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Cosmetics, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Research on Hair Bleach that Causes Less Hair Damage and Smells Less Pungent than Ammonium Hydroxide
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Problems associated with bleaching hair include damage to the hair and the pungent smell of ammonium hydroxide. Many consumers dislike the stiffness and smell of bleached hair. In this study, we investigated the suppression of both the damage and pungent smell of bleach
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Problems associated with bleaching hair include damage to the hair and the pungent smell of ammonium hydroxide. Many consumers dislike the stiffness and smell of bleached hair. In this study, we investigated the suppression of both the damage and pungent smell of bleach by using an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPD) as an alkaline agent. The test results focused on scanning electron microscope observations, antioxidant activity and protein loss, and showed that the use of AMPD aqueous solution as an alkaline agent suppressed both hair damage and undesirable odor compared with the use of ammonium hydroxide. AMPD aqueous solution is considered more useful than ammonium hydroxide as an alkaline agent in the hair-bleaching process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Screening-Level Safety Assessment of Personal Care Product Constituents Using Publicly Available Data
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Organizations recommend evaluating individual ingredients when assessing the safety of personal care or cosmetic products. The goal of this study was to present a screening-level safety assessment methodology to evaluate the safety of a product by identifying individual ingredients, determining their frequency of
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Organizations recommend evaluating individual ingredients when assessing the safety of personal care or cosmetic products. The goal of this study was to present a screening-level safety assessment methodology to evaluate the safety of a product by identifying individual ingredients, determining their frequency of use in on-market products, and examining published safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient. As a case study, we evaluated WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD) cleansing conditioners since there have been claims of adverse health effects associated with product use. We evaluated 30 ingredients in three on-market WCD cleansing conditioners. We then analyzed the National Library of Medicine’s Household Products Database and the Environmental Working Group’s (EWG) Skin Deep Cosmetic Database, two of the largest publicly available databases, for other on-market personal care and cosmetic products that contained these ingredients. Safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient was obtained by reviewing peer-reviewed literature, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) generally recognized as safe (GRAS) database, available Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) publications, and available product safety publications. The results of this analysis showed that more than 20,000 personal care and cosmetic products contained one or more of the evaluated ingredients used in WCD cleaning conditioners. Published safety information was available for 21 of the 30 evaluated ingredients: seven identified ingredients were designated as GRAS by the FDA and 16 ingredients had safe-level-of-use information available from the CIR. This study presents a screening-level safety assessment methodology that can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the safety of an ingredient intended for use in personal care and cosmetic products before a product is launched onto the market. This study provides evidence that the evaluated WCD cleansing conditioner ingredients are commonly used in other personal care and cosmetic products, and ingredients with available safety information are generally considered safe for the intended use. The scope of this analysis is limited to frequency of use information and available toxicological data. Additional testing including in silico, in vitro, and clinical studies may be needed to evaluate the potential toxicity of an ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Perspective: Stabilizing the Microbiome Skin-Gut-Brain Axis with Natural Plant Botanical Ingredients in Cosmetics
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
The microbiome of the gut and skin have recently been shown to have a strong connection through the host immune system. Various skin and gut inflammatory conditions are interrelated and connected through intricate immune pathways that affect the host barrier functions both in
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The microbiome of the gut and skin have recently been shown to have a strong connection through the host immune system. Various skin and gut inflammatory conditions are interrelated and connected through intricate immune pathways that affect the host barrier functions both in the skin and the gut. Microbiome ‘dysbiosis’ of the skin and gut leads to various alterations in host immune pathways that can alter the barrier and lead to disease. In this perspective article, we discuss the role of plant botanicals in cosmetics and their effect on the skin-gut-brain axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
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Open AccessArticle Schisandra chinensis Protects the Skin from Global Pollution by Inflammatory and Redox Balance Pathway Modulations: An In Vitro Study
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Epidemiological results show that airborne particulate matter (PM) induces health alterations in line with pulmonary and cardiovascular pathologies. Deleterious effects of PM on the skin have also been investigated. A possible approach to prevent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-mediated disorders for both preventive and
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Epidemiological results show that airborne particulate matter (PM) induces health alterations in line with pulmonary and cardiovascular pathologies. Deleterious effects of PM on the skin have also been investigated. A possible approach to prevent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-mediated disorders for both preventive and treatment means is based on the use of substances, which can be found in plants. These can act as secondary metabolites, and lignans are a promising candidate. Thus, the objective of this study was firstly to identify reconstructed human epidermis, using a transcriptomic approach, and also to identify the effects of Urban Dust and of Urban Dust and Schisandra chinensis (S.C.) extract on the expression of genes that are involved in the response to cellular protection mechanisms. Secondly, we examined the effect of an active extract from S.C. on the protection of human keratinocytes damages that were caused by pollution, through the evaluation of Nrf2 and AhR pathways, NF-kB, and DJ-1. Urban Dust included the over-expression of metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 and an increase in Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2). In the presence of Urban Dust, S.C. extract activated the over-expression of several genes that are involved in the antioxidant response and in the detoxification pathway, including Ferritin light chain (FTL) and GPX2. Exposure to urban dust activated the cytoplasmic expression of NF-kB and AhR, when compared to the control. Co-treatment of Urban Dust and S.C. extract increased DJ-1 protein levels, Nrf2 expression, and decreased AhR and NF-kB in the cytoplasm. At the same time, this co-treatment increased SOD2 expression (50%: p < 0.001) and catalase activity (120%: p < 0.05), when compared to Urban Dust alone. Thus, S.C. might be able to protect the Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK) from environmental aggression, by fighting the harmful effects of urban pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle From Mice to Men: An Evolutionary Conserved Breakdown of the Epidermal Calcium Gradient and Its Impact on the Cornified Envelope
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
In previous publications, we could establish that a hallmark of human skin aging is the breakdown of the epidermal calcium gradient. This redistribution of calcium has many implications, including a restructuring of the cornified envelope, a reduced epidermal barrier function, a change in
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In previous publications, we could establish that a hallmark of human skin aging is the breakdown of the epidermal calcium gradient. This redistribution of calcium has many implications, including a restructuring of the cornified envelope, a reduced epidermal barrier function, a change in lipid composition, a reduced skin hydration, and an increased skin pH. Especially the age-dependent change in the cornified envelope composition was solely studied in human foreskin samples. The aim of this study was to confirm that this effect is neither restricted to UV-protected skin area nor limited to a specific sex. In addition, we wanted to show that the collapse of the epidermal calcium gradient is not only a hallmark of human skin aging, but is also evolutionarily conserved in mammals. By using such techniques as IHC, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR, we could demonstrate the following: (1) A change in the epidermal calcium gradient is in fact the most important sign of epidermal aging in mammals (as shown in female human eyelids and mouse skin samples of the external ear-shell); (2) The disturbed calcium homeostasis affects the expression and crosslinking of most cornified-envelope-specific genes such as loricrin and filaggrin. In this way, we could establish that the age-dependent altered composition of the cornified envelope is a typical sign of skin aging not only in humans, but in mice, too. This makes the mouse an important model organism to study these changes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Alkenones as a Promising Green Alternative for Waxes in Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The move toward green, sustainable, natural products has been growing in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Ingredients derived from marine organisms and algae are present in many cosmetic products. In this study, a new green ingredient, a wax (i.e., long-chain alkenones) derived
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The move toward green, sustainable, natural products has been growing in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Ingredients derived from marine organisms and algae are present in many cosmetic products. In this study, a new green ingredient, a wax (i.e., long-chain alkenones) derived from Isochyrsis sp., was evaluated as an alternative for cosmetic waxes. First, the melting point was determined (71.1–77.4 °C), then the alkenones’ thickening capability in five emollients was evaluated and compared to microcrystalline wax and ozokerite. Alkenones were compatible with three emollients and thickened the emollients similarly to the other waxes. Then, lipsticks and lip balms were formulated with and without alkenones. All products remained stable at room temperature for 10 weeks. Lipstick formulated with alkenones was the most resistant to high temperature. Finally, alkenones were compared to three cosmetic thickening waxes in creams. Viscosity, rheology, and stability of the creams were evaluated. All creams had a gel-like behavior. Both viscosity and storage modulus increased in the same order: cream with alkenones < cetyl alcohol < stearic acid < glyceryl monostearate. Overall, alkenones’ performance was comparable to the other three waxes. Alkenones can thus offer a potential green choice as a new cosmetic structuring agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
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Open AccessArticle Absorption and Photo-Stability of Substituted Dibenzoylmethanes and Chalcones as UVA Filters
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
There is still an international need to develop broad-spectrum sunscreen products with an adequate UVB/UVA balance, while the approved filters available in the UVA are scarce. Currently, one of the few UVA filters approved in the United States and Europe is tert-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane
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There is still an international need to develop broad-spectrum sunscreen products with an adequate UVB/UVA balance, while the approved filters available in the UVA are scarce. Currently, one of the few UVA filters approved in the United States and Europe is tert-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM, avobenzone). However, this compound is unstable from aphotochemical point of view and cannot be used in combination with certain sunscreens. In this paper, we investigate the photochemical behavior of a set of dibenzoylmethanes and chalcones. In particular, we carry out their absorption and emission spectra, evaluate their photochemical degradation, and study their generation of free radicals and singlet oxygen photoproduction. Two compounds resultedin having the basic properties of UVA filters (2′-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone and 2′-hydroxy-4-methoxydibenzoylmethane). Further studies are proposed, such as formulating the compounds into emulsions or other common cosmetic presentations, as well as combining them with broadly-used UVB filters. We have also considered the need to establish its toxicological profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Photobiology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Secondary Plant Metabolites for Sun Protective Cosmetics: From Pre-Selection to Product Formulation
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Topical sun protective cosmetics (sunscreens, pre- and post-sun) have been intensively developed and produced to protect human skin against solar irradiation-associated damages/pathologies. Unfortunately, routine cosmetics for sun protection containing synthetic organic and/or physical sunscreens could exert adverse effects towards human organisms and bring
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Topical sun protective cosmetics (sunscreens, pre- and post-sun) have been intensively developed and produced to protect human skin against solar irradiation-associated damages/pathologies. Unfortunately, routine cosmetics for sun protection containing synthetic organic and/or physical sunscreens could exert adverse effects towards human organisms and bring undesirable ecological changes. Terrestrial and marine plant species, being exposed to sun light for hundreds of millions of years, have evolved two pro-survival strategies: effective protection against/adaptation to its deleterious effects and the use of solar energy for photosynthesis/photo-biochemical reactions. Secondary plant metabolites (SPM) are primary sensors of solar energy and mediators of its use (photo-sensitisers) or neutralisation (photo-protectors). A similar double photo-protective/photo-sensitising system is built in within human skin. Modern development of toxicologically/ecologically safe yet effective sun-protective cosmetics attempts to pre-select photo-stable and non-phototoxic SPMs that provide broad UVA + UVB sunscreen, free radical scavenging and direct antioxidant defence, endogenous antioxidant rescue, induction of antioxidant enzymes (indirect antioxidant defence), and normalisation of metabolic and immune responses to UVA + UVB. Proper formulation of sun protective cosmetics should assure targeted delivery of photo-active SPMs to definite skin layers to invigorate the built in photo-chemical skin barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle Herbal Cosmetics Knowledge of Arab-Choa and Kotoko Ethnic Groups in the Semi-Arid Areas of Far North Cameroon: Ethnobotanical Assessment and Phytochemical Review
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
The plant-based traditional knowledge of many Cameroonian populations concerning beauty and skin care is still poorly documented, yet they are real resources of innovation and economic development. The aim of this study is to document the indigenous knowledge of Choa Arab and Kotoko
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The plant-based traditional knowledge of many Cameroonian populations concerning beauty and skin care is still poorly documented, yet they are real resources of innovation and economic development. The aim of this study is to document the indigenous knowledge of Choa Arab and Kotoko ethnic group in Kousséri (Far North Region of Cameroon) about plants used for cosmetics. Ethnobotanical data collected among key informants revealed a total of 13 plants species belonging to 12 families used by local people. Canarium schweinfurthii Engl and Santalum album L. obtained the highest frequency of citation. Trees are the most abundant life forms, while barks and seeds are the most frequently used parts. More than 40% of recorded plants are used for skin care. The cosmetic allegations of recorded plants include: dermatology, anti-cancers, antioxidant agent, perfume, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wounds healing activity, skin lightening, dental caries, astringent and hair care. They all contain various phytochemicals that are of interest in cosmetics. Despite the strong relationship between the Choa Arab and Kotoko people and herbal cosmetic ingredients, these plants are still less investigated for their cosmetic application. The authors urge for the development of sustainable supply chain for plants with potentials as cosmetics, involving local communities in the planning, implementation and monitoring process, following principles of Nagoya protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Critical View of Different Botanical, Molecular, and Chemical Techniques Used in Authentication of Plant Materials for Cosmetic Applications
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
A number of approaches can be implemented to ensure plant-based material authentication for cosmetic applications. Doing this requires knowledge and data dealing with botany, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry, the main techniques of which are described here. A comprehensive and critical view of
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A number of approaches can be implemented to ensure plant-based material authentication for cosmetic applications. Doing this requires knowledge and data dealing with botany, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry, the main techniques of which are described here. A comprehensive and critical view of the methods is provided with comments as well as examples of their application domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Skin Regenerative and Anti-Cancer Actions of Copper Peptides
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Topical remedies capable of protecting skin from damage and supporting its regeneration can improve skin’s health as well as its appearance. Small copper peptides have an excellent safety record and are widely used in cosmetic products. The most studied copper peptide is GHK-Cu
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Topical remedies capable of protecting skin from damage and supporting its regeneration can improve skin’s health as well as its appearance. Small copper peptides have an excellent safety record and are widely used in cosmetic products. The most studied copper peptide is GHK-Cu (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine), a small copper-binding peptide, naturally present in human plasma. Since its discovery in 1973, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that GHK-Cu possesses a wealth of health-positive actions including improving wound contraction and epithelization, and increasing the production of growth factors and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Recently, gene expression profiling shed new light on diverse biological actions of GHK-Cu. The present paper discusses evidence of GHK-Cu and other small copper peptides possessing potent anti-cancer properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancer)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantitative Analysis Using the Phototrichogram Technique of an Italian Population Suffering from Androgenic Alopecia
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the values of some scalp basal parameters, collected during several clinical studies involving a total of 254 subjects with androgenic alopecia, were analyzed. Subjects’ values were grouped by age and gender, and the differences between groups were examined. The density
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In this study, the values of some scalp basal parameters, collected during several clinical studies involving a total of 254 subjects with androgenic alopecia, were analyzed. Subjects’ values were grouped by age and gender, and the differences between groups were examined. The density values (n° of hair/cm2) and the percentages of anagen and telogen hair were considered. Furthermore, the variations recorded at the end of cosmetic treatments (ranging from 12 to 16 weeks) aiming to reduce excessive hair loss were analyzed. The basal values regarding the percentage of hair in the anagen phase evidenced a linear decrease with increasing age, with a corresponding increase of the percentage of hair in the telogen phase. As far as the hair density differences between males and females are concerned, females had a mean value significantly higher than males. Moreover, at the end of the intended anti-hair loss treatments, females were more susceptible to improvements of their hair density values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Lipids in the Medulla of Japanese Hair and Their Function
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
The hair is composed of the cuticle (the outermost surface), cortex (its major part), and medulla (in the hair center). The lipid content of the medulla of Caucasian hair is relatively higher than that of African-American hair. However, the types of lipids therein
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The hair is composed of the cuticle (the outermost surface), cortex (its major part), and medulla (in the hair center). The lipid content of the medulla of Caucasian hair is relatively higher than that of African-American hair. However, the types of lipids therein remain unidentified. The aim of the current study was to analyze the constituent lipids of the medulla of Japanese hair, and to identify their function. A lipid peroxidase fluorescent reagent was used to investigate region-specific differences in the lipid content of the medulla (the tip, middle, and root portions). Since the medulla is important for the hair’s glossiness, we also investigated the relationship between the lipid content and hair glossiness. The lipid content of hair, based on the absence or presence of lipid species in the medulla, was investigated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Micro-attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (micro-ATR FTIR) was used to analyze the similarities between the standard and medulla lipids, focusing on the methylene/methyl stretching vibration region. The data indicated that the medulla contained unsaturated lipids, the content of which decreased from the root to the tip of the hair. Hair glossiness was reduced with the decreasing lipid content, suggesting that unsaturated lipids of the medulla play a role in glossiness. The TLC analysis revealed differences in the type and amount of hair lipids in the medulla. While squalene and oleic acid spots were detected in hair with a continuously maintained medulla, these compounds were not detected in hair in which the medulla was not maintained. The medulla constituents similar to oleic acid and squalene were also identified by the micro-ATR FTIR spectrum analysis and the previous report. The findings indicate that the medulla is composed of at least squalene and oleic acid. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of
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The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Stability Evaluation of Liquid Crystal-Based Formulations Containing Glycolic Plant Extracts and Nano-Actives
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Emulsions are of great use in cosmetic formulations due to their stability. The aim of this work was to develop and assess organoleptic, physicochemical, and microscopic properties of four auto-emulsifiable oil-in-water formulations. Such formulations were developed containing 4.0% cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate, and
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Emulsions are of great use in cosmetic formulations due to their stability. The aim of this work was to develop and assess organoleptic, physicochemical, and microscopic properties of four auto-emulsifiable oil-in-water formulations. Such formulations were developed containing 4.0% cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate, and ceteth-10 phosphate (Formulation A), nano-actives obtained from safflower, coconut, and clove oils (Formulation B); a mixture of glycolic extracts from Centella asiatica leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum seeds, and Hamamelis virginiana leaves (Formulation C); association between the nano-actives and glycolic extracts described above (Formulation D). The formulations were trialed for 90 days under the normal stability test. The developed formulations were considered all stable and homogeneous, with liquid crystals possibly being formed. Organoleptic parameters and pH of Formulations A and B remained unchanged, but the color of Formulations C and D changed due to the natural color of the glycolic extracts used. It can be concluded that the formation of liquid crystals increased the stability of the formulations, and future tests should be carried out in order to assess the rheological properties and hydration potential of the developed formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Cuticle Hole Development in Human Hair Due to UV-Radiation Exposure
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We
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Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We discovered that in one mechanism facilitating damage to wet hair by UV radiation, the unsaturated fatty acids in wet hair produce hydroxy radicals upon exposure to UV radiation, and these radicals produce cuticle holes between the cuticle layers. In wet hair exposed to UV radiation, cuticle holes were produced only between the cuticle layers, whereas when human hair was immersed in a solution containing hydroxy radicals produced by Fenton’s reaction, a random production of cuticle holes was noted. It is thought that hydroxy radicals are produced only between the cuticle layers by exposure to UV radiation, and cuticle holes are formed only in this region because one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, with a bis-allyl hydrogen, is found between the cuticle layers. Full article
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