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Plants 2018, 7(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040090

Valorization of Wild Apple (Malus spp.) By-Products as a Source of Essential Fatty Acids, Tocopherols and Phytosterols with Antimicrobial Activity

1
Processing and Biochemistry Department, Institute of Horticulture, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Graudu Str. 1, LV-3701 Dobele, Latvia
2
Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Jelgavas Str. 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 8 K. Helmaņa Str., LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
4
Research Laboratory of Biotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Strazdu Str. 1, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
5
Chair of Food Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract

The amplified production of fruit as well as burgeoning demand for plant-made food products have resulted in a sharp increase of waste. Currently, millions of tons of by-products are either being discarded or utilized rather ineffectively. However, these by-products may be processed and further incorporated as functional ingredients in making high-value food products with many physiological and biochemical effects. The chemical analysis of pomace oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and reversed-phase-liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC/FLD) systems led to the identification and quantification of 56 individual lipophilic compounds including unsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, as well as phytosterols and four homologs of tocopherol. The oils recovered from by-products of Malus spp. (particularly cv. “Ola”) are rich in fatty acids such as linolenic (57.8%), α-linolenic (54.3%), and oleic (25.5%). The concentration of total tocopherols varied among the Malus species and dessert apples investigated, representing the range of 16.8–30.9 mg mL−1. The highest content of total tocopherols was found in M. Bernu prieks, followed by M. cv. “Ola”, and M. × Soulardii pomace oils. A significantly higher amount of δ-tocopherol was established in the oil of M. Bernu prieks, indicating that this species could be utilized as a natural and cheap source of bioactive molecules. β-Sitosterol was the prevalent compound determined in all tested pomace oils with a percentage distribution of 10.3–94.5%. The main triterpene identified in the oils was lupeol, which varied in the range of 0.1–66.3%. A targeted utilization of apple pomace would facilitate management of tons of by-products and benefit the environment and industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Malus spp.; oil; FAMEs; tocopherols; carotenoids; MIC Malus spp.; oil; FAMEs; tocopherols; carotenoids; MIC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Radenkovs, V.; Kviesis, J.; Juhnevica-Radenkova, K.; Valdovska, A.; Püssa, T.; Klavins, M.; Drudze, I. Valorization of Wild Apple (Malus spp.) By-Products as a Source of Essential Fatty Acids, Tocopherols and Phytosterols with Antimicrobial Activity. Plants 2018, 7, 90.

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