Special Issue "Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. David McCurdy
Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Interests: transfer cell development; plant cytoskeleton; plant cell walls
Dr. David Collings
Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia
Interests: plant cytoskeleton; actin / microtubule interactions; plant cell wall; root development; vascular cambium; microscopy and live cell imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant cell wall, a structure composed of a complex network of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of structurally diverse polysaccharides, proteins, and lignin, defines the plant kingdom. The cell wall provides physical protection for the cell’s protoplasm, regulates cell volume and delimits cell shape, while its biophysical properties determine how cells can change shape as they expand, thus determining the functional abilities of each cell, as well as overall plant morphogenesis. The cell wall also provides the first line of defence against pathogen infection, acting either as a physical barrier or responding via altered chemical composition.

Plant cell walls are highly dynamic. Their organization and chemical composition show major changes during normal cell development, beginning with thin, primary cell walls with their transversely-oriented cellulose microfibrils aligned perpendicular to the direction of cell expansion, through to lignified and thickened secondary cell wall that develop in a subset of cells after cell expansion has ceased. These specialized secondary walls constitute the bulk of the cellulosic component of the biosphere, and their functional properties are fundamental to numerous commercial enterprises including textiles and forestry, as well as being a key component to be exploited for biofuel production. The dynamism of plant cell walls also includes changes in wall composition and architecture associated with various stresses. This Special Issue on “Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Responses” in Plants brings together a collection of primary research papers and targeted reviews of plant cell wall structure and function, and the dynamic changes that can accompany responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. It provides a snap-shot of contemporary plant cell wall biology with the goal of targeting new areas of discussion and investigation.

Prof. Dr. David McCurdy
Prof. Dr. David Collings
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cellulose synthase
  • lignification
  • primary cell walls
  • secondary cell walls
  • transfer cells
  • xylem development

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Microtubule-Dependent Cellulose-Synthase-Complex Movement with High Precision Particle Tracking
Plants 2018, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7030053 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Cellulose synthesis at the plasma membrane is a critical process in plant growth and development. The displacement of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) by the rigid cellulose polymers they produce is a measure of enzyme activity. Connections between cortical microtubules and CSCs have been [...] Read more.
Cellulose synthesis at the plasma membrane is a critical process in plant growth and development. The displacement of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) by the rigid cellulose polymers they produce is a measure of enzyme activity. Connections between cortical microtubules and CSCs have been identified but it remains unclear how these affect CSC displacement speed. In this study, we applied a high throughput automated particle tracking method using near-total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to measure the speed of CSCs. We found CSC speeds did not vary according to their proximity to microtubules, and that inhibiting microtubule polymerization could have opposite effects on CSC speed, depending on the nature of inhibition. While CSC speed increased in the temperature-sensitive mor1-1 mutant, it decreased after treatment with the drug oryzalin. Moreover, introducing the mor1-1 mutation into the CesA1 mutant any1 increased CSC speed, suggesting that microtubule dynamics affect CSC speed by a mechanism other than Cellulose Synthase A (CesA) catalytic activity. CSC speed varied widely in a range of mutants with reduced growth anisotropy, indicating that the relationship between CSC speed and anisotropy is complex. We conclude that microtubules affect CSC speed by finely tuned mechanisms that are independent of their physical association with CSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Biology and Induction of Phi Thickenings by Abiotic Stress in Roots of the Brassicaceae
Plants 2018, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7020047 - 19 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Phi thickenings are specialized bands of secondary wall deposited around radial walls of root cortical cells. These structures have been reported in various species from the Brassicaceae, including Brassica oleracea, where previous reports using hydroponics indicated that they can be induced by [...] Read more.
Phi thickenings are specialized bands of secondary wall deposited around radial walls of root cortical cells. These structures have been reported in various species from the Brassicaceae, including Brassica oleracea, where previous reports using hydroponics indicated that they can be induced by exposure to salt. Using roots grown on agar plates, we show that both salt and sucrose can induce the formation of phi thickenings in a diverse range of species within the Brassicaceae. Within the genus Brassica, both B. oleracea and B. napus demonstrated the formation of phi thickenings, but in a strongly cultivar-specific manner. Confocal microscopy of phi thickenings showed that they form a complex network of reinforcement surrounding the inner root cortex, and that a delicate, reticulate network of secondary wall deposition can also variously form on the inner face of the cortical cell layer with phi thickenings adjacent to the endodermal layer. Results presented here indicate that phi thickenings can be induced in response to salt and water stress and that wide variation occurs in these responses even within the same species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Open AccessArticle
Dimensional Changes of Tracheids during Drying of Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) Compression Woods: A Study Using Variable-Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-SEM)
Plants 2018, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7010014 - 27 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild [...] Read more.
Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild compression wood (MCW) (MCW1 and MCW2) in corewood of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) saplings. The CW was formed on the underside and OW on the upper side of slightly tilted stems. In the longitudinal direction, the shrinkage of SCW tracheids was ~300% greater than that of OW tracheids, with the shrinkage of the MCW1 and MCW2 tracheids being intermediate. Longitudinal swelling was also investigated and hysteresis was demonstrated for the tracheids of all corewood types, with the extent of hysteresis increasing with CW severity. A statistical association was found between longitudinal shrinkage and the content of lignin and galactosyl residues in the cell-wall matrix. The galactosyl residues are present mostly as (1→4)-β-galactans, which are known to have a high capacity for binding water and swell on hydration. The small proportions of (1→3)-β-glucans in the CWs have similar properties. These polysaccharides may play a functional role in the longitudinal shrinking and swelling of CW tracheids. Tangential shrinkage of tracheids was greater than radial shrinkage but both were greatest for OW and least for SCW, with the MCW1 and MCW2 being intermediate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Hitting the Wall—Sensing and Signaling Pathways Involved in Plant Cell Wall Remodeling in Response to Abiotic Stress
Plants 2018, 7(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040089 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 35
Abstract
Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in [...] Read more.
Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in greater understanding of the dynamics of cell wall deposition and remodeling. The cell wall is the first line of defense against different adverse abiotic and biotic environmental influences. Different abiotic stress conditions such as salinity, drought, and frost trigger production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which act as important signaling molecules in stress activated cellular responses. Detection of ROS by still-elusive receptors triggers numerous signaling events that result in production of different protective compounds or even cell death, but most notably in stress-induced cell wall remodeling. This is mediated by different plant hormones, of which the most studied are jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids. In this review we highlight key factors involved in sensing, signal transduction, and response(s) to abiotic stress and how these mechanisms are related to cell wall-associated stress acclimatization. ROS, plant hormones, cell wall remodeling enzymes and different wall mechanosensors act coordinately during abiotic stress, resulting in abiotic stress wall acclimatization, enabling plants to survive adverse environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Functions for Cell Wall Polysaccharides Accumulated during Eudicot Seed Development
Plants 2018, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040081 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The formation of seeds is a reproductive strategy in higher plants that enables the dispersal of offspring through time and space. Eudicot seeds comprise three main components, the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat, where the coordinated development of each is important [...] Read more.
The formation of seeds is a reproductive strategy in higher plants that enables the dispersal of offspring through time and space. Eudicot seeds comprise three main components, the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat, where the coordinated development of each is important for the correct formation of the mature seed. In addition, the seed coat protects the quiescent progeny and can provide transport mechanisms. A key underlying process in the production of seed tissues is the formation of an extracellular matrix termed the cell wall, which is well known for its essential function in cytokinesis, directional growth and morphogenesis. The cell wall is composed of a macromolecular network of polymers where the major component is polysaccharides. The attributes of polysaccharides differ with their composition and charge, which enables dynamic remodeling of the mechanical and physical properties of the matrix by adjusting their production, modification or turnover. Accordingly, the importance of specific polysaccharides or modifications is increasingly being associated with specialized functions within seed tissues, often through the spatio-temporal accumulation or remodeling of particular polymers. Here, we review the evolution and accumulation of polysaccharides during eudicot seed development, what is known of their impact on wall architecture and the diverse roles associated with these in different seed tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Open AccessReview
Phosphoregulation of the Plant Cellulose Synthase Complex and Cellulose Synthase-Like Proteins
Plants 2018, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7030052 - 29 Jun 2018
Cited by 20
Abstract
Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on the planet, is synthesized at the plasma membrane of plant cells by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). Cellulose is the primary load-bearing polysaccharide of plant cell walls and enables cell walls to maintain cellular shape and rigidity. [...] Read more.
Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on the planet, is synthesized at the plasma membrane of plant cells by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). Cellulose is the primary load-bearing polysaccharide of plant cell walls and enables cell walls to maintain cellular shape and rigidity. The CSC is comprised of functionally distinct cellulose synthase A (CESA) proteins, which are responsible for synthesizing cellulose, and additional accessory proteins. Moreover, CESA-like (CSL) proteins are proposed to synthesize other essential non-cellulosic polysaccharides that comprise plant cell walls. The deposition of cell-wall polysaccharides is dynamically regulated in response to a variety of developmental and environmental stimuli, and post-translational phosphorylation has been proposed as one mechanism to mediate this dynamic regulation. In this review, we discuss CSC composition, the dynamics of CSCs in vivo, critical studies that highlight the post-translational control of CESAs and CSLs, and the receptor kinases implicated in plant cell-wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, we highlight the emerging importance of post-translational phosphorylation-based regulation of CSCs on the basis of current knowledge in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Role of Cell Wall-Related Genes and Polysaccharides during Plant Development
Plants 2018, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7020042 - 31 May 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
The majority of organs in plants are not established until after germination, when pluripotent stem cells in the growing apices give rise to daughter cells that proliferate and subsequently differentiate into new tissues and organ primordia. This remarkable capacity is not only restricted [...] Read more.
The majority of organs in plants are not established until after germination, when pluripotent stem cells in the growing apices give rise to daughter cells that proliferate and subsequently differentiate into new tissues and organ primordia. This remarkable capacity is not only restricted to the meristem, since maturing cells in many organs can also rapidly alter their identity depending on the cues they receive. One general feature of plant cell differentiation is a change in cell wall composition at the cell surface. Historically, this has been viewed as a downstream response to primary cues controlling differentiation, but a closer inspection of the wall suggests that it may play a much more active role. Specific polymers within the wall can act as substrates for modifications that impact receptor binding, signal mobility, and cell flexibility. Therefore, far from being a static barrier, the cell wall and its constituent polysaccharides can dictate signal transmission and perception, and directly contribute to a cell’s capacity to differentiate. In this review, we re-visit the role of plant cell wall-related genes and polysaccharides during various stages of development, with a particular focus on how changes in cell wall machinery accompany the exit of cells from the stem cell niche. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Plant Growth and Stress Response)
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