Fruit Biology

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018) | Viewed by 24037

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
CSIRO, Agriculture and Food, Waite Campus, PMB2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Interests: grapevine; secondary metabolism; flavour; aroma; wine; development; ripening; gene mapping

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit serve important roles in the lifecycle of plants. As the harbourers of seed, fruit protect the undeveloped seed from damage and then aid in the distribution of the seed upon their maturation. Many fleshy fruits also contribute significantly to human nutrition either as fresh produce or value-added products such as juices, preserves, dried-fruit or fermented beverages. While fleshy fruit are often grouped based on similar properties (e.g., climacteric versus non-climacteric), the variation in the biology of fruit is enormous. This diversity has proved to be of interest developmentally due to the array of floral tissues from which the fruit derive and significant differences in fruit morphology even within species. Fruit also store carbon in many different forms and to differing concentrations, and in many cases how or why this occurs is still unknown. Fruit are also rich sources of secondary metabolites that are used both defensively, to deter would-be consumers of unripe fruit, and as attractants to advertise that the fruit is ready to be consumed by appropriate seed-dispersal agents. This Special Issue of Plants will highlight the developmental, morphological and chemical diversity of fruits, and the role this diversity plays in the life-cycle of plants and the sensory experiences and nutritional benefits gained when eating fruit.

Dr. Paul K. Boss
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fruit
  • fruit-set
  • fruit development
  • ripening
  • secondary metabolism
  • sensory
  • flavour
  • aroma

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2285 KiB  
Article
Mango Fruit Yield and Critical Quality Parameters Respond to Foliar and Soil Applications of Zinc and Boron
by Iftikhar Ahmad, Fatma Bibi, Hameed Ullah and Tariq Muhammad Munir
Plants 2018, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040097 - 03 Nov 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6182
Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the sixth most important fruit crop worldwide, is likely at risk under a climate change scenario of accelerated soil organic matter mineralization and constrained plant nutrient supplies such as zinc (Zn) and boron (B). We identified the optimum [...] Read more.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the sixth most important fruit crop worldwide, is likely at risk under a climate change scenario of accelerated soil organic matter mineralization and constrained plant nutrient supplies such as zinc (Zn) and boron (B). We identified the optimum nutrient formulation and application method to possibly rectify nutrient deficits in mango plants grown in one of the warmest and driest regions—Multan, Pakistan. We evaluated the yield and physiological (quality) responses of 20-year-old mango trees to seven treatments of foliar and soil applications of Zn and B. Combined soil application of B and Zn resulted in optimum increases in leaf mineral B and Zn and fruit-set, retention, yield, pulp recovery and total soluble solids at ripening (p = 0.021), while reducing titratable acidity and early fruit shedding (p = 0.034). Additionally, this treatment improved fruit quality (taste, flavour, texture, aroma, acceptability; p ≤ 0.05). Yield was found to be correlated with retention percentage (P ≤ 0.001; R2 = 0.91), which was in turn related to fruit-set number panicle−1 (P = 0.039; R2 = 0.61). Therefore, we suggest that combined soil application of B and Zn mitigates leaf mineral deficiencies and improves the yield and quality of mango more efficiently than other individual or combined foliar or soil treatments used in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
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9 pages, 6385 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Number of Seeds per Berry on Fruit Growth Characteristics, Especially on the Duration of Stage II in Blueberry
by Kenichi Doi, Ryouichi Nozaki, Kouji Takahashi and Naoto Iwasaki
Plants 2018, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040096 - 03 Nov 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
In present research, differences in the number of seeds per berry (NSB), berry fresh weight (BW), days to ripening from flowering (DRF), and the duration of a slow growth phase (DS II) among pollen sources were investigated in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum [...] Read more.
In present research, differences in the number of seeds per berry (NSB), berry fresh weight (BW), days to ripening from flowering (DRF), and the duration of a slow growth phase (DS II) among pollen sources were investigated in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). NSB, as well as BW and DRF, were significantly different among the pollen sources. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with NSB as the covariate showed significant interaction between the NSB and pollen sources on BW and DRF when self-pollination was included. However, ANCOVA without self-pollination showed no significant effect of the pollen source on BW and DRF. On the other hand, DS II was negatively correlated with NSB, and no significant interaction between NSB and pollen sources was found, even though self-pollination was included. Although the relationship between NSB and DS II appeared not to be statistically influenced by the different pollen sources, there seemed to be some difference between self- and cross-pollination. DS II shortened as the NSB increased, which may have led to a decrease in DRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
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Review

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11 pages, 2960 KiB  
Review
Progress toward Understanding the Molecular Basis of Fruit Response to Hypoxia
by Dubravka Cukrov
Plants 2018, 7(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040078 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5423
Abstract
Oxygen has shaped life on Earth as we know it today. Molecular oxygen is essential for normal cellular function, i.e., plants need oxygen to maintain cellular respiration and for a wide variety of biochemical reactions. When oxygen levels in the cell are lower [...] Read more.
Oxygen has shaped life on Earth as we know it today. Molecular oxygen is essential for normal cellular function, i.e., plants need oxygen to maintain cellular respiration and for a wide variety of biochemical reactions. When oxygen levels in the cell are lower than levels needed for respiration, then the cell experiences hypoxia. Plants are known to experience root hypoxia during natural environmental conditions like flooding. Fruit, on the other hand, is known to be hypoxic under normal oxygen conditions. This observation could be explained (at least partially) as a consequence of diffusional barriers, low tissue diffusivity, and high oxygen consumption by respiration. From the physiological point of view, hypoxia is known to have a profound impact on fruit development, since it is well documented that a low oxygen environment can significantly delay ripening and senescence of some fruit. This effect of a low-oxygen environment is readily used for optimizing storage conditions and transport, and for prolonging the shelf life of several fruit commodities. Therefore, further understanding of the complex relationship between oxygen availability within the cell and fruit development could assist postharvest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
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16 pages, 865 KiB  
Review
Fruit Decay to Diseases: Can Induced Resistance and Priming Help?
by Pierre Pétriacq, Ana López and Estrella Luna
Plants 2018, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040077 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 8473
Abstract
Humanity faces the challenge of having to increase food production to feed an exponentially growing world population, while crop diseases reduce yields to levels that we can no longer afford. Besides, a significant amount of waste is produced after fruit harvest. Fruit decay [...] Read more.
Humanity faces the challenge of having to increase food production to feed an exponentially growing world population, while crop diseases reduce yields to levels that we can no longer afford. Besides, a significant amount of waste is produced after fruit harvest. Fruit decay due to diseases at a post-harvest level can claim up to 50% of the total production worldwide. Currently, the most effective means of disease control is the use of pesticides. However, their use post-harvest is extremely limited due to toxicity. The last few decades have witnessed the development of safer methods of disease control post-harvest. They have all been included in programs with the aim of achieving integrated pest (and disease) management (IPM) to reduce pesticide use to a minimum. Unfortunately, these approaches have failed to provide robust solutions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative strategies that would result in effective control. Exploiting the immune capacity of plants has been described as a plausible route to prevent diseases post-harvest. Post-harvest-induced resistance (IR) through the use of safer chemicals from biological origin, biocontrol, and physical means has also been reported. In this review, we summarize the successful activity of these different strategies and explore the mechanisms behind. We further explore the concept of priming, and how its long-lasting and broad-spectrum nature could contribute to fruit resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Biology)
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