. Non-Border School Districts’ Growth Trajectory of High-Stakes Reading Performance: A Multi-Level Approach
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010038
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This study focuses on comparing the growth trajectory of border and non-border school districts regarding their fifth-grade students’ performance on a standardized reading test. Using a growth hierarchical linear model, we investigated the effect of time, school location, and their interaction on students’ [...] Read more.
This study focuses on comparing the growth trajectory of border and non-border school districts regarding their fifth-grade students’ performance on a standardized reading test. Using a growth hierarchical linear model, we investigated the effect of time, school location, and their interaction on students’ reading performance through the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) reading test in five recent school years. It was found that border school students lagged behind in reading at the initial stage when STAAR was first administered. As time went by, the gap between border and non-border district students’ reading performance remained. Implications for teaching pedagogy and research are discussed regarding the preparation of border district students to become bilingual, bicultural, and biliterate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ecophilosophical Principles for an Ecocentric Environmental Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010037
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
As environmental slogans have been permeating the social imaginary and permeating the conceptual and axiological dimensions of the different educational currents, Environmental Education has been prompted to define its own specific nature in contrast to the supposedly more integrative educational movements. In contrast [...] Read more.
As environmental slogans have been permeating the social imaginary and permeating the conceptual and axiological dimensions of the different educational currents, Environmental Education has been prompted to define its own specific nature in contrast to the supposedly more integrative educational movements. In contrast to the historical or meta-theoretical strategies of specification and foundation of environmental education, we propose the establishment of some principles derived from genuinely ecological and ecocentric environmental philosophies; the ecophilosophies. This work reviews—in a conciliatory framework and with a pedagogical interest in mind—the most significant contributions of land ethics, deep ecology, social ecology, ecofeminism and the change of paradigm ecologies. The result is a set of facets, key categories and features that offer an integrated and synoptic view of how Ecocentric Environmental Education (EEE) could be based on ecophilosophical principles. In addition, the contrasting features that define those non-ecocentric perspectives of Environmental Education are proposed, and a deconstructive transition of these in alliance with another reconstructive ecophilosophical feature is suggested as the central intention of the Environmental Education methodology. Finally, the value of the theoretical proposal is defended as a foundation and framework for future pedagogical specifications and methodological developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecocentric Education)
Open AccessArticle Economics (Only) Now: The Temporal Limitations of Economics as Part of a Critical Social Studies Pedagogy
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010036
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
This study speaks to the limited literature on economics pedagogy as part of a broader, critical, social studies pedagogy. Specifically, it seeks to understand the way that preservice teachers in an urban teaching program conceptualize the function of economics within social studies. Utilizing [...] Read more.
This study speaks to the limited literature on economics pedagogy as part of a broader, critical, social studies pedagogy. Specifically, it seeks to understand the way that preservice teachers in an urban teaching program conceptualize the function of economics within social studies. Utilizing case study methods and a theoretical framework that intersects critical pedagogical tenets of social analysis with the idea of a counter-hegemonic stance, the study offers insight into the role of economics as part of a broadly critical social studies teacher education program. The results indicate that preservice teachers’ purpose for teaching social studies and the function of economics were aligned in the mission to critically analyze society. However, preservice teachers’ purposes for social studies extended beyond the function of economics into the past, and informed active citizenship for future action. These results show that economics can be a significant part of a social studies education practice that seeks to analyze society, understand the past, and take action for a better future. Unfortunately, limited familiarity and content knowledge inhibit a broader application of the function of economics. Social studies teacher education must purposefully integrate economics content into the exploration of the past and a discussion of future action for justice in order to combat prevailing content knowledge issues in preservice teachers and to help them reconcile their purpose for teaching social studies through economics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Education)
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Open AccessArticle Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) in High Schools: Subtle but Potentially Important Student Gains Detected from Human-Centered Curriculum Design
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010035
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
A major goal in Engineering training in the U.S. is to continue to both grow and diversify the field. Project- and service-based forms of experiential, problem-based learning are often implemented with this as a goal, and Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) High [...] Read more.
A major goal in Engineering training in the U.S. is to continue to both grow and diversify the field. Project- and service-based forms of experiential, problem-based learning are often implemented with this as a goal, and Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) High is one of the more well-regarded and widely implemented. Yet, the evidence based on if and how participation in such programs shapes student intentions and commitment to STEM pathways is currently limited, most especially for pre-college programming. This study asks: How do high school students’ engineering mindsets and their views of engineering/engineers change as they participate in project–service learning (as implemented through an EPICS High curriculum)? This study employed a mixed method design, combining pre- and post-test survey data that were collected from 259 matched students (63% minority, 43% women) enrolling in EPICS High (total of 536 completed pre-tests, 375 completed post-tests) alongside systematic ethnographic analysis of participant observation data conducted in the same 13 socioeconomically diverse schools over a two-year period. Statistical analyses showed that participants score highly on engineering-related concepts and attitudes at both pre- and post-test. These did not change significantly as a result of participation. However, we detected nuanced but potentially important changes in student perspectives and meaning, such as shifting perceptions of engineering and gaining key transversal skills. The value of participation to participants was connected to changes in the meaning of commitments to pursue engineering/STEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Excellence in Engineering Education)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Service Teachers’ Perception of Financial Literacy Curriculum: National Standards, Universal Design, and Cultural Responsiveness
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010034
Received: 1 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
For youth with disabilities, the economic challenges of adulthood pose substantial risks. While the need for financial skills to navigate the economic climate is critical, access to financial education presents many challenges. High school is the optimal time for students with disabilities to [...] Read more.
For youth with disabilities, the economic challenges of adulthood pose substantial risks. While the need for financial skills to navigate the economic climate is critical, access to financial education presents many challenges. High school is the optimal time for students with disabilities to access financial education; however, contact is limited. One factor in this limited access may be linked to special educators’ lack of knowledge of financial literacy curricula as such resources are typically not part of their teacher preparation. Using a rubric developed by Henning and Johnston-Rodriguez, preservice teachers evaluated five examples of relevant financial literacy curricula: Financial Fitness for Life, Practical Money Skills, Finance in the Classroom, Money Talks 4 Teens, and Money Smart for Young Adults. Preservice teachers found one curriculum to be most comprehensive in teaching standards-based financial literacy concepts relevant to students with special needs as well as principles of universal design and cultural responsiveness. Each of the other curricula was found to have merit in some respects, suggesting an eclectic approach of mixing some of the curricula depending on teacher and student goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Education)
Open AccessEditorial Mobile Learning—Trends and Practices
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010033
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects in the field of educational technology given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’ for mobile devices. Within this special issue, there are a range of studies [...] Read more.
Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects in the field of educational technology given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’ for mobile devices. Within this special issue, there are a range of studies and reviews which cover a breadth of current topics in the field, namely user motivations for using mobile learning, issues in evaluation and domain-specific considerations (e.g., use within language learning or audio-based applications). Together these studies represent the synthesis of a range of methods, approaches and applications that highlight benefits and areas of future growth of mobile technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Learning)
Open AccessArticle Matching Instruction with Modality-Specific Learning Style: Effects on Immediate Recall and Working Memory Performance
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010032
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
A well-known hypothesis in education and amongst the general public is that matching instructional method with an individual’s modality-specific learning style improves learning and cognitive performance. Several critical reviews in the past decade, however, have shown that the hypothesis has not been properly [...] Read more.
A well-known hypothesis in education and amongst the general public is that matching instructional method with an individual’s modality-specific learning style improves learning and cognitive performance. Several critical reviews in the past decade, however, have shown that the hypothesis has not been properly evaluated with appropriate methodology. Furthermore, the association between learning style and other cognitive abilities such as working memory has not been examined. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine the association between modality-specific learning style, immediate recall, and working memory performance. University students with visual or auditory learning styles were randomly assigned to one of two instructional methods and then given a multiple-choice recall test. In addition, the participants completed working memory tasks with visual or auditory presentation. The results failed to support the matching hypothesis or any association between modality-specific learning style and working memory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Connecting Local to Global: A Case Study of Public Engagement
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010031
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Public engagement is recognised as having an increasingly important role in the changing landscape of higher education in the United Kingdom (UK), and is promoted as a ‘pathway to impact’ by many higher education funding bodies. However, there is limited evidence to support [...] Read more.
Public engagement is recognised as having an increasingly important role in the changing landscape of higher education in the United Kingdom (UK), and is promoted as a ‘pathway to impact’ by many higher education funding bodies. However, there is limited evidence to support the outreach and impact gained by higher education institutes that undertake international public engagement activities. Similarly, little is known about higher education staff and student’s experiences of participating in such public engagement activities. This study focusses on a Global Festival of Learning (GFoL) in delivering public engagement on an international stage through an integrated approach involving the fusion of education, research, and professional practice, and the perceived impact on staff and students. This paper proposes an adaptive model for public engagement founded on five strategic public engagement areas that can be transferred to other higher education institutes with an interest in developing their international outreach and impact. Full article
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