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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 5, Issue 6 (June 2016)

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Open AccessConcept Paper
Evaluation of Deterministic and Complex Analytical Hierarchy Process Methods for Agricultural Land Suitability Analysis in a Changing Climate
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060099 - 20 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Land suitability analysis is employed to evaluate the appropriateness of land for a particular purpose whilst integrating both qualitative and quantitative inputs, which can be continuous in nature. However, in agricultural modelling there is often a disregard of this contiguous aspect. Therefore, some [...] Read more.
Land suitability analysis is employed to evaluate the appropriateness of land for a particular purpose whilst integrating both qualitative and quantitative inputs, which can be continuous in nature. However, in agricultural modelling there is often a disregard of this contiguous aspect. Therefore, some parametric procedures for suitability analysis compartmentalise units into defined membership classes. This imposition of crisp boundaries neglects the continuous formations found throughout nature and overlooks differences and inherent uncertainties found in the modelling. This research will compare two approaches to suitability analysis over three differing methods. The primary approach will use an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while the other approach will use a Fuzzy AHP over two methods; Fitted Fuzzy AHP and Nested Fuzzy AHP. Secondary to this, each method will be assessed into how it behaves in a climate change scenario to understand and highlight the role of uncertainties in model conceptualisation and structure. Outputs and comparisons between each method, in relation to area, proportion of membership classes and spatial representation, showed that fuzzy modelling techniques detailed a more robust and continuous output. In particular the Nested Fuzzy AHP was concluded to be more pertinent, as it incorporated complex modelling techniques, as well as the initial AHP framework. Through this comparison and assessment of model behaviour, an evaluation of each methods predictive capacity and relevance for decision-making purposes in agricultural applications is gained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heading Estimation with Real-time Compensation Based on Kalman Filter Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060098 - 20 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The problem of heading drift error using only low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU) has not been well solved. In this paper, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation based on Kalman filter has been proposed, abbreviated as KHD. For the KHD method, [...] Read more.
The problem of heading drift error using only low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU) has not been well solved. In this paper, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation based on Kalman filter has been proposed, abbreviated as KHD. For the KHD method, a unified heading error model is established for various predictable errors in magnetic compass for pedestrian navigation, and an effective method for solving the model parameters is proposed in the indoor environment with regular structure. In addition, error model parameters are solved by Kalman filtering algorithm with building geometry information in order to achieve real-time heading compensation. The experimental results show that the KHD method can not only effectively correct the original heading information, but also effectively inhibit the accumulation effect of positioning errors. The performance observed in a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirms that apply KHD method to PDR(Pedestrian Dead Reckoning) algorithm can reliably achieve meter-level positioning using a low cost MEMS IMU only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Location-Based Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Parallel Landscape Driven Data Reduction & Spatial Interpolation Algorithm for Big LiDAR Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060097 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topographic data provide highly accurate digital terrain information, which is used widely in applications like creating flood insurance rate maps, forest and tree studies, coastal change mapping, soil and landscape classification, 3D urban modeling, river bank management, [...] Read more.
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topographic data provide highly accurate digital terrain information, which is used widely in applications like creating flood insurance rate maps, forest and tree studies, coastal change mapping, soil and landscape classification, 3D urban modeling, river bank management, agricultural crop studies, etc. In this paper, we focus mainly on the use of LiDAR data in terrain modeling/Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation. Technological advancements in building LiDAR sensors have enabled highly accurate and highly dense LiDAR point clouds, which have made possible high resolution modeling of terrain surfaces. However, high density data result in massive data volumes, which pose computing issues. Computational time required for dissemination, processing and storage of these data is directly proportional to the volume of the data. We describe a novel technique based on the slope map of the terrain, which addresses the challenging problem in the area of spatial data analysis, of reducing this dense LiDAR data without sacrificing its accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever landscape-driven data reduction algorithm. We also perform an empirical study, which shows that there is no significant loss in accuracy for the DEM generated from a 52% reduced LiDAR dataset generated by our algorithm, compared to the DEM generated from an original, complete LiDAR dataset. For the accuracy of our statistical analysis, we perform Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) comparing all of the grid points of the original DEM to the DEM generated by reduced data, instead of comparing a few random control points. Besides, our multi-core data reduction algorithm is highly scalable. We also describe a modified parallel Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) spatial interpolation method and show that the DEMs it generates are time-efficient and have better accuracy than the one’s generated by the traditional IDW method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
OpenCL Implementation of a Parallel Universal Kriging Algorithm for Massive Spatial Data Interpolation on Heterogeneous Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060096 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
In some digital Earth engineering applications, spatial interpolation algorithms are required to process and analyze large amounts of data. Due to its powerful computing capacity, heterogeneous computing has been used in many applications for data processing in various fields. In this study, we [...] Read more.
In some digital Earth engineering applications, spatial interpolation algorithms are required to process and analyze large amounts of data. Due to its powerful computing capacity, heterogeneous computing has been used in many applications for data processing in various fields. In this study, we explore the design and implementation of a parallel universal kriging spatial interpolation algorithm using the OpenCL programming model on heterogeneous computing platforms for massive Geo-spatial data processing. This study focuses primarily on transforming the hotspots in serial algorithms, i.e., the universal kriging interpolation function, into the corresponding kernel function in OpenCL. We also employ parallelization and optimization techniques in our implementation to improve the code performance. Finally, based on the results of experiments performed on two different high performance heterogeneous platforms, i.e., an NVIDIA graphics processing unit system and an Intel Xeon Phi system (MIC), we show that the parallel universal kriging algorithm can achieve the highest speedup of up to 40× with a single computing device and the highest speedup of up to 80× with multiple devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060095 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the [...] Read more.
Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Impact of Highways Associated with Farmland Loss under Rapid Urbanization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060094 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Highway construction has accelerated urban growth and induced direct and indirect changes to land use. Although many studies have analyzed the relationship between highway construction and local development, relatively less attention has been paid to clarifying the various impacts of highways associated with [...] Read more.
Highway construction has accelerated urban growth and induced direct and indirect changes to land use. Although many studies have analyzed the relationship between highway construction and local development, relatively less attention has been paid to clarifying the various impacts of highways associated with farmland loss. This paper integrates GIS spatial analysis, remote sensing, buffer analysis and landscape metrics to analyze the landscape pattern change induced by direct and indirect highway impacts. This paper explores the interaction between the impact of highways and farmland loss, using the case of the highly urbanized traffic hubs in eastern China, Hang-Jia-Hu Plain. Our results demonstrate that the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain experienced extensive highway construction during 1990–2010, with a clear acceleration of expressway development since 2000. This unprecedented highway construction has directly fragmented the regional landscape and indirectly disturbed the regional landscape by attracting a large amount of built-up land transition from farmland during the last two decades. In the highway-effect zone, serious farmland loss initially occurred in the urban region and then spread to the rural region. Moreover, we found the discontinuous expansion of built-up land scattered the farmland in the rural region and expressway-effect zone. Furthermore, farmland protection policies in the 1990s had the effect of controlling the total area of farmland loss. However, the cohesive farmland structure was still fragmented by the direct and indirect impacts of highway construction. We suggest that an overall farmland protection system should be established to enhance spatial control and mitigate the adverse impacts caused by highway construction. This work improves the understanding of regional sustainable development, and provides a scientific basis for balanced urban development with farmland protection in decision-making processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Innovations in Land Use/Cover Mapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Operations to Extract Urban Curbs in 3D MLS Point Clouds
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060093 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Automatic curb detection is an important issue in road maintenance, three-dimensional (3D) urban modeling, and autonomous navigation fields. This paper is focused on the segmentation of curbs and street boundaries using a 3D point cloud captured by a mobile laser scanner (MLS) system. [...] Read more.
Automatic curb detection is an important issue in road maintenance, three-dimensional (3D) urban modeling, and autonomous navigation fields. This paper is focused on the segmentation of curbs and street boundaries using a 3D point cloud captured by a mobile laser scanner (MLS) system. Our method provides a solution based on the projection of the measured point cloud on the XY plane. Over that plane, a segmentation algorithm is carried out based on morphological operations to determine the location of street boundaries. In addition, a solution to extract curb edges based on the roughness of the point cloud is proposed. The proposed method is valid in both straight and curved road sections and applicable both to laser scanner and stereo vision 3D data due to the independence of its scanning geometry. The proposed method has been successfully tested with two datasets measured by different sensors. The first dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a TOPCON sensor in the Spanish town of Cudillero. The second dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a RIEGL sensor in the Austrian town of Horn. The extraction method provides completeness and correctness rates above 90% and quality values higher than 85% in both studied datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Morphology in Geoinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
WiGeR: WiFi-Based Gesture Recognition System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060092 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
Recently, researchers around the world have been striving to develop and modernize human–computer interaction systems by exploiting advances in modern communication systems. The priority in this field involves exploiting radio signals so human–computer interaction will require neither special devices nor vision-based technology. In [...] Read more.
Recently, researchers around the world have been striving to develop and modernize human–computer interaction systems by exploiting advances in modern communication systems. The priority in this field involves exploiting radio signals so human–computer interaction will require neither special devices nor vision-based technology. In this context, hand gesture recognition is one of the most important issues in human–computer interfaces. In this paper, we present a novel device-free WiFi-based gesture recognition system (WiGeR) by leveraging the fluctuations in the channel state information (CSI) of WiFi signals caused by hand motions. We extract CSI from any common WiFi router and then filter out the noise to obtain the CSI fluctuation trends generated by hand motions. We design a novel and agile segmentation and windowing algorithm based on wavelet analysis and short-time energy to reveal the specific pattern associated with each hand gesture and detect duration of the hand motion. Furthermore, we design a fast dynamic time warping algorithm to classify our system’s proposed hand gestures. We implement and test our system through experiments involving various scenarios. The results show that WiGeR can classify gestures with high accuracy, even in scenarios where the signal passes through multiple walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Modelling and Navigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Narrowing the Curation Gap—Theoretical Considerations and Lessons Learned from Decades of Practice
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060091 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
Research as a digital enterprise has created new, often poorly addressed challenges for the management and curation of research to ensure continuity, transparency, and accountability. There is a common misunderstanding that curation can be considered at a later point in the research cycle [...] Read more.
Research as a digital enterprise has created new, often poorly addressed challenges for the management and curation of research to ensure continuity, transparency, and accountability. There is a common misunderstanding that curation can be considered at a later point in the research cycle or delegated or that it is too burdensome or too expensive due to a lack of efficient tools. This creates a curation gap between research practice and curation needs. We argue that this gap can be narrowed if curators provide attractive support that befits research needs and if researchers consistently manage their work according to generic concepts consistently from the beginning. A rather uniquely long-term case study demonstrates how such concepts have helped to pragmatically implement a research practice intentionally using only minimalist tools for sustained, self-contained archiving since 1989. The paper sketches the concepts underlying three core research activities. (i) handling of research data, (ii) reference management as part of scholarly publishing, and (iii) advancing theories through modelling and simulation. These concepts represent a universally transferable best research practice, while technical details are obviously prone to continuous change. We hope it stimulates researchers to manage research similarly and that curators gain a better understanding of the curation challenges research practice actually faces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Geospatial Information Categories Mapping in a Cross-lingual Environment: A Case Study of “Surface Water” Categories in Chinese and American Topographic Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060090 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
The need for integrating geospatial information (GI) data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS) interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration [...] Read more.
The need for integrating geospatial information (GI) data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS) interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration in the GI domain. Nevertheless, mechanisms are still needed to facilitate semantic mapping between GI ontologies described in different natural languages. This research establishes a formal ontology model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. By first extracting semantic primitives from a free-text definition of categories in two GI classification standards with different natural languages, an ontology-driven approach is used, and a formal ontology model is established to formally represent these semantic primitives into semantic statements, in which the spatial-related properties and relations are considered as crucial statements for the representation and identification of the semantics of the GI categories. Then, an algorithm is proposed to compare these semantic statements in a cross-lingual environment. We further design a similarity calculation algorithm based on the proposed formal ontology model to distance the semantic similarities and identify the mapping relationships between categories. In particular, we work with two GI classification standards for Chinese and American topographic maps. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Semantics and Semantic Web)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Geographical Conditions Monitoring in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060089 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Increasingly accelerated urbanization and socio-economic development can cause a series of environmental problems. Accurate and efficient monitoring of the geographical conditions is important for achieving sustainable development. This paper presents the first results of the project “Geographical Conditions Monitoring (GCM)” in an exemplified [...] Read more.
Increasingly accelerated urbanization and socio-economic development can cause a series of environmental problems. Accurate and efficient monitoring of the geographical conditions is important for achieving sustainable development. This paper presents the first results of the project “Geographical Conditions Monitoring (GCM)” in an exemplified area “Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH)” in China over the last three decades. It focuses on four hot issues in BTH: distribution of dust surfaces and pollution industries, vegetation coverage, urban sprawl, and ground subsidence. The aim of this project is the detection of geographical condition changes and for the description of this development by indicators, as well as the analysis and evaluation of the effects of such processes on selected environmental perspectives. The results have shown that the contributions of the applied GCM in making the plan of urban design and nature conservation. Valuable experience gained from this project would be useful for further developing and applying GCM at the national level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Global-Scale Resource Survey and Performance Monitoring of Public OGC Web Map Services
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060088 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
One of the most widely-implemented service standards provided by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to the user community is the Web Map Service (WMS). WMS is widely employed globally, but there is limited knowledge of the global distribution, adoption status or the service [...] Read more.
One of the most widely-implemented service standards provided by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to the user community is the Web Map Service (WMS). WMS is widely employed globally, but there is limited knowledge of the global distribution, adoption status or the service quality of these online WMS resources. To fill this void, we investigated global WMSs resources and performed distributed performance monitoring of these services. This paper explicates a distributed monitoring framework that was used to monitor 46,296 WMSs continuously for over one year and a crawling method to discover these WMSs. We analyzed server locations, provider types, themes, the spatiotemporal coverage of map layers and the service versions for 41,703 valid WMSs. Furthermore, we appraised the stability and performance of basic operations for 1210 selected WMSs (i.e., GetCapabilities and GetMap). We discuss the major reasons for request errors and performance issues, as well as the relationship between service response times and the spatiotemporal distribution of client monitoring sites. This paper will help service providers, end users and developers of standards to grasp the status of global WMS resources, as well as to understand the adoption status of OGC standards. The conclusions drawn in this paper can benefit geospatial resource discovery, service performance evaluation and guide service performance improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Guided Classification System for Conceptual Overlapping Classes in OpenStreetMap
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060087 - 07 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4435
Abstract
The increased development of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) and its potential role in GIScience studies raises questions about the resulting data quality. Several studies address VGI quality from various perspectives like completeness, positional accuracy, consistency, etc. They mostly have consensus on the [...] Read more.
The increased development of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) and its potential role in GIScience studies raises questions about the resulting data quality. Several studies address VGI quality from various perspectives like completeness, positional accuracy, consistency, etc. They mostly have consensus on the heterogeneity of data quality. The problem may be due to the lack of standard procedures for data collection and absence of quality control feedback for voluntary participants. In our research, we are concerned with data quality from the classification perspective. Particularly in VGI-mapping projects, the limited expertise of participants and the non-strict definition of geographic features lead to conceptual overlapping classes, where an entity could plausibly belong to multiple classes, e.g., lake or pond, park or garden, marsh or swamp, etc. Usually, quantitative and/or qualitative characteristics exist that distinguish between classes. Nevertheless, these characteristics might not be recognizable for non-expert participants. In previous work, we developed the rule-guided classification approach that guides participants to the most appropriate classes. As exemplification, we tackle the conceptual overlapping of some grass-related classes. For a given data set, our approach presents the most highly recommended classes for each entity. In this paper, we present the validation of our approach. We implement a web-based application called Grass&Green that presents recommendations for crowdsourcing validation. The findings show the applicability of the proposed approach. In four months, the application attracted 212 participants from more than 35 countries who checked 2,865 entities. The results indicate that 89% of the contributions fully/partially agree with our recommendations. We then carried out a detailed analysis that demonstrates the potential of this enhanced data classification. This research encourages the development of customized applications that target a particular geographic feature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volunteered Geographic Information)
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Open AccessArticle
3-Dimensional Modeling and Simulation of the Cloud Based on Cellular Automata and Particle System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060086 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The authors combine the cellular automata with particle system to realize the three-dimensional modeling and visualization of the cloud in the paper. First, we use the principle of particle systems to simulate the outline of the cloud; generate uniform particles in the bounding [...] Read more.
The authors combine the cellular automata with particle system to realize the three-dimensional modeling and visualization of the cloud in the paper. First, we use the principle of particle systems to simulate the outline of the cloud; generate uniform particles in the bounding volumes of the cloud through random function; build the cloud particle system; and initialize the particle number, size, location and related properties. Then the principle of cellular automata system is adopted to deal with uniform particles simulated by the particle system to make it conform to the rules set by the user, and calculate its continuous field density. We render the final cloud particles with a texture map and simulate the more realistic three-dimensional cloud. This method not only obtains the real effect in the simulation, but also improves the rendering performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Perspective of Human Behavior Patterns to Uncover Ownership Bias among Mobile Phone Users
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060085 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
With the rapid spread of mobile devices, call detail records (CDRs) from mobile phones provide more opportunities to incorporate dynamic aspects of human mobility in addressing societal issues. However, it has been increasingly observed that CDR data are not always representative of the [...] Read more.
With the rapid spread of mobile devices, call detail records (CDRs) from mobile phones provide more opportunities to incorporate dynamic aspects of human mobility in addressing societal issues. However, it has been increasingly observed that CDR data are not always representative of the population under study because it only includes device users alone. To understand the discrepancy between the population captured by CDRs and the general population, we profile principal populations of CDRs by analyzing routines based on time spent at key locations and compare these data with those of the general population. We employ a topic model to estimate typical routines of mobile phone users using CDRs as topics. The routines are extracted from field survey data and compared between those of the general population and mobile phone users. We found that there are two main population groups of mobile phone users in Dhaka: males engaged in an income-generating activity at a specific location other than home and females performing household tasks and spending most of their time at home. We determine that CDRs tend to omit students, who form a significant component of the Dhaka population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data for Urban Informatics and Earth Observation)
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Open AccessArticle
GIS and Transport Modeling—Strengthening the Spatial Perspective
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060084 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
The movement and transport of people and goods is spatial by its very nature. Thus, geospatial fundamentals of transport systems need to be adequately considered in transport models. Until recently, this was not always the case. Instead, transport research and geography evolved widely [...] Read more.
The movement and transport of people and goods is spatial by its very nature. Thus, geospatial fundamentals of transport systems need to be adequately considered in transport models. Until recently, this was not always the case. Instead, transport research and geography evolved widely independently in domain silos. However, driven by recent conceptual, methodological and technical developments, the need for an integrated approach is obvious. This paper attempts to outline the potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for transport modeling. We identify three fields of transport modeling where the spatial perspective can significantly contribute to a more efficient modeling process and more reliable model results, namely, geospatial data, disaggregated transport models and the role of geo-visualization. For these three fields, available findings from various domains are compiled, before open aspects are formulated as research directions, with exemplary research questions. The overall aim of this paper is to strengthen the spatial perspective in transport modeling and to call for a further integration of GIS in the domain of transport modeling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Principal Component Analysis for Hyperspectral Image Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060083 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
This article deals with the issue of reducing the spectral dimension of a hyperspectral image using principal component analysis (PCA). To perform this dimensionality reduction, we propose the addition of spatial information in order to improve the features that are extracted. Several approaches [...] Read more.
This article deals with the issue of reducing the spectral dimension of a hyperspectral image using principal component analysis (PCA). To perform this dimensionality reduction, we propose the addition of spatial information in order to improve the features that are extracted. Several approaches proposed to add spatial information are discussed in this article. They are based on mathematical morphology operators. These morphological operators are the area opening/closing, granulometries and grey-scale distance function. We name the proposed family of techniques the Morphological Principal Component Analysis (MorphPCA). Present approaches provide new feature spaces able to jointly handle the spatial and spectral information of hyperspectral images. They are computationally simple since the key element is the computation of an empirical covariance matrix which integrates simultaneously both spatial and spectral information. The performance of the different feature spaces is assessed for different tasks in order to prove their practical interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Morphology in Geoinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Efficiency Method of Mobile Positioning Based on Commercial Vehicle Operation Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060082 - 02 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Commercial vehicle operation (CVO) has been a popular application of intelligent transportation systems. Location determination and route tracing of an on-board unit (OBU) in a vehicle is an important capability for CVO. However, large location errors from global positioning system (GPS) receivers may [...] Read more.
Commercial vehicle operation (CVO) has been a popular application of intelligent transportation systems. Location determination and route tracing of an on-board unit (OBU) in a vehicle is an important capability for CVO. However, large location errors from global positioning system (GPS) receivers may occur in cities that shield GPS signals. Therefore, a highly efficient mobile positioning method is proposed based on the collection and analysis of the cellular network signals of CVO data. Parallel- and cloud-computing techniques are designed into the proposed method to quickly determine the location of an OBU for CVO. Furthermore, this study proposes analytical models to analyze the availability of the proposed mobile positioning method with various outlier filtering criteria. Experimentally, a CVO system was designed and implemented to collect CVO data from Chunghwa Telecom vehicles and to analyze the cellular network signals of CVO data for location determination. A case study found that the average errors of location determination using the proposed method vs. using the traditional cell-ID-based location method were 163.7 m and 521.2 m, respectively. Furthermore, the practical results show that the average location error and availability of using the proposed method are better than using GPS or the cell-ID-based location method for each road type, particularly urban roads. Therefore, this approach is feasible to determine OBU locations for improving CVO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cloud Computing-Enabled Spatio-Temporal Cyber-Physical Information Infrastructure for Efficient Soil Moisture Monitoring
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060081 - 02 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Comprehensive surface soil moisture (SM) monitoring is a vital task in precision agriculture applications. SM monitoring includes remote sensing imagery monitoring and in situ sensor-based observational monitoring. Cloud computing can increase computational efficiency enormously. A geographical web service was developed to assist in [...] Read more.
Comprehensive surface soil moisture (SM) monitoring is a vital task in precision agriculture applications. SM monitoring includes remote sensing imagery monitoring and in situ sensor-based observational monitoring. Cloud computing can increase computational efficiency enormously. A geographical web service was developed to assist in agronomic decision making, and this tool can be scaled to any location and crop. By integrating cloud computing and the web service-enabled information infrastructure, this study uses the cloud computing-enabled spatio-temporal cyber-physical infrastructure (CESCI) to provide an efficient solution for soil moisture monitoring in precision agriculture. On the server side of CESCI, diverse Open Geospatial Consortium web services work closely with each other. Hubei Province, located on the Jianghan Plain in central China, is selected as the remote sensing study area in the experiment. The Baoxie scientific experimental field in Wuhan City is selected as the in situ sensor study area. The results show that the proposed method enhances the efficiency of remote sensing imagery mapping and in situ soil moisture interpolation. In addition, the proposed method is compared to other existing precision agriculture infrastructures. In this comparison, the proposed infrastructure performs soil moisture mapping in Hubei Province in 1.4 min and near real-time in situ soil moisture interpolation in an efficient manner. Moreover, an enhanced performance monitoring method can help to reduce costs in precision agriculture monitoring, as well as increasing agricultural productivity and farmers’ net-income. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web/Cloud Based Mapping and Geoinformation)
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Open AccessArticle
Propagating Updates of Residential Areas in Multi-Representation Databases Using Constrained Delaunay Triangulations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060080 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Updating topographic maps in multi-representation databases is crucial to a number of applications. An efficient way to update topographic maps is to propagate the updates from large-scale maps to small-scale maps. Because objects are often portrayed differently in maps of different scales, it [...] Read more.
Updating topographic maps in multi-representation databases is crucial to a number of applications. An efficient way to update topographic maps is to propagate the updates from large-scale maps to small-scale maps. Because objects are often portrayed differently in maps of different scales, it is a complicated process to produce multi-scale topographic maps that meet specific cartographical criteria. In this study, we propose a new approach to update small-scale maps based on updated large-scale maps. We first group spatially-related objects in multi-scale maps and decompose the large-scale objects into triangles based on constrained Delaunay triangulation. We then operate the triangles and construct small-scale objects by accounting for cartographical generalization rules. In addition, we apply the Tabu Search algorithm to search for the optimal sequences when constructing small-scale objects. A case study was conducted by applying the developed method to update residential areas at varied scales. We found the proposed method could effectively update small-scale maps while maintaining the shapes and positions of large-scale objects. Our developed method allows for parallel processing of update propagation because it operates grouped objects together, thus possesses computational advantages over the sequential updating method in areas with high building densities. Although the method proposed in this study requires further tests, it shows promise with respect to automatic updates of polygon data in the multi-representation databases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Different Irrigation Methods for an Apple Orchard Using an Aerial Imaging System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060079 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Regular monitoring and assessment of crops is one of the keys to optimal crop production. This research presents the development of a monitoring system called the Crop Monitoring and Assessment Platform (C-MAP). The C-MAP is composed of an image acquisition unit which is [...] Read more.
Regular monitoring and assessment of crops is one of the keys to optimal crop production. This research presents the development of a monitoring system called the Crop Monitoring and Assessment Platform (C-MAP). The C-MAP is composed of an image acquisition unit which is an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue), and an image processing and analysis component. The experimental apple orchard at the Parma Research and Extension Center of the University of Idaho was used as the target for monitoring and evaluation. Five experimental rows of the orchard were randomly treated with five different irrigation methods. An image processing algorithm to detect individual trees was developed to facilitate the analysis of the rows and it was able to detect over 90% of the trees. The image analysis of the experimental rows was based on vegetation indices and results showed that there was a significant difference in the Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI) among the five different irrigation methods. This demonstrates that the C-MAP has very good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Geomatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing Urban Human Mobility Patterns through a Thematic Model at a Finer Scale
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060078 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Taxi trajectories reflect human mobility over a road network. Pick-up and drop-off locations in different time periods represent origins and destinations of trips, respectively, demonstrating the spatiotemporal characteristics of human behavior. Each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk [...] Read more.
Taxi trajectories reflect human mobility over a road network. Pick-up and drop-off locations in different time periods represent origins and destinations of trips, respectively, demonstrating the spatiotemporal characteristics of human behavior. Each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, and the distribution of extracted trips shows a distance decay effect. To identify the spatial similarity of trips at a finer scale, this paper investigates the distribution of trips through topic modeling techniques. Firstly, trip origins and trip destinations were identified from raw GPS data. Then, different trips were given semantic information, i.e., link identification numbers with a semantic enrichment process. Each taxi trajectory was composed of a series of trip destinations corresponding to the same taxi. Subsequently, each taxi trajectory was analogous to a document consisting of different words, and all taxi’s trajectories could be regarded as document corpora, enabling a semantic analysis of massive trip destinations. Finally, we obtained different trip destination topics reflecting the spatial similarity and regional property of human mobility through LDA topic model training. The effectiveness of this approach was illustrated by a case study using a large dataset of taxi trajectories collected from 2 to 8 June 2014 in Wuhan, China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060077 - 26 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and [...] Read more.
The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive View on Urban Spatial Structure: Urban Density Patterns of German City Regions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060076 - 25 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
Urban density must be considered a key concept in the description of a city’s urban spatial structure. Countless studies have provided evidence of a close relationship between built density and activity densities, on the one hand, and urban environmental conditions or social practices, [...] Read more.
Urban density must be considered a key concept in the description of a city’s urban spatial structure. Countless studies have provided evidence of a close relationship between built density and activity densities, on the one hand, and urban environmental conditions or social practices, on the other hand. However, despite the concept’s common use in urban research, urban density is a rather fuzzy and highly complex concept that is accompanied by a confusing variety of indicators and measurement approaches. To date, an internationally-accepted standard for the implementation of density indicators that permits a robust comparison of different countries, regions or cities is widely missing. This paper discusses the analytical opportunities that recent remote sensing data offer in regard to an objective and transparent measurement of built density patterns of city regions. It furthermore clarifies the interrelations between built and activity densities. We apply our approach to four German city regions to demonstrate the analytical capacity of spatially-refined density indicators for the purposes of comparative urban research at a regional scale. In so doing, we contribute to a more encompassing and robust understanding of the urban density concept when analyzing regional morphology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coastline Zones Identification and 3D Coastal Mapping Using UAV Spatial Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060075 - 24 May 2016
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and coastal zones for scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. The availability of very high-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps is of increasing interest to all [...] Read more.
Spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and coastal zones for scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. The availability of very high-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps is of increasing interest to all scientists, especially those monitoring small variations in the earth’s surface, such as coastline morphology. In this article, we present a methodology to acquire and process high resolution data for coastal zones acquired by a vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) attached to a small commercial camera. The proposed methodology integrated computer vision algorithms for 3D representation with image processing techniques for analysis. The computer vision algorithms used the structure from motion (SfM) approach while the image processing techniques used the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) with fuzzy classification. The SfM pipeline was used to construct the DSMs and orthophotos with a measurement precision in the order of centimeters. Consequently, GEOBIA was used to create objects by grouping pixels that had the same spectral characteristics together and extracting statistical features from them. The objects produced were classified by fuzzy classification using the statistical features as input. The classification output classes included beach composition (sand, rubble, and rocks) and sub-surface classes (seagrass, sand, algae, and rocks). The methodology was applied to two case studies of coastal areas with different compositions: a sandy beach with a large face and a rubble beach with a small face. Both are threatened by beach erosion and have been degraded by the action of sea storms. Results show that the coastline, which is the low limit of the swash zone, was detected successfully by both the 3D representations and the image classifications. Furthermore, several traces representing previous sea states were successfully recognized in the case of the sandy beach, while the erosion and beach crests were detected in the case of the rubble beach. The achieved level of detail of the 3D representations revealed new beach characteristics, including erosion crests, berm zones, and sand dunes. In conclusion, the UAV SfM workflow provides information in a spatial resolution that permits the study of coastal changes with confidence and provides accurate 3D visualizations of the beach zones, even for areas with complex topography. The overall results show that the presented methodology is a robust tool for the classification, 3D visualization, and mapping of coastal morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Geomatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Public Opinions from Geosocial Media
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(6), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5060074 - 24 May 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
Increasingly, social media data are linked to locations through embedded GPS coordinates. Many local governments are showing interest in the potential to repurpose these firsthand geo-data to gauge spatial and temporal dynamics of public opinions in ways that complement information collected through traditional [...] Read more.
Increasingly, social media data are linked to locations through embedded GPS coordinates. Many local governments are showing interest in the potential to repurpose these firsthand geo-data to gauge spatial and temporal dynamics of public opinions in ways that complement information collected through traditional public engagement methods. Using these geosocial data is not without challenges since they are usually unstructured, vary in quality, and often require considerable effort to extract information that is relevant to local governments’ needs from large data volumes. Understanding local relevance requires development of both data processing methods and their use in empirical studies. This paper addresses this latter need through a case study that demonstrates how spatially-referenced Twitter data can shed light on citizens’ transportation and planning concerns. A web-based toolkit that integrates text processing methods is used to model Twitter data collected for the Region of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) between March 2014 and July 2015 and assess citizens’ concerns related to the planning and construction of a new light rail transit line. The study suggests that geosocial media can help identify geographies of public perceptions concerning public facilities and services and have potential to complement other methods of gauging public sentiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
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