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Educ. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 102 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Evaluating teachers and educational work is now mandatory in the Greek educational system. The current study aims at investigating the perceptions of the principals of Piraeus Secondary Education units regarding the contribution of the evaluation law to the orderly functioning of schools at both administrative and educational levels. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from a convenience sample of 12 principals. All interviewed principals recognized the need for the evaluation process in education and its importance, with nine emphasizing technology training, while five mentioned the negative feelings that such an evaluation could cause. As concluded, evaluation is of great educational importance; however, when implemented suddenly or imposed by the state, it can cause pressure, stress, nervousness, and insecurity. View this paper
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20 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents
by Karrie E. Godwin, Freya Kaur and Susan Sonnenschein
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040426 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
COVID-19 has had a major impact on education, with many children attending school online for more than a year. To understand the implications of online learning for U.S. teachers (Study 1; N = 49) and families (Study 2; N = 189) of elementary [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has had a major impact on education, with many children attending school online for more than a year. To understand the implications of online learning for U.S. teachers (Study 1; N = 49) and families (Study 2; N = 189) of elementary school students, we administered a survey in spring 2021, about one year into the pandemic. Participants answered questions about the instructional modality and format, challenges managing instruction, and children’s attention and learning. Comparing virtual to in-person instruction (pre-COVID-19) showed: (1) teachers reported the quantity of virtual instruction was less than in-person instruction and children were more off-task; (2) parents reported greater stress managing virtual instruction with fewer than half the children completing online lessons independently; and (3) parents reported that children exhibited mild-frustration during both virtual and in-person instruction, but children enjoyed learning in-person more. Understanding teachers’ and families’ experiences with virtual instruction will help elucidate potential factors contributing to pandemic-related learning losses, enabling more targeted support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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16 pages, 1562 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of a Teaching Learning Sequence on Modelling Surface Phenomena in Liquids
by Onofrio Rosario Battaglia, Aurelio Agliolo Gallitto, Giulia Termini and Claudio Fazio
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040425 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
In this paper we discuss the effects of modelling and computer simulation activities in promoting student use of lines of reasoning useful to explain proposed or observed situations. The activities are part of a structured Teaching/Learning Sequence on surface phenomena in liquids. We [...] Read more.
In this paper we discuss the effects of modelling and computer simulation activities in promoting student use of lines of reasoning useful to explain proposed or observed situations. The activities are part of a structured Teaching/Learning Sequence on surface phenomena in liquids. We outline a model of liquid based on a mesoscopic approach, examples of computer simulations students can use during the activities, and we describe the Teaching/Learning Sequence. During the pedagogical activities, students can simulate the liquid behaviour by controlling many simulation parameters, such as the interaction intensity among liquid and solid particles. The results of the analysis of student answers to a questionnaire before and after instruction, and of other qualitative data, show that these activities can help the students to think in terms of “mechanisms of functioning”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Teaching Science and Student Learning Analytics)
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20 pages, 1000 KiB  
Article
A Person-Centered Approach toward Balanced Gender Identity in Emerging Adults: Associations with Self-Esteem and Attitudes about Education
by Joyce J. Endendijk
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040424 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Balanced identity theory (BIT) has played an important role in research examining women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Yet, BIT’s main balanced-congruity principle has not been tested specifically for gender-science cognitions. Additionally, BIT’s predictions have been tested primarily from a [...] Read more.
Balanced identity theory (BIT) has played an important role in research examining women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Yet, BIT’s main balanced-congruity principle has not been tested specifically for gender-science cognitions. Additionally, BIT’s predictions have been tested primarily from a variable-centered approach. The current study therefore examined whether (1) gender-science cognitions form a balanced identity configuration; (2) different identity profiles can be distinguished; (3) identity profiles differ in background characteristics, study motivation, and self-esteem. Dutch emerging adults (18–25 years old) enrolled in education (N = 318, 51% female) completed a gender-science Implicit Association Test (gender-science stereotypes) and questionnaires assessing felt similarity to males and females (gender identity), interest in science and liberal arts occupations (occupational self-concept), self-esteem, and study motivation and engagement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed multiplicative interactions between gender-science stereotypes, gender identity, and occupational self-concept, providing evidence for a balanced identity configuration. Furthermore, latent profile analyses revealed three balanced identity profiles and two unbalanced profiles. Unbalanced identity profiles were characterized by non-Dutch ethnicity, lower educational level, and living independently without parents. The identity profiles did not differ in self-esteem and study motivation. Future research should examine the longer term consequences of unbalanced identity for academic and career pursuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sticking with STEM: Who Comes, Who Stays, Who Goes, and Why?)
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18 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Self-Perception of Social, Emotional, and Academic Inclusion of Students with and without Special Educational Needs through Photovoice
by Alexandra Pirker, Julia Hafenscher and Katharina-Theresa Lindner
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040423 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
Several studies have investigated the perceptions of inclusion by students with special educational needs (SEN) and without SEN, most of them quantitatively. This research aims to expand the understanding of the perceived inclusion of students through qualitative interviews by examining how emotions, social [...] Read more.
Several studies have investigated the perceptions of inclusion by students with special educational needs (SEN) and without SEN, most of them quantitatively. This research aims to expand the understanding of the perceived inclusion of students through qualitative interviews by examining how emotions, social relationships, and academic concepts matter. Therefore, the photovoice method was used for data collection, followed by semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed according to Mayring’s Qualitative Content Analysis. Regarding social integration in the classroom, the results of the interviews with six students with SEN and three students without SEN show mainly positive experiences with their classmates and attach great importance to school spaces (e.g., the schoolyard) that are used for interaction and communication among each other. In terms of the teacher–student relationship, it becomes apparent that the students place particular value on the support and help of the teachers in everyday school life as well as in private matters. Some students’ statements indicate that the self-perception of their academic self-concept differs in various school subjects. A contrast of perception between the students with and without SEN was not detected. Concerning emotional inclusion, the students primarily expressed statements related to emotion regulation and individual adaption strategies. Full article
15 pages, 3120 KiB  
Article
Developing Computational Thinking through Mathematics: An Evaluative Scientific Mapping
by Zara Ersozlu, Micah Swartz and Andrew Skourdoumbis
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040422 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4224
Abstract
Computational thinking (CT) has been accepted and embraced by educators and researchers alike, but many questions remain surrounding what concepts and topics have been used in CT, what tools have been used to help teach CT, and the current range of research on [...] Read more.
Computational thinking (CT) has been accepted and embraced by educators and researchers alike, but many questions remain surrounding what concepts and topics have been used in CT, what tools have been used to help teach CT, and the current range of research on CT. In this paper, we address those questions and the state of professional development (PD) used to train teachers and preservice teachers in CT. Using a scientometrics analysis to map data from the scientific literature based on different kinds of published research, we found that most publications were published in education-related sources and that CT in relation to mathematics teaching was mostly about teaching computing skills and teaching computer programming using practice and algorithmic thinking in engineering and in STEM, mostly at the higher education level. Additionally, our results revealed that Scratch was the dominant tool used to teach programming skills at all school levels and in teacher education. Research on PD illustrated a main focus centred on improving computational thinking via programming skills in rural and urban areas of teaching. Lastly, we conclude that high-impact research outputs support the notion of computational thinking as a problem-solving process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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17 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
The Fallacy of Using the National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Data to Identify Australian High-Potential Gifted Students
by Michelle Ronksley-Pavia
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040421 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6463
Abstract
In Australia, gifted or talented students are defined according to the widely accepted model proposed by Gagné, where giftedness is understood as potential, and talent is shown through competencies (or achievements); in this definition there is a clear differentiation between the two constructs. [...] Read more.
In Australia, gifted or talented students are defined according to the widely accepted model proposed by Gagné, where giftedness is understood as potential, and talent is shown through competencies (or achievements); in this definition there is a clear differentiation between the two constructs. Most Australian education jurisdictions espouse Gagné’s definitions and use a variety of mechanisms for identifying gifted and talented students—a commonly used identification practice is the results from the Australian National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) test. This article sets out to explore the fallacy of using the NAPLAN results to identify giftedness in high-potential (gifted) students in Australia, outlining key reasons why the NAPLAN is unsuitable as an identification instrument for giftedness. Moreover, it explores the erroneous use of the NAPLAN as an identification tool for giftedness when it was never designed, validated, or intended as such an instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identifying and Supporting Giftedness and Talent in Schools)
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12 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Teaching in Diverse Lower and Upper Secondary Schools in Norway: The Missing Links in Student Teachers’ Experiences
by Vander Tavares
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040420 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Teacher education programs must be able to prepare student teachers to work effectively with heterogeneous groups of students in ways that support the learning of all students and affirm their identities within growing neoliberal and neoconservative discourses. In Norway, classroom composition has also [...] Read more.
Teacher education programs must be able to prepare student teachers to work effectively with heterogeneous groups of students in ways that support the learning of all students and affirm their identities within growing neoliberal and neoconservative discourses. In Norway, classroom composition has also become more diverse, primarily due to a higher number of students of a transnational background. This paper explores student teachers’ experiences of preparation for the changing nature of the teaching profession that is informed by increased student diversity. A case study with four student teachers from a teacher education program at a Norwegian institution of higher education is employed to gain rich insight into the students’ perceptions and experiences. The findings illustrate a need for better preparation on the part of the program in relation to teaching content and methods, the practicum experience, and intercultural training from a pedagogical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
13 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Challenges Faced by Multi-Campus Institutions with Online Teaching during the COVID-19 Lockdown
by Covanni Hohls-du Preez and Ben Marx
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040419 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
In December 2019, the COVID-19 virus was first detected in Wuhan, Hebei Province, China. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared the COVID-19 virus a world pandemic. Even though the physical closure of tertiary institutions had proven to be an effective [...] Read more.
In December 2019, the COVID-19 virus was first detected in Wuhan, Hebei Province, China. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared the COVID-19 virus a world pandemic. Even though the physical closure of tertiary institutions had proven to be an effective strategy in breaking the transmission chain in the pandemic, the closure still had various negative effects on students’ academic endeavours. In an attempt to keep the disruption of studies to a minimum, higher education institutions across the world implemented online learning programmes by converting face-to-face programmes, thereby creating various challenges for students and lecturers on different levels. The purpose of this article was to determine how challenges faced by multi-campus universities in South Africa during this time would compare to challenges faced by other countries. This study focused on two specific multi-campus universities in South Africa with similar student bodies that offered various accounting courses on different campuses. These courses ranged from diplomas to CTA degrees. Full article
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14 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Arab Teachers’ Well-Being upon School Reopening during COVID-19: Applying the Job Demands–Resources Model
by Sawsan Awwad-Tabry, Inbar Levkovich, Timothy Pressley and Shiri Shinan-Altman
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040418 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Once the major threat of the COVID-19 pandemic diminished, schools reopened, and teachers once again had to cope with unprecedented challenges. The impact of these challenges on the emotional well-being of Arab teachers, who have a unique set of challenges within the Israeli [...] Read more.
Once the major threat of the COVID-19 pandemic diminished, schools reopened, and teachers once again had to cope with unprecedented challenges. The impact of these challenges on the emotional well-being of Arab teachers, who have a unique set of challenges within the Israeli school educational system, has received little attention in the recent literature. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 300 Arab teachers’ well-being in Israel in May 2021, three months after schools were reopened. All study hypotheses were confirmed. Findings indicate the need to promote a sense of well-being among Arab teachers in stressful conditions and to design solutions specifically tailored to support them in accordance with their cultural and social characteristics. Israel’s Ministry of Education should encourage school administrators to seek ways to provide a supportive environment for Arab teachers in school environments in order to improve their performance and retention, and maintain their well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Academic Performance)
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21 pages, 2080 KiB  
Article
Where Is It Best to Sit in Class? Description of an Experience Based on STEM Problem Solving in a School Context
by Irene Ferrando, Lluís Albarracín and Pascual D. Diago
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040417 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
This study aims to describe the design and development of a STEM problem-solving activity involving mathematics and physics content. It is an activity whose starting point is a question based on a real problem: to identify the areas of the classroom where the [...] Read more.
This study aims to describe the design and development of a STEM problem-solving activity involving mathematics and physics content. It is an activity whose starting point is a question based on a real problem: to identify the areas of the classroom where the intensity of sound is higher. In this way, the problem involves the physics of sound. However, in addition, by trying to give an answer to the initial question, students have the opportunity to develop progressively more complex mathematical models from already known mathematical concepts and procedures. The analysis of the results of the implementation based on the identification of the learning opportunities and the catalyst elements that generate them, allows us to state that the activity encourages students to enrich their mathematical models by incorporating new mathematical concepts such as the function of two variables. We conclude that the design of the activity and the choice of data acquisition technology are key, but also the interaction between the students and the teacher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEAM Education and Problem Solving)
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19 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Undergraduate Students’ Conceptualization of Critical Thinking and Their Ideas for Critical Thinking Acquisition
by Dimitrios Pnevmatikos, Panagiota Christodoulou, Triantafyllia Georgiadou and Angeliki Lithoxoidou
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040416 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
Higher education institutions are responsible for preparing and equipping undergraduate students with the skills required by the labor market, such as critical thinking. However, academics should consider students’ pre-existing ideas before designing and implementing an instructional intervention regarding critical thinking. Drawing on the [...] Read more.
Higher education institutions are responsible for preparing and equipping undergraduate students with the skills required by the labor market, such as critical thinking. However, academics should consider students’ pre-existing ideas before designing and implementing an instructional intervention regarding critical thinking. Drawing on the literature for conceptual change, the current study aimed to map students’ conceptualization of critical thinking and their ideas regarding the acquisition of critical thinking. In total, 243 first-year social sciences students participated in the study. To explore students’ ideas, the authors constructed an instrument with 20 scientific and non-scientific statements about critical thinking. The instrument was a two-tier questionnaire, and participants indicated their level of agreement with each statement using a 5-point Likert scale as well as their confidence in their answers. Students’ ideas were categorized into six groups depending on their endorsements for the statement and their level of confidence in their decision. Results revealed that students had insufficient conceptualization of critical thinking, and their ideas regarding how critical thinking might be acquired were not consistently aligned with those of academics. Implications for instruction are discussed considering students’ ideas on critical thinking. Full article
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14 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Jigsaw Method on Self-Reported Practices by Physical Education Teachers: A Textual Analysis
by Océane Cochon Drouet, Patrick Fargier, Nicolas Margas and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040415 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Jigsaw is a cooperative teaching method that is easy to implement and may engage teachers who use it. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of the Jigsaw method on students and rarely on teachers. The present study aimed to determine whether [...] Read more.
Jigsaw is a cooperative teaching method that is easy to implement and may engage teachers who use it. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of the Jigsaw method on students and rarely on teachers. The present study aimed to determine whether Jigsaw implementation influenced the discourses of physical education (PE) teachers related to their teaching practices. Six volunteer teachers used the Jigsaw method during three PE teaching sequences with various physical activities practiced, and semi-directive interviews were conducted before and after the Jigsaw implementation. Each interview was recorded and transcribed with the aim of performing textual analysis using Alceste2018®. The qualitative content analysis performed from the outputs of the automatic textual analysis led to determine the emergent themes in the interviewees’ discourses and the focuses used to address these themes, before and after the Jigsaw implementation. The themes in the discourses were found to be teacher-centered before the Jigsaw implementation (e.g., the guidelines and principles for teaching) and student-centered after the implementation (e.g., the student activity during learning). The focuses were found to vary accordingly (e.g., teachers’ intentions, before the implementation, and students’ characteristics, after the implementation). Such changes in the teachers’ discourse thus suggest that the Jigsaw method might be a useful tool for the development of teaching practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges and New Perspectives on Physical Education)
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13 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Viability of the Ranked Discrepancy Model by Comparing the Weighted Total Index Approach and the Borich Model: A Case of Learning Needs Assessment of Career Guidance Teachers
by Hee-Jun Choi and Ji-Hye Park
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040414 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
The ranked discrepancy model (RDM) is a relatively novel needs assessment approach and is optimized for addressing ordinal and non-normally distributed data. This study aimed to explore the viability of the RDM by comparing the results obtained from it with those obtained using [...] Read more.
The ranked discrepancy model (RDM) is a relatively novel needs assessment approach and is optimized for addressing ordinal and non-normally distributed data. This study aimed to explore the viability of the RDM by comparing the results obtained from it with those obtained using two other long-standing needs assessment models, and to prioritize the learning needs of secondary school career guidance teachers in South Korea using the RDM as an initial effort to improve the pre-service and in-service educational programs of teachers. Data were collected from 75 career guidance teachers by using a survey questionnaire. The results from the RDM, the weighted total index (WTI) approach, and the Borich model demonstrated a great deal of consistency in terms of the rankings of career guidance teachers’ learning needs. This implies that the RDM is a useful quantitative method for needs assessment in cases involving ordinal items, cross-sectional data, or non-normally distributed data. This study also revealed that “providing and utilizing occupational information” is the biggest shortfall among the job tasks required of secondary school career guidance teachers, compared to its importance. Uncertainty about the future might make it more difficult for career guidance teachers to provide students with the appropriate occupational guidance. Full article
13 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Staging as Communicative Activity of Shared Experiences a Way into a Fellowship for Deaf Children with Autism
by Janne Madsen and Bjørk Kehlet
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040413 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
We explore whether staging (a combination of symbols, drawings, paintings, and re-creating action using Playmobil figures) used as a communicative activity of shared experiences influences the sense of fellowship. This study is part of a combined research and development project, and the findings [...] Read more.
We explore whether staging (a combination of symbols, drawings, paintings, and re-creating action using Playmobil figures) used as a communicative activity of shared experiences influences the sense of fellowship. This study is part of a combined research and development project, and the findings are canalised back into the daily work. The assistants are interviewed, and the data are analysed in a coding process. We found that (1) ‘being confident’ is important for belongingness. Staging supports a shared understanding and a shared feeling of belonging. We also found that (2) developing a shared repertoire of concepts is possible when staging, and this scaffolds the fellowship. However, the concepts and the communication must (3) be meaningful to all parties. One does not take part in communication without meaning, and when one does not participate, one is not part of the fellowship. Staging enabled Magne, the main person in this study, to express himself better. Moreover, when discussing a shared experience with the personal assistants, Magne seemed to communicate well and showed signs of belonging. We conclude that communication about shared activities and experiences leads to interest and engagement and fosters a shared feeling of ‘doing something together’ and being part of a fellowship. Full article
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18 pages, 2573 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Design of an Asynchronous Online Discussion (AOD) in Distance Education: A Cooperative Learning Perspective
by Tianxiao Yang and Zhijuan Niu
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040412 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1741
Abstract
An asynchronous online discussion (AOD) is considered a commonly used cooperative learning activity in distance education. However, few studies have explored whether AODs are designed in accordance with the conditions of cooperative learning and whether students are able to achieve higher levels of [...] Read more.
An asynchronous online discussion (AOD) is considered a commonly used cooperative learning activity in distance education. However, few studies have explored whether AODs are designed in accordance with the conditions of cooperative learning and whether students are able to achieve higher levels of cognitive learning through interactions in AODs. This case study explored if an AOD was designed to meet cooperative learning conditions and whether students generated interactions and accomplished higher levels of cognitive learning. The results suggested that in an AOD where cooperative learning conditions were rarely met, students barely interacted and only manifested lower levels of cognitive learning. The researchers proposed that an AOD may not achieve the expected cooperative learning outcomes unless it is well-structured with a systematical integration of cooperative learning theory. Full article
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20 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Social and Emotional Learning during Pandemic-Related Remote and Hybrid Instruction: Teacher Strategies in Response to Trauma
by Rebecca S. Levine, Rebecca J. Lim and Amy Vatne Bintliff
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040411 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Schools play an important role in fostering student intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and development, also known as social and emotional learning (SEL). This study examined how K–12 teachers used student SEL strategies in remote and hybrid classroom environments during the COVID-19 pandemic, a [...] Read more.
Schools play an important role in fostering student intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and development, also known as social and emotional learning (SEL). This study examined how K–12 teachers used student SEL strategies in remote and hybrid classroom environments during the COVID-19 pandemic, a time of heightened distress and trauma. Survey data were collected from 26 teachers in Southern California and follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 teachers. Responses were analyzed from an integrated SEL- and trauma-informed perspective. Themes that emerged included focusing on relationships; building routines and predictability; creating space to identify and share feelings; incorporating movement, mindfulness, and play; implementing culturally affirming practices; providing student choice and leadership; and engaging and collaborating with families. Various challenges associated with implementing SEL during COVID-19 are discussed, including teacher burnout, being unsure who was listening in on class conversations, and feeling disconnected in an online environment. Recommendations for practice and further research are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Students’ Emotions in Learning Contexts)
15 pages, 1391 KiB  
Review
What Is the Impact of ChatGPT on Education? A Rapid Review of the Literature
by Chung Kwan Lo
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040410 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 375 | Viewed by 159201
Abstract
An artificial intelligence-based chatbot, ChatGPT, was launched in November 2022 and is capable of generating cohesive and informative human-like responses to user input. This rapid review of the literature aims to enrich our understanding of ChatGPT’s capabilities across subject domains, how it can [...] Read more.
An artificial intelligence-based chatbot, ChatGPT, was launched in November 2022 and is capable of generating cohesive and informative human-like responses to user input. This rapid review of the literature aims to enrich our understanding of ChatGPT’s capabilities across subject domains, how it can be used in education, and potential issues raised by researchers during the first three months of its release (i.e., December 2022 to February 2023). A search of the relevant databases and Google Scholar yielded 50 articles for content analysis (i.e., open coding, axial coding, and selective coding). The findings of this review suggest that ChatGPT’s performance varied across subject domains, ranging from outstanding (e.g., economics) and satisfactory (e.g., programming) to unsatisfactory (e.g., mathematics). Although ChatGPT has the potential to serve as an assistant for instructors (e.g., to generate course materials and provide suggestions) and a virtual tutor for students (e.g., to answer questions and facilitate collaboration), there were challenges associated with its use (e.g., generating incorrect or fake information and bypassing plagiarism detectors). Immediate action should be taken to update the assessment methods and institutional policies in schools and universities. Instructor training and student education are also essential to respond to the impact of ChatGPT on the educational environment. Full article
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21 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
A Human Capability Perspective on the Progression of Low-SES Students to Higher Education in Ireland and the UK
by Cliona Hannon
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040409 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
This article focuses on targeted programs for low-SES students in two selective universities: Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Ireland (Trinity Access Programmes/TAP) and the University of Oxford, UK (Lady Margaret Hall Foundation Year/LMH FY). The programs were collaborative developments, as examples [...] Read more.
This article focuses on targeted programs for low-SES students in two selective universities: Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Ireland (Trinity Access Programmes/TAP) and the University of Oxford, UK (Lady Margaret Hall Foundation Year/LMH FY). The programs were collaborative developments, as examples of the potential of learning and adaptation across geographical contexts. It poses two questions: (a) How did the admissions processes in both universities change to target low-SES students? (b) How do social and academic support services for low-SES students, provided by two universities, contribute to the development of student capabilities? The article draws on the capability approach as the evaluative lens used to explore the two programs. Findings indicate (a) innovative approaches to socio-economic assessment in both programs, resulting in effective targeting of low-SES students, (b) the scaling of the programs beyond their initial remit and (c) the emergence of specific student capabilities through their engagement in the programs. Full article
10 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Replacing Exams with Project-Based Assessment: Analysis of Students’ Performance and Experience
by Ivan Gratchev
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040408 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5601
Abstract
This study seeks to investigate whether project-based assignments can lead to better student performance and learning experience compared to traditional examinations. In an engineering course of soil mechanics, the traditional mid-semester and final exams were replaced by project work which was related to [...] Read more.
This study seeks to investigate whether project-based assignments can lead to better student performance and learning experience compared to traditional examinations. In an engineering course of soil mechanics, the traditional mid-semester and final exams were replaced by project work which was related to a real-life site investigation. Student performance was evaluated on the basis of student marks whilst student feedback was analysed to understand student experience with project-based assignments. The results indicated that the student average mark for the projects was greater than the average mark for the exams. In addition, their learning experience improved after the exams were replaced with the project-based assignments because students were able to see practical applications of the course content. However, a few issues, including feedback to students delivered at the end of the term, increased teacher’s workload, and the effect of COVID were also identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Project Based Learning and Engineering Education)
15 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
Critical Issues and Trends in Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education in the Post-COVID-19 Era in China and Spain
by Yinglong Qiu, Adela García-Aracil and Rosa Isusi-Fagoaga
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040407 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
In the post-COVID-19 era, where innovation and entrepreneurship as an engine for economic development is a top priority for each country, acquiring various skills through innovation and entrepreneurship education is a trend for higher education students. We focus our analysis on two public [...] Read more.
In the post-COVID-19 era, where innovation and entrepreneurship as an engine for economic development is a top priority for each country, acquiring various skills through innovation and entrepreneurship education is a trend for higher education students. We focus our analysis on two public universities in China and Spain with some similarities in the implementation of innovation and entrepreneurship education. To obtain our information, we conducted interviews with multiple experts in both universities. The study shows that both countries provide funding and policies to promote innovation and entrepreneurship education as innovation and entrepreneurship education is seen as making the university more visible, both at the national and international levels, and as providing society with employment opportunities. We conclude that although innovation and entrepreneurship education design and definition in both universities are different, their development characteristics and trends are the same. Moreover, both universities face common difficulties, namely financial support, management support, and integration with different disciplines. Finally, innovation and entrepreneurship education promote also internationalization and regional development, which requires both countries to strengthen foreign language education and the provision of more entrepreneurial support services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
18 pages, 866 KiB  
Article
Development of the Emirati Child Adaptation Scale (ECAS) for Assessing the Behavioral Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Disabilities in the UAE
by Ousha AlMuhairy, Efthymia Efthymiou, Hala ElHoweris, Mahmoud Alshathly and Abdelaziz Sartawi
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040406 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Behavioral problems cause limitations in the social skills of children without disabilities and affect the functionality of children with disabilities. The Emirati child adaptation scale (ECAS) was developed in the UAE to provide reliable and valid information on the behavioral adaptation skills in [...] Read more.
Behavioral problems cause limitations in the social skills of children without disabilities and affect the functionality of children with disabilities. The Emirati child adaptation scale (ECAS) was developed in the UAE to provide reliable and valid information on the behavioral adaptation skills in children with and without intellectual disability (ID). The scale’s item pool consists of 651 items that identify behavioral adaptation deficits across the 10 domain–skill areas of communication, pre-academic, listening, social, self-care, self-orientation, motor skills, operational society, life, and health and safety. The scale was administered to 1542 children with disabilities and 920 children without disabilities. The scale is deemed essential, as it enables psychologists, special education teachers, health professionals, and researchers to implement a reliable psychometric tool of adaptive and behavioral functioning of 1–18-year-old individuals. The development and structure of the Emirati child adaptation scale is described and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Education and Practices for Students with Disabilities)
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25 pages, 6786 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Use of Two Different Approaches to Assess Teachers’ Knowledge of Models and Modeling in Science Teaching
by Grace Carroll and Soonhye Park
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040405 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Science teacher knowledge for effective teaching consists of multiple knowledge bases, one of which includes science content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. With the inclusion of science and engineering practices into the national science education standards in the US, teachers’ content knowledge goes beyond [...] Read more.
Science teacher knowledge for effective teaching consists of multiple knowledge bases, one of which includes science content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. With the inclusion of science and engineering practices into the national science education standards in the US, teachers’ content knowledge goes beyond subject matter knowledge and into the realm of how scientists use practices for scientific inquiry. This study compares two approaches to constructing and validating two different versions of a survey that aims to measure the construct of teachers’ knowledge of models and modeling in science teaching. In the first version, a 24-item Likert scale survey containing content and pedagogical knowledge items was found to lack the ability to distinguish different knowledge levels for respondents, and validation through factor analysis indicated content and pedagogical knowledge items could not be separated. Findings from the validation results of the first survey influenced revisions to the second version of the survey, a 25-item multiple-choice instrument. The second survey employed a competence model framework for models and modeling for item specifications, and results from exploratory factor analysis revealed this approach to assessing the construct to be more appropriate. Recommendations for teacher assessment of science practices using competence models and points to consider in survey design, including norm-referenced or criterion-referenced tests, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practices in Science and Engineering Education)
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27 pages, 5982 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Scratch Software in Scientific Production for 20 Years: Programming in Education to Develop Computational Thinking and STEAM Disciplines
by Pablo Dúo-Terrón
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040404 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5063
Abstract
Scratch is an educational software based on visual programming blocks. It was created in 2003 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab (MIT) and it develops computational thinking (CT) skills from an early age in schools and allows STEM (science, technology, engineering [...] Read more.
Scratch is an educational software based on visual programming blocks. It was created in 2003 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab (MIT) and it develops computational thinking (CT) skills from an early age in schools and allows STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) projects to be carried out. The aim of this research is to know the development of the scientific production of the Scratch programme in the educational field in scientific articles in WoS and its link with the STEM field. The methodology used in this study is of a bibliometric nature with an analysis of the development in the scientific literature and co-words. The Scratch in Education (Scratch-EDU) programme has been studied using the Web of Science (WoS) database. WoS, Vosviewer and SciMAT were used to extract the results and a total of 579 manuscripts were analysed. The results of the study show that the first scientific article on Scratch published in WoS dates back to 2004, although it is from 2011 when a considerable volume of studies began to appear in the scientific literature, and moreover, in recent years the scientific literature relates Scratch-EDU with topics and keywords related to the STEM field. The conclusions of the study are that the Scratch programme has had a progressive evolution in the scientific field related to education from 2012 to 2020, mainly in proceedings papers, with a decrease in manuscripts in the last two years. The emerging themes and keywords that have most influenced Scratch-EDU manuscripts in recent years are related to the terms “Implementation” and “Curriculum”, connected in turn, with terms such as “pedagogy”, “public school” or “students”. Another term that stands out in the development of scientific evolution is “Computational Thinking”, associated with topics such as “Primary Education”, “Learning” or “Problem Solving”. Finally, a discussion and conclusion of the results has been carried out, which can serve as a turning point for future lines of research on programming and CT in the STEM field from an early age in education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM Education in the Classroom)
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17 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
How Sustainable Is a Waldorf School? Exploring the Congruence between Waldorf Education and the Sustainable School Approach in a Greek School Case Study
by Maria Daskolia and Vassiliki Koukouzeli
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040403 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
The study reported here aims to explore the relationship between Waldorf education and the sustainable school approach through a small-scale qualitative research study conducted in a Greek Waldorf school. Following a semi-structured interview protocol, four teachers shared their views and beliefs on the [...] Read more.
The study reported here aims to explore the relationship between Waldorf education and the sustainable school approach through a small-scale qualitative research study conducted in a Greek Waldorf school. Following a semi-structured interview protocol, four teachers shared their views and beliefs on the congruence between the two approaches as reflected in the philosophy and everyday practice of their school. The study’s findings indicate that the Greek Waldorf school manifests several of the quality criteria that define a sustainable school, with pedagogy identified as the most relevant aspect, particularly in terms of the quality of teaching and learning processes. Participants also identified common features between the two approaches on both the social/organizational and physical/technical levels. Although not all the criteria of a sustainable school are fully met, the teachers believe that the sustainability concept is implicitly interwoven with the philosophy and practice of Waldorf education and that their school is moving in the direction of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogical Possibilities for Early Childhood Education)
27 pages, 1156 KiB  
Review
Distinguishing between Grit, Persistence, and Perseverance for Learning Mathematics with Understanding
by Joseph DiNapoli
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040402 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5415
Abstract
Learning mathematics with understanding involves productively struggling to make connections between different mathematical ideas. Such productive struggle is associated with three primary constructs: grit, persistence, and perseverance. Each of these constructs has a distinct definition, background, and implied utility in mathematics education research. [...] Read more.
Learning mathematics with understanding involves productively struggling to make connections between different mathematical ideas. Such productive struggle is associated with three primary constructs: grit, persistence, and perseverance. Each of these constructs has a distinct definition, background, and implied utility in mathematics education research. However, these constructs are often colloquially conceptualized as synonyms, leading to a misconception of what can be learned through the lens of each construct. The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the literature on grit, persistence, and perseverance and to review and distinguish the ways in which these constructs offer insights into learning mathematics with understanding. Full article
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18 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Group Work during Inquiry-Based Learning in Biology Teacher Education: A Praxeological Perspective on the Task of (Collaborative) Protocol Generation
by Petra Olschewski, Petra Herzmann and Kirsten Schlüter
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040401 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Writing protocols is a central activity in the natural sciences, but is also a part of science education. In the context of inquiry-based learning, keeping records is considered beneficial for the comprehension of scientific reasoning and the associated problem-solving process. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
Writing protocols is a central activity in the natural sciences, but is also a part of science education. In the context of inquiry-based learning, keeping records is considered beneficial for the comprehension of scientific reasoning and the associated problem-solving process. Previous studies have focused particularly on the evaluation of learner-generated protocols and their potential for learning. The process of protocol writing, especially in the context of inquiry-based group work, as it is usually implemented in practice, has hardly been researched so far. In this video-based study, we use the documentary method, a reconstructive analysis method, in order to investigate how student groups implement joint protocol generation in an experimental inquiry-based setting and which action-guiding orientations emerge in the process. In all groups, action-guiding orientations to “task completion” and using the “protocol as means to provide structure and security” were found. Moreover, we have found differing orientations which can be titled “protocol as a flagship” and “protocol used in a pragmatic manner”. Overall, the protocol seems more to serve as a guide and an assurance in the experimentation process rather than as a tool for improving scientific thinking and problem solving. Full article
17 pages, 4819 KiB  
Article
Do Direct and Indirect Recommendations Facilitate Students’ Self-Regulated Learning in Flipped Classroom Online Activities? Findings from Two Studies
by Jiahui Du, Khe Foon Hew and Liuyufeng Li
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040400 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a prerequisite for successful learning. However, many students report having difficulties in completing individual online tasks outside the classroom in flipped learning contexts. Therefore, additional support for students should be provided to help them improve their SRL skills. Studies [...] Read more.
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a prerequisite for successful learning. However, many students report having difficulties in completing individual online tasks outside the classroom in flipped learning contexts. Therefore, additional support for students should be provided to help them improve their SRL skills. Studies have examined the effects of prompts (e.g., questions) to facilitate SRL but have paid less attention to exploring how different types of recommendations for SRL activities may affect students’ SRL skills, course engagement and learning performance. We conducted two studies using direct and indirect recommendations for 77 undergraduate students in the faculty of education in two flipped classroom courses. The direct recommendation approach suggested specific follow-up SRL activities in various learning tasks, whereas the indirect recommendation approach provided students with general SRL hints but left them to identify what specific SRL activities they should use in the next step. To evaluate the impact of each recommendation approach, we measured the students’ self-reported SRL skills, online behaviors, course engagement and learning performance. The results suggested that direct recommendations were useful in improving students’ engagement in online SRL activities and in sustaining their motivation for SRL, while indirect recommendations played a major role in reminding students of the need to self-regulate their learning. Both types of recommendations could significantly affect the quality of students’ online learning. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications for future SRL recommendation research. Full article
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16 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
Examination of the Transdiagnostic Role of Impulsivity in the Development of ADHD and ODD Symptoms in Primary and Secondary School Students
by Bruno Barać and Anita Vulić-Prtorić
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040399 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) exhibit high comorbidity and variability in terms of dominant comorbid factors across the lifespan. Given the high comorbidity between these disorders, the transdiagnostic factors that may underlie them and could be used to develop [...] Read more.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) exhibit high comorbidity and variability in terms of dominant comorbid factors across the lifespan. Given the high comorbidity between these disorders, the transdiagnostic factors that may underlie them and could be used to develop effective treatments are of great importance. The focus of this research was on the role of impulsivity as a transdiagnostic factor in the development of ADHD and ODD symptoms in primary and secondary school students. Data were collected from 1161 primary (5th to 8th grade) and secondary (1st to 4th grade) school students (624 females and 537 males). Two models were tested, one for primary and one for secondary school students. Both models propose a significant relationship between ADHD symptoms and ODD, with an emphasis on the relationship between impulsivity and angry/irritable mood. The model for secondary school students does not fit the data, while the model for primary school students fits the data but emphasises attention as the most important factor. These results can be explained by the context of developmental changes and the school environment, both of which influence the stability and intensity of ADHD symptoms. Full article
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18 pages, 11865 KiB  
Article
The Equilibrium Challenge, a New Way to Teach Engineering Mechanics in Architecture Degrees
by Nicolás Montés, Lucía Hilario, Javier Rivera, Ángel López, Teresa Ferrer, Pedro Verdejo, Ignacio Juan and Ana Ábalos
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040398 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Vocation is one of the determining factors taken into account by students when choosing their university studies. However, when the students start their studies, in their first year, they will find a series of basic subjects that barely motivate or stimulate them. In [...] Read more.
Vocation is one of the determining factors taken into account by students when choosing their university studies. However, when the students start their studies, in their first year, they will find a series of basic subjects that barely motivate or stimulate them. In the specific case of mathematics, the problem is aggravated when many of the students already begin the first year showing rejection towards this subject. The lack of motivation for mathematics also affects the subject of physics because “the role of mathematics is to be the language of physics”. The EXPLORIA project proposed by the CEU Cardenal Herrera University is a potential solution to this problem. The objective of this project is the implementation of STEAM learning (Science Technology Engineering Art Mathematics) in the Degree in Fundamentals of Architecture at CEU Cardenal Herrera University through the EXPLORIA project. This article focuses on the activities carried out in the subject of physics in the Degree in Fundamentals of Architecture, corresponding to the part of mechanical engineering in order to show that through the realization of different challenges, we can develop creative products, new buildings with their logos and storytelling, as well as connect with the rest of subjects. For its development, students must use everyday objects within their reach, such as forks, spoons, knives, shoes, etc., to build an object or structure that must remain in a “creative balance” and this will serve as an inspiration for new buildings. These new creations are evaluated by an architecture team who fills in a rubric to evaluate the creativity and originality of the products. The number of students included in this project was 24 and the participants’ age ranged between 18 and 20 (similarly distributed). At the end of the work, an anonymous ad hoc questionnaire was carried out to show the students’ assessment of the new teaching methodology and the challenges developed in the subject of physics. Full article
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21 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Social and Emotional Learning and Early Literacy Skills: A Quasi-Experimental Study of RULER
by Craig S. Bailey, Olivia Martinez and Elizabeth DiDomizio
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040397 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3318
Abstract
RULER is a pre-K–12 systemic approach to social and emotional learning (SEL) that supports educators in cultivating emotion skills and provides them with pedagogical principles and tools to help them explicitly teach social and emotional skills to students. The current study tests whether [...] Read more.
RULER is a pre-K–12 systemic approach to social and emotional learning (SEL) that supports educators in cultivating emotion skills and provides them with pedagogical principles and tools to help them explicitly teach social and emotional skills to students. The current study tests whether preschool-level access to RULER was associated with growth in early literacy skills using a sample of 1051 preschoolers in 95 classrooms across 19 community-based centers in a small urban northeastern US community. The Preschool Early Literacy Indicators were collected three times over an academic year by district staff. Multi-level growth modeling with inverse probability weighting revealed that children in preschools with access to RULER grew significantly more in their early literacy skills than children without access to RULER—an end-of-year difference equivalent to 0.25 standard deviations, 95% CI [0.14, 0.40]. The current study demonstrates that RULER may promote young children’s early literacy skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Students’ Emotions in Learning Contexts)
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