What Is the Impact of ChatGPT on Education? A Rapid Review of the Literature
- RQ1: How does ChatGPT perform in different subject domains?
- RQ2: How can ChatGPT be used to enhance teaching and learning?
- RQ3: What are the potential issues associated with ChatGPT, and how can they be addressed?
2.1. The Rapid Review Approach
2.2. Search Strategies
2.3. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
2.4. Content Analysis
- Open coding: Open coding is the initial stage of coding in which the researcher examines the data and generates codes to describe and categorise the data. It allows a deep exploration and understanding of the data without imposing preconceived ideas.
- Axial coding: After the initial process of open coding, axial coding is used to analyse the relationships and connections between the codes generated during open coding. It involves organising the codes into broader categories or themes and establishing the relationships between them.
- Selective coding: Selective coding is the final stage of coding. It involves further refining and integrating the categories or themes identified during open and axial coding to develop a comprehensive picture. It identifies the core category or central phenomenon that emerged from the data.
3.1. General Description of the Literature
3.2. RQ1: How Does ChatGPT Perform in Different Subject Domains?
3.3. RQ2: How Can ChatGPT Be Used to Enhance Teaching and Learning?
3.4. RQ3: What Are the Potential Issues Associated with ChatGPT and How Can They Be Addressed?
4.1. Leveraging ChatGPT in Teaching and Learning
4.2. Challenges and Threats Posed by ChatGPT in Education
4.3. Immediate Action in Response to the Impact of ChatGPT
4.4. Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research
4.4.1. Limitations of this Rapid Review
4.4.2. Limitations of the Included Articles
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Xu, L.; Sanders, L.; Li, K.; Chow, J.C.L. Chatbot for Health Care and Oncology Applications Using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Systematic Review. JMIR Cancer 2021, 7, e27850. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Zawacki-Richter, O.; Marín, V.I.; Bond, M.; Gouverneur, F. Systematic Review of Research on Artificial Intelligence Applications in Higher Education—Where are the Educators? Int. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ. 2019, 16, 39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bengio, Y.; Lecun, Y.; Hinton, G. Deep Learning for AI. Commun. ACM 2021, 64, 58–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aung, Y.Y.M.; Wong, D.C.S.; Ting, D.S.W. The Promise of Artificial Intelligence: A Review of the Opportunities and Challenges of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. Br. Med. Bull. 2021, 139, 4–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Steenbergen-Hu, S.; Cooper, H. A Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems on College Students’ Academic Learning. J. Educ. Psychol. 2014, 106, 331–347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Afzal, S.; Dhamecha, T.; Mukhi, N.; Sindhgatta Rajan, R.; Marvaniya, S.; Ventura, M.; Yarbro, J. Development and deployment of a large-scale dialog-based intelligent tutoring system. In Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2–7 June 2019; Association for Computational Linguistics: Stroudsburg, PA, USA, 2019; Volume 2, pp. 114–121. [Google Scholar]
- OpenAI. Available online: https://openai.com (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Zhai, X. ChatGPT User Experience: Implications for Education. SSRN 2022, 4312418. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ChatGPT Passes Exams from Law and Business Schools. Available online: https://edition.cnn.com/2023/01/26/tech/chatgpt-passes-exams (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Choi, J.H.; Hickman, K.E.; Monahan, A.; Schwarcz, D. Chatgpt Goes to Law School. SSRN 2023, 4335905. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4335905 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- ChatGPT Sets Record for Fastest-Growing User Base—Analyst Note. Available online: https://www.reuters.com/technology/chatgpt-sets-record-fastest-growing-user-base-analyst-note-2023-02-01 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Schools Ban ChatGPT Amid Fears of Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Cheating. Available online: https://www.voanews.com/a/schools-ban-chatgpt-amid-fears-of-artificial-intelligence-assisted-cheating/6949800.html (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Mhlanga, D. Open AI in Education, the Responsible and Ethical Use of ChatGPT Towards Lifelong Learning. SSRN 2023, 4354422. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4354422 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Sallam, M. The Utility of ChatGPT as an Example of Large Language Models in Healthcare Education, Research and Practice: Systematic Review on the Future Perspectives and Potential Limitations. Available online: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.02.19.23286155v1 (accessed on 1 March 2023).
- ChatGPT Could Be a Stanford Medical Student, a Lawyer, or a Financial Analyst. Here’s a List of Advanced Exams the AI Bot Has Passed So Far. Available online: https://www.businessinsider.com/list-here-are-the-exams-chatgpt-has-passed-so-far-2023-1 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Khangura, S.; Konnyu, K.; Cushman, R.; Grimshaw, J.; Moher, D. Evidence Summaries: The Evolution of a Rapid Review Approach. Syst. Rev. 2012, 1, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tricco, A.C.; Antony, J.; Zarin, W.; Strifler, L.; Ghassemi, M.; Ivory, J.; Perrier, L.; Hutton, B.; Moher, D.; Straus, S.E. A scoping review of rapid review methods. BMC Med. 2015, 13, 224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moher, D.; Liberati, A.; Tetzlaff, J.; Altman, D.G.; The PRISMA Group. Reprint-preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Phys. Ther. 2009, 89, 873–880. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Creswell, J.W. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th ed.; Pearson: Boston, MA, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- de Winter, J.C.F. Can ChatGPT Pass High School Exams on English Language Comprehension? Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/366659237_Can_ChatGPT_pass_high_school_exams_on_English_Language_Comprehension (accessed on 1 March 2023).
- Susnjak, T. ChatGPT: The End of Online Exam Integrity? arXiv 2022, arXiv:2212.09292v1. [Google Scholar]
- Geerling, W.; Mateer, G.D.; Wooten, J.; Damodaran, N. Is ChatGPT Smarter than a Student in Principles of Economics? SSRN 2023, 4356034. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hargreaves, S. ‘Words are Flowing out Like Endless Rain into a Paper Cup’: ChatGPT & Law School Assessments. SSRN 2023, 4359407. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4359407 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Kung, T.H.; Cheatham, M.; Medenilla, A.; Sillos, C.; De Leon, L.; Elepaño, C.; Madriaga, M.; Aggabao, R.; Diaz-Candido, G.; Maningo, J.; et al. Performance of ChatGPT on USMLE: Potential for AI-assisted Medical Education Using Large Language Models. PLoS Digital Health 2023, 2, e0000198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gilson, A.; Safranek, C.W.; Huang, T.; Socrates, V.; Chi, L.; Taylor, R.A.; Chartash, D. How does CHATGPT Perform on the United States Medical Licensing Examination? The Implications of Large Language Models for Medical Education and Knowledge Assessment. JMIR Med. Educ. 2023, 9, e45312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fijačko, N.; Gosak, L.; Štiglic, G.; Picard, C.T.; Douma, M.J. Can ChatGPT Pass the Life Support Exams without Entering the American Heart Association Course? Resuscitation 2023, 185, 109732. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Han, Z.; Battaglia, F.; Udaiyar, A.; Fooks, A.; Terlecky, S.R. An Explorative Assessment of ChatGPT as an Aid in Medical Education: Use it with Caution. medRxiv 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nisar, S.; Aslam, M. Is ChatGPT a Good Tool for T&CM Students in Studying Pharmacology? SSRN 2023, 4324310. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4324310 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Wang, X.; Gong, Z.; Wang, G.; Jia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Fan, Q.; Wu, S.; Hu, W.; Li, X. ChatGPT Performs on the Chinese National Medical Licensing Examination. J. Med. Syst. 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huh, S. Are ChatGPT’s Knowledge and Interpretation Ability Comparable to Those of Medical Students in Korea for Taking a Parasitology Examination? A Descriptive Study. J. Educ. Eval. Health Prof. 2023, 20, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hisan, U.; Amri, M. ChatGPT and Medical Education: A Double-Edged Sword. J. Pedagog. Educ. Sci. 2023, 2, 71–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mogali, S.R. Initial Impressions of ChatGPT for Anatomy Education. Anat. Sci. Educ. 2023, 1–4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Frieder, S.; Pinchetti, L.; Griffiths, R.R.; Salvatori, T.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Petersen, P.C.; Chevalier, A.; Berner, J. Mathematical Capabilities of ChatGPT. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2301.13867. [Google Scholar]
- Newton, P.M. ChatGPT Performance on MCQ-based Exams. EdArXiv 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Buchberger, B. Is ChatGPT Smarter than Master’s Applicants? Research Institute for Symbolic Computation: Linz, Austria, 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stutz, P.; Elixhauser, M.; Grubinger-Preiner, J.; Linner, V.; Reibersdorfer-Adelsberger, E.; Traun, C.; Wallentin, G.; Whös, K.; Zuberbühler, T. Ch(e)atGPT? An Anecdotal Approach on the Impact of ChatGPT on Teaching and Learning GIScience. EdArXiv 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Megahed, F.M.; Chen, Y.J.; Ferris, J.A.; Knoth, S.; Jones-Farmer, L.A. How Generative AI Models such as ChatGPT Can be (Mis)Used in SPC Practice, Education, and Research? An Exploratory Study. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2302.10916. [Google Scholar]
- Jalil, S.; Rafi, S.; LaToza, T.D.; Moran, K.; Lam, W. ChatGPT and Software Testing Education: Promises & Perils. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2302.03287. [Google Scholar]
- Szabo, A. ChatGPT a Breakthrough in Science and Education: Can it Fail a Test? OSF Prepr. 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tlili, A.; Shehata, B.; Adarkwah, M.A.; Bozkurt, A.; Hickey, D.T.; Huang, R.; Agyemang, B. What if the Devil is My Guardian Angel: ChatGPT as a Case Study of Using Chatbots in Education. Smart Learn. Env. 2023, 10, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhai, X. ChatGPT for Next Generation Science Learning. SSRN 2023, 4331313. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4331313 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Topsakal, O.; Topsakal, E. Framework for a Foreign Language Teaching Software for Children Utilizing AR, Voicebots and ChatGPT (Large Language Models). J. Cogn. Syst. 2022, 7, 33–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ali, F. Let the Devil Speak for Itself: Should ChatGPT Be Allowed or Banned in Hospitality and Tourism Schools? J. Glob. Hosp. Tour. 2023, 2, 1–6. Available online: https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/jght/vol2/iss1/1/ (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Kasneci, E.; Seßler, K.; Küchemann, S.; Bannert, M.; Dementieva, D.; Fischer, F.; Gasser, U.; Groh, G.; Günnemann, S.; Hüllermeier, E.; et al. ChatGPT for Good? On Oppor-tunities and Challenges of Large Language Models for Education. Learn. Individ. Differ. 2023, 103, 102274. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Khan, R.A.; Jawaid, M.; Khan, A.R.; Sajjad, M. ChatGPT—Reshaping Medical Education and Clinical Management. Pak. J. Med. Sci. 2023, 39, 605–607. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baidoo-Anu, D.; Owusu Ansah, L. Education in the Era of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI): Understanding the Potential Benefits of ChatGPT in Promoting Teaching and Learning. SSRN 2023, 4337484. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4337484 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Bishop, L. A Computer Wrote This Paper: What ChatGPT Means for Education, Research, and Writing. SSRN 2023, 4338981. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4338981 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Atlas, S. ChatGPT for Higher Education and Professional Development: A Guide to Conversational AI; University of Rhode Island: Kingston, RI, USA, 2023; Available online: https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cba_facpubs/548 (accessed on 1 March 2023).
- Al-Worafi, Y.M.; Hermansyah, A.; Goh, K.W.; Ming, L.C. Artificial Intelligence Use in University: Should We Ban ChatGPT? Preprints.org 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cotton, D.R.; Cotton, P.A.; Shipway, J.R. Chatting and Cheating: Ensuring Academic Integrity in the Era of ChatGPT. EdArXiv 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Qadir, J. Engineering Education in the Era of ChatGPT: Promise and Pitfalls of Generative AI for Education. TechRxiv 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rudolph, J.; Tan, S.; Tan, S. ChatGPT: Bullshit Spewer or the End of Traditional Assessments in Higher Education? J. Appl. Learn. Teach. 2023, 6, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pardos, Z.A.; Bhandari, S. Learning Gain Differences between ChatGPT and Human Tutor Generated Algebra Hints. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2302.06871. [Google Scholar]
- Pavlik, J.V. Collaborating with ChatGPT: Considering the Implications of Generative Artificial Intelligence for Journalism and Media Education. J. Mass Commun. Educ. 2023, 78, 84–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, B. Preparing Educators and Students for ChatGPT and AI Technology in Higher Education: Benefits, Limitations, Strategies, and Implications of ChatGPT & AI Technologies. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bo-Zhang-376/publication/367380845_Preparing_Educators_and_Students_for_ChatGPT_and_AI_Technology_in_Higher_EducationBenefits_Limitations_Strategies_and_Implications_of_ChatGPT_AI_Technologies/links/63d06849e922c50e99bd4d09/Preparing-Educators-and-Students-for-ChatGPT-and-AI-Technology-in-Higher-EducationBenefits-Limitations-Strategies-and-Implications-of-ChatGPT-AI-Technologies.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2023). [CrossRef]
- Perkins, M. Academic Integrity Considerations of AI Large Language Models in the Post-pandemic Era: ChatGPT and beyond. J. Univ. Teach. Learn. Pract. 2023, 20, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mbakwe, A.B.; Lourentzou, I.; Celi, L.A.; Mechanic, O.J.; Dagan, A. ChatGPT Passing USMLE Shines a Spotlight on the Flaws of Medical Education. PLoS Digital Health 2023, 2, e0000205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- King, M.R. A Conversation on Artificial Intelligence, Chatbots, and Plagiarism in Higher Education. Cell. Mol. Bioeng. 2023, 16, 1–2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bašić, Ž.; Banovac, A.; Kružić, I.; Jerković, I. Better by You, Better than Me? ChatGPT-3 as Writing Assistance in Students’ Essays. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2302.04536. [Google Scholar]
- Ventayen, R.J.M. ChatGPT by OpenAI: Students’ Viewpoint on Cheating Using Artificial Intelligence-Based Application. SSRN 2023, 4361548. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4361548 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Khalil, M.; Er, E. Will ChatGPT Get You Caught? Rethinking of Plagiarism Detection. arXiv 2023, arXiv:2302.04335. [Google Scholar]
- Ventayen, R.J.M. OpenAI ChatGPT Generated Results: Similarity Index of Artificial Intelligence-Based Contents. SSRN 2023, 4332664. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4332664 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Marusenko, R. New Challenges in Assessing Students’ Knowledge: Chatbot ChatGPT and Real-Time Deepfakes. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roman-Marusenko/publication/368450665_New_challenges_in_assessing_students'_knowledge_chatbot_ChatGPT_and_real-time_deepfakes/links/63e815e8e2e1515b6b8bad02/New-challenges-in-assessing-students-knowledge-chatbot-ChatGPT-and-real-time-deepfakes.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2023).
- García-Peñalvo, F.J. The Perception of Artificial Intelligence in Educational Contexts after the Launch of ChatGPT: Disruption or Panic? Educ. Knowl. Soc. 2023, 24, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Willems, J. ChatGPT at Universities—The Least of Our Concerns. SSRN 2023, 4334162. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4334162 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Rospigliosi, P.A. Artificial Intelligence in Teaching and Learning: What Questions Should We Ask of ChatGPT? Interact. Learn. Environ. 2023, 31, 1–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shiri, A. ChatGPT and Academic Integrity. SSRN 2023, 4360052. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4360052 (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- SSRN. Available online: https://www.ssrn.com (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- arXiv. Available online: https://arxiv.org (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- ResearchGate. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Turnitin. Available online: https://www.turnitin.com (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- iThenticate. Available online: https://www.ithenticate.com (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Bloom, B.S. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals; David McKay: New York, NY, USA, 1956. [Google Scholar]
- GPT-4. Available online: https://openai.com/research/gpt-4 (accessed on 5 April 2023).
- Google Cloud: Dialogflow. Available online: https://cloud.google.com/dialogflow (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Lo, C.K.; Hew, K.F. A Critical Review of Flipped Classroom Challenges in K-12 Education: Possible Solutions and Recommendations for Future Research. Res. Pract. Technol. Enhanc. Learn. 2017, 12, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hew, K.F.; Bai, S.; Dawson, P.; Lo, C.K. Meta-analyses of Flipped Classroom Studies: A Review of Methodology. Educ. Res. Rev. 2021, 33, 100393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lo, C.K.; Hew, K.F. Design Principles for Fully Online Flipped Learning in Health Professions Education: A Systematic Review of Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic. BMC Med. Educ. 2022, 22, 720. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lo, C.K. Strategies for Enhancing Online Flipped Learning: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies During the COVID-19 pandemic. Interact. Learn. Environ. 2023, 1–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thorp, H.H. ChatGPT is Fun, But not an Author. Science 2023, 379, 313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Article topic||Discuss ChatGPT in the field of education||Do not discuss GhatGPT in the field of education|
|Article type||Academic articles||Non-academic articles, such as articles from mass and social media|
|Time period||1 January 2022 to 28 February 2023||Articles outside the time period|
|Subject Domain||Studies||Overall |
|Representative Researcher Comments|
|Critical and higher-order thinking||||Outstanding||“The generated responses can be assessed as being clear in exposition, precise with respect to examples used, relevant to the requests…”  (p. 13).|
|Economics||||Outstanding||In TUCE, “ChatGPT ranks at the 99th percentile in macroeconomics and the 91st percentile in microeconomics, when compared to [other] students”  (p. 7).|
|Programming||[35,36,37]||Outstanding to satisfactory||“Nearly all answers of ChatGPT were completely correct and nicely explained… the explanations by ChatGPT were amazingly clear and goal-oriented”  (p. 1).|
“The lecturer graded the assignment submission with a total score of 71 out of 100 points, resulting in a grade of ‘Satisfactory’”  (p. 4).
|English language comprehension||||Satisfactory||“the mean grade achieved by ChatGPT according to official norms was 7.18, which is similar to the mean grade of all students in the Netherlands”  (p. 1).|
|Law||[10,23]||Barely satisfactory to unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT performed on average at the level of a C+ student, achieving a low but passing grade”  (p. 1).|
“It performed worst on exams that featured problem-style or ‘issue spotting’ questions”  (p. 1)
|Medical education||[24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32]||Barely satisfactory to unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT yields moderate accuracy approaching passing performance on USMLE”  (p. 4).|
In American Heart Association BLS and ACLS exams, “ChatGPT did not reach the passing threshold for any of the exams”  (p. 109732).
|Mathematics||||Unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT’s mathematical abilities are significantly below those of an average mathematics graduate student”  (p. 1).|
|Software testing||||Unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT is not able, by itself, to pass a software testing course. In total, ChatGPT was able to correctly answer 37.5% of the questions we posed”  (p. 8).|
|Sports science and psychology||||Unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT gave several correct answers to 20 questions but failed the test with [a score of] 45%”  (p. 2).|
|MCQ-based exams across subjects||||Unsatisfactory||“ChatGPT fails to meet the passing grade on almost every MCQ exam that it is tested against, and performs significantly worse than the average human student”  (p. 1).|
|Aspect||Function||Representative Quotes||Other |
|Teaching preparation||Generating course materials||“we asked ChatGPT to create one of the dialogues above in a format that can be imported into DialogFlow. ChatGPT was able to generate it successfully”  (p. 37).||[43,44,45]|
|Providing suggestions||“I told ChatGPT that the learner was with dyslexia, and eventually ChatGPT recommended specific learning materials for the learner”  (p. 1).||[8,27,37]|
|Performing language translation||“ChatGPT can be used to translate educational materials into different languages”  (p. 8).||[45,47,48]|
|Assessment||Generating assessment tasks||“Another use of ChatGPT is its ability to generate exercises, quizzes, and scenarios which can be used in the classroom to aid in practice and assessment”  (p. 5).||[27,45,49]|
|Evaluating student performance||“ChatGPT can be trained to grade student essays, providing teachers with more time to focus on other aspects of teaching”  (p. 8).||[46,50,51]|
|Aspect||Function||Representative Quotes||Other |
|Learning||Answering questions||“The answer[s] given by ChatGPT were relevant and accurate… The tool can used as quick reference and self-studying instrument”  (p. 1).||[25,46,53]|
|Summarising information||“it is very good at processing information, distilling it, and presenting it verbally”  (p. 92).||[23,29,44]|
|Facilitating collaboration||“The ChatGPT application has the potential to serve as a means of generating different scenarios for students to work together to solve problems and achieve goals”  (p. 13).||[25,44,50]|
|Assessment||Concept checking and exam preparation||“ChatGPT has shown promising results in becoming a powerful reference and self-learning tool for preparing for the life support exams”  (p. 1).||[10,28,32]|
|Drafting assistance||“students could be encouraged to use AI to give a ‘first draft’ answer, and then asked to improve upon that answer manually”  (p. 21).||[10,25,55]|
|Providing feedback||“ChatGPT could be used to grade assignments and provide feedback to students in real-time”  (p. 2).||[46,48,56]|
|Aspect||Issues||Representative quotes||Other |
|Accuracy and reliability||Relying on biased data||“These biases stem from research performed in high-income countries and textbooks [i.e., the training data of ChatGPT]”  (p. 2).||[40,46,54]|
|Having limited up-to-date knowledge||“ChatGPT has no idea of the world after 2021 and hence it could not add any references or information after 2021”  (p. 14).||[25,45,56]|
|Generating incorrect/fake information||“ChatGPT included a make-up article which does not exist and even provided full bibliographic details of the article with a non-functional URL”  (p. 14).||[32,38,58]|
|Plagiarism prevention||Student plagiarism||“Our experimental group [with ChatGPT support] had slightly more problems with plagiarism than the control group [without ChatGPT support]”  (p. 7).||[40,51,60]|
|Bypassing plagiarism detectors||“Of the 50 essays inspected, the plagiarism-detection software considered 40 of them with a high level of originality, as evidenced by a similarity score of 20% or less”  (p. 10).||[36,52,62]|
|Aspect||Strategies||Representative Quotes||Other |
|Task design||Incorporating multimedia resources||“Embedding images to exam questions can make it more difficult for students to cheat and for ChatGPT to generate accurate responses”  (p. 16).||[22,34,52]|
|Adopting novel question types||“[Instructors] might also reconsider the types of questions they pose to students, focusing on those that require analysis rather than those that simply require [a] recall of legal rules”  (p. 12).||[8,22,63]|
|Employing digital-free assessment formats||“blanket solution would be to make all assessments of the ‘in-class’ variety… it will be essentially impossible for ChatGPT to be leveraged in an unscrupulous fashion”  (p. 19).||[21,31,36]|
|Identification of AI writing||Using AI-based writing detection tools||“Plagiarism detectors could not identify the AI-originated text, but AI detectors did”  (p. 2).||[21,55,56]|
|Checking references||“Although in text citations and references were provided…, these were all fabricated… This does open a potential avenue of detection by academic staff”  (p. 5).||[39,50,52]|
|Institutional policy||Establishing anti-plagiarism guidelines||“Administrations should consider how to reshape honor codes to regulate the use of language models in general”  (p. 12).||[52,56,61]|
|Providing student education||“Our recommendations for students are to… be aware of academic integrity policies and understand the consequences of academic misconduct… provide training on academic integrity for students”  (pp. 14–15).||[54,64,65]|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Lo, C.K. What Is the Impact of ChatGPT on Education? A Rapid Review of the Literature. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 410. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040410
Lo CK. What Is the Impact of ChatGPT on Education? A Rapid Review of the Literature. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(4):410. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040410Chicago/Turabian Style
Lo, Chung Kwan. 2023. "What Is the Impact of ChatGPT on Education? A Rapid Review of the Literature" Education Sciences 13, no. 4: 410. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040410