Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Plants, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Plant parasitic nematodes infect a wide range of crop plants, and control measures have remained [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-36
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Translating Flowering Time from Arabidopsis thaliana to Brassicaceae and Asteraceae Crop Species
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
Viewed by 517 | PDF Full-text (2631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flowering and seed set are essential for plant species to survive, hence plants need to adapt to highly variable environments to flower in the most favorable conditions. Endogenous cues such as plant age and hormones coordinate with the environmental cues like temperature and
[...] Read more.
Flowering and seed set are essential for plant species to survive, hence plants need to adapt to highly variable environments to flower in the most favorable conditions. Endogenous cues such as plant age and hormones coordinate with the environmental cues like temperature and day length to determine optimal time for the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. In a breeding context, controlling flowering time would help to speed up the production of new hybrids and produce high yield throughout the year. The flowering time genetic network is extensively studied in the plant model species Arabidopsis thaliana, however this knowledge is still limited in most crops. This article reviews evidence of conservation and divergence of flowering time regulation in A. thaliana with its related crop species in the Brassicaceae and with more distant vegetable crops within the Asteraceae family. Despite the overall conservation of most flowering time pathways in these families, many genes controlling this trait remain elusive, and the function of most Arabidopsis homologs in these crops are yet to be determined. However, the knowledge gathered so far in both model and crop species can be already exploited in vegetable crop breeding for flowering time control. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Pharmacognosy, Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Phania matricarioides (Spreng.) Griseb. Collected from Different Localities in Cuba
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (1793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phania matricarioides (Spreng.) Griseb. is a traditionally used plant with various pharmacological properties. However, there are only scarce reports about the phytochemistry and biological activity of this plant. In this work, P. matricarioides was collected from three different localities of Cuba: PmB (collected
[...] Read more.
Phania matricarioides (Spreng.) Griseb. is a traditionally used plant with various pharmacological properties. However, there are only scarce reports about the phytochemistry and biological activity of this plant. In this work, P. matricarioides was collected from three different localities of Cuba: PmB (collected in Bauta, Artemisa), PmC (collected in Cangrejeras, Artemisa), and PmI (collected in La Lisa, Havana), extracted with aqueous ethanol, and analyzed macroscopically and microscopically. The extracts were screened for phytochemical contents, analyzed by TLC and HPLC, and screened for antioxidant activity using the FRAP and DPPH assays. Macroscopic analysis showed similar results for all samples; however, microscopic, physicochemical and phytochemical studies showed appreciable differences. In particular, the total solid of PmC extract was higher (1.94 ± 0.03%) than the other samples. In HPLC profiles, quercetin was identified in the three samples and a greater similarity between samples PmB and PmI was observed. All samples demonstrated radical-scavenging antioxidant activity by the DPPH assay, which PmC also demonstrated the smaller (p < 0.05) value (IC50 = 27.4 ± 0.1 µg/mL), but was statistically superior (p < 0.05) to vitamin C (IC50 = 23.7 ± 0 µg/mL). Also, in the FRAP assay, a higher vitamin C equivalent of PmC was significantly superior (p < 0.05) to the other extracts at the evaluated concentrations, which is likely due to a higher concentration of quercetin. In conclusion, P. matricarioides could constitute a potential resource in the field of phytotherapeutic products, and the results obtained can contribute to the development of the quality control norms for this species. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Plant Vascular Tissues—Connecting Tissue Comes in All Shapes
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
Viewed by 632 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For centuries, humans have grown and used structures based on vascular tissues in plants. One could imagine that life would have developed differently without wood as a resource for building material, paper, heating energy, or fuel and without edible tubers as a food
[...] Read more.
For centuries, humans have grown and used structures based on vascular tissues in plants. One could imagine that life would have developed differently without wood as a resource for building material, paper, heating energy, or fuel and without edible tubers as a food source. In this review, we will summarise the status of research on Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development and subsequently focus on how this knowledge has been applied and expanded in research on the wood of trees and storage organs of crop plants. We will conclude with an outlook on interesting open questions and exciting new research opportunities in this growing and important field. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview From A. rhizogenes RolD to Plant P5CS: Exploiting Proline to Control Plant Development
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Viewed by 333 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The capability of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes to reprogram plant development and induce adventitious hairy roots relies on the expression of a few root-inducing genes (rol A, B, C and D), which can be transferred from large virulence plasmids into
[...] Read more.
The capability of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes to reprogram plant development and induce adventitious hairy roots relies on the expression of a few root-inducing genes (rol A, B, C and D), which can be transferred from large virulence plasmids into the genome of susceptible plant cells. Contrary to rolA, B and C, which are present in all the virulent strains of A. rhizogenes and control hairy root formation by affecting auxin and cytokinin signalling, rolD appeared non-essential and not associated with plant hormones. Its role remained elusive until it was discovered that it codes for a proline synthesis enzyme. The finding that, in addition to its role in protein synthesis and stress adaptation, proline is also involved in hairy roots induction, disclosed a novel role for this amino acid in plant development. Indeed, from this initial finding, proline was shown to be critically involved in a number of developmental processes, such as floral transition, embryo development, pollen fertility and root elongation. In this review, we present a historical survey on the rol genes focusing on the role of rolD and proline in plant development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Stress-Triggered Long-Distance Communication Leads to Phenotypic Plasticity: The Case of the Early Root Protoxylem Maturation Induced by Leaf Wounding in Arabidopsis
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Viewed by 361 | PDF Full-text (2822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Root architecture and xylem phenotypic plasticity influence crop productivity by affecting water and nutrient uptake, especially under those environmental stress, which limit water supply or imply excessive water losses. Xylem maturation depends on coordinated events of cell wall lignification and developmental programmed cell
[...] Read more.
Root architecture and xylem phenotypic plasticity influence crop productivity by affecting water and nutrient uptake, especially under those environmental stress, which limit water supply or imply excessive water losses. Xylem maturation depends on coordinated events of cell wall lignification and developmental programmed cell death (PCD), which could both be triggered by developmental- and/or stress-driven hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Here, the effect of wounding of the cotyledonary leaf on root protoxylem maturation was explored in Arabidopsis thaliana by analysis under Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM). Leaf wounding induced early root protoxylem maturation within 3 days from the injury, as after this time protoxylem position was found closer to the tip. The effect of leaf wounding on protoxylem maturation was independent from root growth or meristem size, that did not change after wounding. A strong H2O2 accumulation was detected in root protoxylem 6 h after leaf wounding. Furthermore, the H2O2 trap N,N1-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) reversed wound-induced early protoxylem maturation, confirming the need for H2O2 production in this signaling pathway. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Quinoa Abiotic Stress Responses: A Review
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
Viewed by 865 | PDF Full-text (3671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse Andean crop that has earned special attention worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits and its ability to adapt to contrasting environments, including nutrient-poor and saline soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems. Drought
[...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse Andean crop that has earned special attention worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits and its ability to adapt to contrasting environments, including nutrient-poor and saline soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems. Drought and salinity are the abiotic stresses most studied in quinoa; however, studies of other important stress factors, such as heat, cold, heavy metals, and UV-B light irradiance, are severely limited. In the last few decades, the incidence of abiotic stress has been accentuated by the increase in unpredictable weather patterns. Furthermore, stresses habitually occur as combinations of two or more. The goals of this review are to: (1) provide an in-depth description of the existing knowledge of quinoa’s tolerance to different abiotic stressors; (2) summarize quinoa’s physiological responses to these stressors; and (3) describe novel advances in molecular tools that can aid our understanding of the mechanisms underlying quinoa’s abiotic stress tolerance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Biological Activities of Extracts from Aerial Parts of Salvia pachyphylla Epling Ex Munz
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Viewed by 472 | PDF Full-text (2176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and enzyme inhibitory properties of five extracts from aerial parts of Salvia pachyphylla Epling ex Munz were examined to assess the prospective of this plant as a source of natural products with therapeutic potential. These properties were analyzed by
[...] Read more.
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and enzyme inhibitory properties of five extracts from aerial parts of Salvia pachyphylla Epling ex Munz were examined to assess the prospective of this plant as a source of natural products with therapeutic potential. These properties were analyzed by performing a set of standard assays. The extract obtained with dichloromethane showed the most variety of components, as they yielded promising results in all completed assays. Furthermore, the extract obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity, as well as the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Remarkably, both extracts obtained with n-hexane or dichloromethane revealed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; additionally, they showed greater antiproliferative activity against three representative cell lines of the most common types of cancers in women worldwide, and against a cell line that exemplifies cancers that typically develop drug resistance. Despite that, other extracts were less active, such as the methanolic or aqueous; their results are promising for the isolation and identification of novel bioactive molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On the Possible Chemical Justification of the Ethnobotanical Use of Hyptis obtusiflora in Amazonian Ecuador
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Viewed by 477 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In rural areas of Latin America, Hyptis infusions are very popular. Hyptis obtusiflora extends from Mexico throughout Central America to Bolivia and Peru. It has added value in Ecuador where it has been used by different ethnic groups. We aimed to learn about
[...] Read more.
In rural areas of Latin America, Hyptis infusions are very popular. Hyptis obtusiflora extends from Mexico throughout Central America to Bolivia and Peru. It has added value in Ecuador where it has been used by different ethnic groups. We aimed to learn about the traditional knowledge of ancient Kichwa cultures about this plant, and to contrast this knowledge with the published information organized in occidental databases. We proposed to use traditional knowledge as a source of innovation for social development. Our specific objectives were to catalogue the uses of H. obtusiflora in the community, to prospect on the bibliography on a possible chemical justification for its medicinal use, to propose new products for development, and to give arguments for biodiversity conservation. An ethnobotanical survey was made and a Prisma 2009 Flow Diagram was then followed for scientific validation. We rescued data that are novel contributions for the ethnobotany at the national level. The catalogued main activity of anti-inflammation can be related to the terpene composition and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase. This opens the possibility of researching the extract of this plant as an alternative to allopurinol or uricosuric drugs. This is a concrete example of an argument for biodiversity conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Large Scale Phenotyping Provides Insight into the Diversity of Vegetative and Reproductive Organs in a Wide Collection of Wild and Domesticated Peppers (Capsicum spp.)
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
Viewed by 507 | PDF Full-text (4050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the past years, the diversity of Capsicum has been mainly investigated through genetics and genomics approaches, fewer efforts have been made in the field of plant phenomics. Assessment of crop traits with high-throughput methodologies could enhance the knowledge of the plant phenome,
[...] Read more.
In the past years, the diversity of Capsicum has been mainly investigated through genetics and genomics approaches, fewer efforts have been made in the field of plant phenomics. Assessment of crop traits with high-throughput methodologies could enhance the knowledge of the plant phenome, giving at the same time a key contribution to the understanding of the function of many genes. In this study, a wide germplasm collection of 307 accessions retrieved from 48 world regions, and belonging to nine Capsicum species was characterized for 54 plant, leaf, flower and fruit traits. Conventional descriptors and semi-automated tools based on image analysis and colour coordinate detection were used. Significant differences were found among accessions, between species and between sweet and spicy cultivated types, revealing a large diversity. The results highlighted how the domestication process and the continued selection have increased the variability of fruit shape and colour. Hierarchical clustering based on conventional and fruit morphological descriptors reflected the separation of species on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships. These observations suggested that the flow between distinct gene pools could have contributed to determine the similarity of the species on the basis of morphological plant and fruit parameters. The approach used represents the first high-throughput phenotyping effort in Capsicum spp. aimed at broadening the knowledge of the diversity of domesticated and wild peppers. The data could help to select best the candidates for breeding and provide new insight into the understanding of the genetic base of the fruit shape of pepper. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Multiple Pathways in the Control of the Shade Avoidance Response
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
Viewed by 689 | PDF Full-text (2253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To detect the presence of neighboring vegetation, shade-avoiding plants have evolved the ability to perceive and integrate multiple signals. Among them, changes in light quality and quantity are central to elicit and regulate the shade avoidance response. Here, we describe recent progresses in
[...] Read more.
To detect the presence of neighboring vegetation, shade-avoiding plants have evolved the ability to perceive and integrate multiple signals. Among them, changes in light quality and quantity are central to elicit and regulate the shade avoidance response. Here, we describe recent progresses in the comprehension of the signaling mechanisms underlying the shade avoidance response, focusing on Arabidopsis, because most of our knowledge derives from studies conducted on this model plant. Shade avoidance is an adaptive response that results in phenotypes with a high relative fitness in individual plants growing within dense vegetation. However, it affects the growth, development, and yield of crops, and the design of new strategies aimed at attenuating shade avoidance at defined developmental stages and/or in specific organs in high-density crop plantings is a major challenge for the future. For this reason, in this review, we also report on recent advances in the molecular description of the shade avoidance response in crops, such as maize and tomato, and discuss their similarities and differences with Arabidopsis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wheat ATI CM3, CM16 and 0.28 Allergens Produced in Pichia Pastoris Display a Different Eliciting Potential in Food Allergy to Wheat
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Viewed by 492 | PDF Full-text (1633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although wheat is a staple food for most of the human population, some of its components trigger adverse reactions. Among wheat components, the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are important triggers of several allergies and activators of innate immunity. ATI are a group of exogenous
[...] Read more.
Although wheat is a staple food for most of the human population, some of its components trigger adverse reactions. Among wheat components, the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are important triggers of several allergies and activators of innate immunity. ATI are a group of exogenous protease inhibitors and include several polypeptides. The three ATI polypeptides named CM3, CM16 and 0.28 are considered major allergens, and might also play a role in other common wheat-related pathologies, such as Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity and even Celiac Disease. On this basis, we pointed to obtain high amounts of them in purity and to evaluate their allergenicity potential. We thus isolated the mRNA corresponding to the three ATI genes CM3, CM16 and 0.28 from 28 days post-anthesis wheat kernels and the corresponding cDNAs were used for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The three purified proteins were tested in degranulation assay against human sera of patients with food allergy to wheat. A large range of degranulation values was observed for each protein according to the sera tested. All of the three purified proteins CM3, CM16 and 0.28 were active as allergens because they were able to induce basophils degranulation on wheat allergic patients’ sera, with the highest values of β-hexosaminidase release observed for CM3 protein. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Photosystem II Extrinsic Proteins and Their Putative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Higher Plants
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abiotic stress remains one of the major challenges in managing and preventing crop loss. Photosystem II (PSII), being the most susceptible component of the photosynthetic machinery, has been studied in great detail over many years. However, much of the emphasis has been placed
[...] Read more.
Abiotic stress remains one of the major challenges in managing and preventing crop loss. Photosystem II (PSII), being the most susceptible component of the photosynthetic machinery, has been studied in great detail over many years. However, much of the emphasis has been placed on intrinsic proteins, particularly with respect to their involvement in the repair of PSII-associated damage. PSII extrinsic proteins include PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbR in higher plants, and these are required for oxygen evolution under physiological conditions. Changes in extrinsic protein expression have been reported to either drastically change PSII efficiency or change the PSII repair system. This review discusses the functional role of these proteins in plants and indicates potential areas of further study concerning these proteins. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Developmental Stage and Shape of Embryo Determine the Efficacy of Embryo Rescue in Introgressing Orange/Yellow Color and Anthocyanin Genes of Brassica Species
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Viewed by 552 | PDF Full-text (4171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vegetables in Brassica are some of the world’s most commonly cultivated plants and have a wide range of consumable plant organs. Improvement of this group of vegetables is limited at the species level due to limited genetic variability. Interspecies hybridization could be a
[...] Read more.
Vegetables in Brassica are some of the world’s most commonly cultivated plants and have a wide range of consumable plant organs. Improvement of this group of vegetables is limited at the species level due to limited genetic variability. Interspecies hybridization could be a powerful alternate tool for broadening the genetic variability of target traits. Embryo rescue technique is necessarily practiced in interspecies hybridization for protecting embryos from premature abortion. However, its success depends on the age of ovaries, shape of embryos, and the effect of female genotype. In this study, we carried out a wide range of interspecies crossing for introgressing target traits (orange/yellow color in cabbage and anthocyanin in Chinese cabbage) and optimizing the appropriate age of ovaries, the shape of embryo, and the suitable genotypes of such crosses. We observed that 15 DAP (days after pollination) was the best for embryo rescue in the diploid-diploid (Brassica rapa × B. oleracea) crosses, while 20 DAP was optimum for amphidiploid-diploid (B. napus/B. juncea × B. rapa) crosses. Cotyledonary shape of embryos and genotypes of amphidiploid species were the best for successful plant regeneration in interspecies crosses. We successfully selected plants with desired orange/yellow inner leaves for cabbage and higher anthocyanin in Chinese cabbage. The results of this study have the potential to be applied for the efficient production of interspecific hybrids and to develop Brassica vegetables with new traits, which could have potential for the enrichment of the human diet. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Looking at Flavonoid Biodiversity in Horticultural Crops: A Colored Mine with Nutritional Benefits
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
Viewed by 613 | PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids represent a wide group of plant secondary metabolites implicated in many physiological roles, from the attraction of pollinators to the protection against biotic or abiotic stresses. Flavonoids are synthetized in a number of horticultural crops that are important components of our daily
[...] Read more.
Flavonoids represent a wide group of plant secondary metabolites implicated in many physiological roles, from the attraction of pollinators to the protection against biotic or abiotic stresses. Flavonoids are synthetized in a number of horticultural crops that are important components of our daily diet. In the last decades, the consumption of vegetables rich in antioxidants has been strongly promoted from the perspective of prevention/protection against chronic diseases. Therefore, due to their nutritional importance, several attempts have been made to enhance flavonoid levels in species of agronomic interest. In this review, we focus on the flavonoid biodiversity among the major horticultural species, which is responsible of differences among closely related species and influences the qualitative/quantitative composition. We also review the role of flavonoids in the nutritional quality of plant products, contributing to their organoleptic and nutritional properties, and the main strategies of biofortification to increase their content. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mango Fruit Yield and Critical Quality Parameters Respond to Foliar and Soil Applications of Zinc and Boron
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
Viewed by 524 | PDF Full-text (2285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the sixth most important fruit crop worldwide, is likely at risk under a climate change scenario of accelerated soil organic matter mineralization and constrained plant nutrient supplies such as zinc (Zn) and boron (B). We identified the optimum
[...] Read more.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the sixth most important fruit crop worldwide, is likely at risk under a climate change scenario of accelerated soil organic matter mineralization and constrained plant nutrient supplies such as zinc (Zn) and boron (B). We identified the optimum nutrient formulation and application method to possibly rectify nutrient deficits in mango plants grown in one of the warmest and driest regions—Multan, Pakistan. We evaluated the yield and physiological (quality) responses of 20-year-old mango trees to seven treatments of foliar and soil applications of Zn and B. Combined soil application of B and Zn resulted in optimum increases in leaf mineral B and Zn and fruit-set, retention, yield, pulp recovery and total soluble solids at ripening (p = 0.021), while reducing titratable acidity and early fruit shedding (p = 0.034). Additionally, this treatment improved fruit quality (taste, flavour, texture, aroma, acceptability; p ≤ 0.05). Yield was found to be correlated with retention percentage (P ≤ 0.001; R2 = 0.91), which was in turn related to fruit-set number panicle−1 (P = 0.039; R2 = 0.61). Therefore, we suggest that combined soil application of B and Zn mitigates leaf mineral deficiencies and improves the yield and quality of mango more efficiently than other individual or combined foliar or soil treatments used in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of the Number of Seeds per Berry on Fruit Growth Characteristics, Especially on the Duration of Stage II in Blueberry
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
Viewed by 401 | PDF Full-text (6385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In present research, differences in the number of seeds per berry (NSB), berry fresh weight (BW), days to ripening from flowering (DRF), and the duration of a slow growth phase (DS II) among pollen sources were investigated in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum
[...] Read more.
In present research, differences in the number of seeds per berry (NSB), berry fresh weight (BW), days to ripening from flowering (DRF), and the duration of a slow growth phase (DS II) among pollen sources were investigated in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). NSB, as well as BW and DRF, were significantly different among the pollen sources. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with NSB as the covariate showed significant interaction between the NSB and pollen sources on BW and DRF when self-pollination was included. However, ANCOVA without self-pollination showed no significant effect of the pollen source on BW and DRF. On the other hand, DS II was negatively correlated with NSB, and no significant interaction between NSB and pollen sources was found, even though self-pollination was included. Although the relationship between NSB and DS II appeared not to be statistically influenced by the different pollen sources, there seemed to be some difference between self- and cross-pollination. DS II shortened as the NSB increased, which may have led to a decrease in DRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Benzyladenine on Metabolic Changes in Different Rose Tissues
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (2634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two modern rose varieties, Floribunda and Hybrid Tea, were used to analyze and identify metabolic changes after foliar application with benzyladenine (BA). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as metabolites were detected. Two pairs of doses of BA, at 11.16 and 17.87 mg/cm2,
[...] Read more.
Two modern rose varieties, Floribunda and Hybrid Tea, were used to analyze and identify metabolic changes after foliar application with benzyladenine (BA). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as metabolites were detected. Two pairs of doses of BA, at 11.16 and 17.87 mg/cm2, and 7.17 and 12.26 mg/cm2 were applied to the foliage of Hybrid Tea and Floribunda, respectively. Sampling time was optimized and treatment duration was 4 weeks. After treatment, the volatiles from the treated and untreated control roses were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technology by three-phase fiber 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), and with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results showed that BA and its dose rate led to metabolic changes of treated roses in comparison with untreated controls. The number of VOCs extracted and detected from leaves, stem, rhizosphere and whole plants from the two rose varieties at doses rate of 17.87 and 12.26 mg/cm2 were 43, 65, 40 and 68 compounds for each plant material, respectively, for both rose varieties. Whilst the VOCs extracted and detected from both rose varieties for leaves, stem, rhizosphere and whole plants were 38, 61, 34 and 66 compounds for each plant material, respectively. The results demonstrate that some volatiles, such as 4-Heptyn-2-ol, Phenyl methyl ether and 3-Methyl-apopinene, increased with increasing doses of BA; these compounds are aroma chemicals with a very powerful smell. This study shows that BA treatments can have a significant effect on metabolite changes in different rose tissues. This method could be applied to other floriculture plants. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Elemental Profiles in Cycas micronesica Stems
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
Viewed by 367 | PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential nutrients and metals have been quantified in stems of many tree species to understand the role of stems as storage and source organs. Little is known about stored stem resources of cycad tree species. Cycas micronesica tissue was collected from apical and
[...] Read more.
Essential nutrients and metals have been quantified in stems of many tree species to understand the role of stems as storage and source organs. Little is known about stored stem resources of cycad tree species. Cycas micronesica tissue was collected from apical and basal axial regions of stems; and pith, vascular, and cortex tissues were separated into three radial regions. Leaves were also sampled to provide a comparison to stems. Minerals and metals were quantified in all tissues. Minerals and metals varied greatly among the six stem sections. Phosphorus varied more among the three radial sections than the other macronutrients, and zinc and nickel varied more than the other micronutrients. Stem carbon was less than and stem calcium was greater than expected, based on what is currently known tree stem concentrations in the literature. Elemental concentrations were generally greater than those previously reported for coniferous gymnosperm trees. Moreover, the stem concentrations were high in relation to leaf concentrations, when compared to published angiosperm and conifer data. The results indicated that the addition of more cycad species to the literature will improve our understanding of gymnosperm versus angiosperm stem nutrient relations, and that the non-woody cycad stem contains copious essential plant nutrients that can be mobilized and deployed to sinks when needed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessProtocol Revised and Improved Procedure for Immunolocalization of Male Meiotic Chromosomal Proteins and Spindle in Plants without the Use of Enzymes
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
Viewed by 468 | PDF Full-text (2641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immunolocalization studies to visualize the distribution of proteins on meiotic chromosomes have become an integral part of studies on meiosis in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These techniques have been used to visualize a wide range of meiotic proteins involved in different
[...] Read more.
Immunolocalization studies to visualize the distribution of proteins on meiotic chromosomes have become an integral part of studies on meiosis in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These techniques have been used to visualize a wide range of meiotic proteins involved in different aspects of meiosis, including sister chromatid cohesion, recombination, synapsis, and chromosome segregation. However, the analysis of meiotic spindle structure by immunofluorescence is of outstanding importance in plant reproductive biology and is very challenging. In the following report, we describe the complete and easy protocol for the localization of proteins to the male meiotic spindle and male meiotic chromosomes. The protocol is fast, improved, and robust without the use of any harsh enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Reproduction)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Reviewing the Prospects of Sea Fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) as Emerging Vegetable Crop
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
Viewed by 508 | PDF Full-text (2466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.), a perennial halophyte typical of coastal habits, is well known for several food and non-food uses. This review presents both the characteristics and ethnobotany as well as the findings, technical advances and potential of sea fennel research
[...] Read more.
Sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.), a perennial halophyte typical of coastal habits, is well known for several food and non-food uses. This review presents both the characteristics and ethnobotany as well as the findings, technical advances and potential of sea fennel research with the aim to improve and disseminate knowledge regarding the value and potentials of this halophyte. Current knowledge suggest that sea fennel shows good potential as an emerging crop, being a refined food and also an interesting source of human health compounds and crop protection products. Moreover, sea fennel may be proposed as an alternative and sustainable cash crop also in the context of a saline agriculture regime. On the other hand, some aspects of sea fennel require further understanding; therefore, new research and development activities should be carried out before full commercial exploitation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Ethnobotanical Survey of Dracaena cinnabari and Investigation of the Pharmacognostical Properties, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Its Resin
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
Viewed by 618 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. (Dracaenaceae) is an important plant endemic to Soqotra Island, Yemen. Dragon’s blood (Dam Alakhwin) is the resin that exudes from the plant stem. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews to document
[...] Read more.
Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. (Dracaenaceae) is an important plant endemic to Soqotra Island, Yemen. Dragon’s blood (Dam Alakhwin) is the resin that exudes from the plant stem. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews to document the ethnobotanical data of the plant. According to the collected ethnobotanical data, the resin of D. cinnabari is widely used in the traditional folk medicine in Soqotra for treatment of dermal, dental, eye and gastrointestinal diseases in humans. The resin samples found on the local Yemeni markets were partly or totally substituted by different adulterants. Organoleptic properties, solubility and extractive value were demonstrated as preliminary methods to identify the authentic pure Soqotri resin as well as the adulterants. In addition, the resin extracts and its solution in methanol were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activities against six human pathogenic fungal strains by the agar diffusion method, for antioxidant activities using the DPPH assay and for cytotoxic activity using the neutral red uptake assay. The crude authentic resin dissolves completely in methanol. In comparison with different resin extracts, the methanolic solution of the whole resin showed the strongest biological activities. It showed strong antifungal activity, especially against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes besides antioxidant activities and toxicity against FL-cells. These findings confirm and explain the traditional uses of the resin for the treatment of skin diseases and mouth fungal infections. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Valorization of Wild Apple (Malus spp.) By-Products as a Source of Essential Fatty Acids, Tocopherols and Phytosterols with Antimicrobial Activity
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
Viewed by 502 | PDF Full-text (985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The amplified production of fruit as well as burgeoning demand for plant-made food products have resulted in a sharp increase of waste. Currently, millions of tons of by-products are either being discarded or utilized rather ineffectively. However, these by-products may be processed and
[...] Read more.
The amplified production of fruit as well as burgeoning demand for plant-made food products have resulted in a sharp increase of waste. Currently, millions of tons of by-products are either being discarded or utilized rather ineffectively. However, these by-products may be processed and further incorporated as functional ingredients in making high-value food products with many physiological and biochemical effects. The chemical analysis of pomace oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and reversed-phase-liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC/FLD) systems led to the identification and quantification of 56 individual lipophilic compounds including unsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, as well as phytosterols and four homologs of tocopherol. The oils recovered from by-products of Malus spp. (particularly cv. “Ola”) are rich in fatty acids such as linolenic (57.8%), α-linolenic (54.3%), and oleic (25.5%). The concentration of total tocopherols varied among the Malus species and dessert apples investigated, representing the range of 16.8–30.9 mg mL−1. The highest content of total tocopherols was found in M. Bernu prieks, followed by M. cv. “Ola”, and M. × Soulardii pomace oils. A significantly higher amount of δ-tocopherol was established in the oil of M. Bernu prieks, indicating that this species could be utilized as a natural and cheap source of bioactive molecules. β-Sitosterol was the prevalent compound determined in all tested pomace oils with a percentage distribution of 10.3–94.5%. The main triterpene identified in the oils was lupeol, which varied in the range of 0.1–66.3%. A targeted utilization of apple pomace would facilitate management of tons of by-products and benefit the environment and industry. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Hitting the Wall—Sensing and Signaling Pathways Involved in Plant Cell Wall Remodeling in Response to Abiotic Stress
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Viewed by 838 | PDF Full-text (1140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in
[...] Read more.
Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in greater understanding of the dynamics of cell wall deposition and remodeling. The cell wall is the first line of defense against different adverse abiotic and biotic environmental influences. Different abiotic stress conditions such as salinity, drought, and frost trigger production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which act as important signaling molecules in stress activated cellular responses. Detection of ROS by still-elusive receptors triggers numerous signaling events that result in production of different protective compounds or even cell death, but most notably in stress-induced cell wall remodeling. This is mediated by different plant hormones, of which the most studied are jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids. In this review we highlight key factors involved in sensing, signal transduction, and response(s) to abiotic stress and how these mechanisms are related to cell wall-associated stress acclimatization. ROS, plant hormones, cell wall remodeling enzymes and different wall mechanosensors act coordinately during abiotic stress, resulting in abiotic stress wall acclimatization, enabling plants to survive adverse environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fertigation: Nutrition, Stimulation and Bioprotection of the Root in High Performance
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Viewed by 569 | PDF Full-text (652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature changes, drought, frost, and the presence of pest and diseases place enormous stress on crops, which implies that the potential performance of these crops may be affected. One of the main goals for agronomists, horticulturists, growers, physiologists, soil scientists, geneticists, plant breeders,
[...] Read more.
Temperature changes, drought, frost, and the presence of pest and diseases place enormous stress on crops, which implies that the potential performance of these crops may be affected. One of the main goals for agronomists, horticulturists, growers, physiologists, soil scientists, geneticists, plant breeders, phytopathologists, and microbiologists is to increase the food production on the same cultivable area and to ensure that they are safe and of high quality. Understanding the biophysical changes in soil will help to manage the crop’s ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Optimization is needed in the nutrition of crops, which involves the use of biostimulants to counter oxidative stress and the management of strain bioformulations (bacteria and fungi) that protect and stimulate roots for the acquisition of nutrients. The implementation of these strategies in fertigation programs improves crop yields. This article addresses the importance of the stimulation and the bioprotection of the root as a fundamental pillar in ensuring the high performance of a crop. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The CLV-WUS Stem Cell Signaling Pathway: A Roadmap to Crop Yield Optimization
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 876 | PDF Full-text (1800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The shoot apical meristem at the growing shoot tip acts a stem cell reservoir that provides cells to generate the entire above-ground architecture of higher plants. Many agronomic plant yield traits such as tiller number, flower number, fruit number, and kernel row number
[...] Read more.
The shoot apical meristem at the growing shoot tip acts a stem cell reservoir that provides cells to generate the entire above-ground architecture of higher plants. Many agronomic plant yield traits such as tiller number, flower number, fruit number, and kernel row number are therefore defined by the activity of the shoot apical meristem and its derivatives, the floral meristems. Studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that a molecular negative feedback loop called the CLAVATA (CLV)-WUSCHEL (WUS) pathway regulates stem cell maintenance in shoot and floral meristems. CLV-WUS pathway components are associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield traits in crop plants such as oilseed, tomato, rice, and maize, and may have played a role in crop domestication. The conservation of these pathway components across the plant kingdom provides an opportunity to use cutting edge techniques such as genome editing to enhance yield traits in a wide variety of agricultural plant species. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Genetic, Phenotypic, and Commercial Characterization of an Almond Collection from Sardinia
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
Viewed by 429 | PDF Full-text (6939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Recent nutritional and medical studies have associated the regular consumption of almonds with a wide range of health benefits. As a consequence, kernel quality has become an important goal for breeding, considering not only the chemical composition conferring a specific organoleptic quality
[...] Read more.
Background: Recent nutritional and medical studies have associated the regular consumption of almonds with a wide range of health benefits. As a consequence, kernel quality has become an important goal for breeding, considering not only the chemical composition conferring a specific organoleptic quality but also physical traits related to industrial processing. Methods: We characterized an almond collection from Sardinia through analysis of 13 morpho-physiological traits and eight essential oil profiles. The genetic structure of the collection was studied by analyzing the polymorphism of 11 simple sequence repeats (SSR). Results: Both commercial and phenotypic traits showed wide ranges of variation. Most genotypes were early flowering with low yield potential. Several genotypes showed moderate to high yield and very interesting oil compositions of kernels. Based on 11 SSR profiles and Bayesian clustering, the Sardinian cultivars were assigned to groups which were differentiated for several agronomic and commercial traits. Conclusions: Several cultivars showed a high kernel oil content and high oleic to linoleic content ratio. Based on morphological traits, we propose that some of the analyzed cultivars could be interesting for industrial applications. Finally, we highlight the importance of characterizing early blooming cultivars for sites which are experiencing a rise in mean temperatures due to the effects of global climate changes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Functions of Flavonoids in Plant–Nematode Interactions
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
Viewed by 778 | PDF Full-text (1338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most land plants can become infected by plant parasitic nematodes in the field. Plant parasitic nematodes can be free-living or endoparasitic, and they usually infect plant roots. Most damaging are endoparasites, which form feeding sites inside plant roots that damage the root system
[...] Read more.
Most land plants can become infected by plant parasitic nematodes in the field. Plant parasitic nematodes can be free-living or endoparasitic, and they usually infect plant roots. Most damaging are endoparasites, which form feeding sites inside plant roots that damage the root system and redirect nutrients towards the parasite. This process involves developmental changes to the root in parallel with the induction of defense responses. Plant flavonoids are secondary metabolites that have roles in both root development and plant defense responses against a range of microorganisms. Here, we review our current knowledge of the roles of flavonoids in the interactions between plants and plant parasitic nematodes. Flavonoids are induced during nematode infection in plant roots, and more highly so in resistant compared with susceptible plant cultivars, but many of their functions remain unclear. Flavonoids have been shown to alter feeding site development to some extent, but so far have not been found to be essential for root–parasite interactions. However, they likely contribute to chemotactic attraction or repulsion of nematodes towards or away from roots and might help in the general plant defense against nematodes. Certain flavonoids have also been associated with functions in nematode reproduction, although the mechanism remains unknown. Much remains to be examined in this area, especially under field conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cinnamic Acid Inhibited Growth of Faba Bean and Promoted the Incidence of Fusarium Wilt
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
Viewed by 456 | PDF Full-text (1404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To ascertain the role and mechanism of cinnamic acid in the process of soil-borne Fusarium wilt infection with fava bean, we studied the effect of cinnamic acid on the faba bean and Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae (FOF). Our results showed that cinnamic acid
[...] Read more.
To ascertain the role and mechanism of cinnamic acid in the process of soil-borne Fusarium wilt infection with fava bean, we studied the effect of cinnamic acid on the faba bean and Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae (FOF). Our results showed that cinnamic acid treatment affected the physiological resistance of faba bean to FOF after inoculation with the pathogen and enhanced the pathogenicity of the pathogen, which may have led to aggravation of infection by the pathogen and increases in the incidence rates of Fusarium wilt and disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Should I Eat or Should I Go? Acridid Grasshoppers and Their Novel Host Plants: Potential for Biotic Resistance
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (2392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Novel, non-coevolved associations between introduced plants and native insect herbivores may lead to changes in trophic interactions in native communities, as well as to substantial economic problems. Although some studies in invasion ecology demonstrated that native herbivores can preferentially feed on introduced plants
[...] Read more.
Novel, non-coevolved associations between introduced plants and native insect herbivores may lead to changes in trophic interactions in native communities, as well as to substantial economic problems. Although some studies in invasion ecology demonstrated that native herbivores can preferentially feed on introduced plants and therefore contribute to the biotic resistance of native communities to plant invasions, the role of acridid grasshoppers as native generalist insect herbivores is largely overlooked. This systematic review aimed to identify patterns of grasshopper feeding preferences for native versus introduced plants and, consequently, a potential of grasshoppers to provide biotic resistance of native communities. The analysis of 63 records of feeding preference trials for 28 North-American grasshopper species (retrieved from 2146 studies published during 1967–2017) has demonstrated a preference of grasshoppers for introduced host plants, and identified 12 preferred introduced plants with high or middle invasive ranks. A significant effect of the life stage (p < 0.001), but not the experimental environment, plant material, and measurements, on grasshopper preferences for introduced plants was also detected. Overall, results suggest a potential of acridid grasshoppers to contribute to the biotic resistance of native communities. The review also provides methodological recommendations for future experimental studies on grasshopper-host plant interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Interacting with other Organisms: Insects)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Effects of Conservative Tillage and Nitrogen Management on Weed Seed Bank after a Seven-Year Durum Wheat—Faba Bean Rotation
Received: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
Viewed by 533 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conservative agriculture includes a range of management strategies with low energy inputs such as no-tillage, minimum tillage, and low application of fertilizers. Weed flora in arable fields is strictly affected by agronomic practices such as tillage and fertilization management. This study was conducted
[...] Read more.
Conservative agriculture includes a range of management strategies with low energy inputs such as no-tillage, minimum tillage, and low application of fertilizers. Weed flora in arable fields is strictly affected by agronomic practices such as tillage and fertilization management. This study was conducted seven years after the beginning of a long-term—durum wheat–faba bean—rotation. It analyzes the combined effects on the soil seed bank of three different tillage systems (conservative, reduced, and conventional tillage) and two levels of nitrogen fertilization. The effects were investigated both using stepwise discriminant analysis and analysis of variance in order to find statistical differences among main factors and their interactions. The seed bank of Conyza canadensis, Papaver rhoeas, Solanum nigrum, Fallopia convolvulus, and Fumaria officinalis was higher in conservative or reduced tillage plots. The magnitude of the response to nitrogen supply varied among weed species. Conyza canadensis seemed to be favored by low nitrogen supply, whereas Sinapis arvensis by higher doses of nitrogen. Anagallis arvensis showed the lowest seed bank in conventionally tilled plots, without distinction of nitrogen supply. The results suggest that different tillage systems and, to a lesser extent, different nitrogen supply, produce changes in the seed bank size and composition, along the soil profile. Full article
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top