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J. Clin. Med., Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 361 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continue to cause substantial morbidity and productivity loss [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures and Their Prognostic Significance in the Survival in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3‒5 Not on Dialysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051604 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF) and their association with clinical risk factors and outcomes are poorly documented in chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of VF in patients with non-dialysis dependent [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF) and their association with clinical risk factors and outcomes are poorly documented in chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of VF in patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), their value in predicting mortality and its correlation with parameters of bone mineral metabolism and vascular calcification. Materials and Methods: 612 NDD 3‒5 stage CKD patients participating in the OSERCE-2 study, a prospective, multicenter, cohort study, were prospectively evaluated and categorized into two groups according to presence or absence of VF at enrollment. VF were assessed with lateral radiographs and Genant semi-quantitative method was applied. Three radiologists specialized in musculoskeletal radiology performed consensual reading of individual images obtained using a Raim DICOM Viewer and a Canon EOS 350 camera to measure with Java Image software in those who had traditional acetate X-ray. Factors related to VF were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Association between VF and death over a 3-year follow-up was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-proportional hazard models. Results: VF were detected in 110 patients (18%). Serum phosphate levels (OR 0.719, 95% CI 0.532 to 0.972, p = 0.032), ankle-brachial index < 0.9 (OR 1.694, 95% CI 1.056‒2.717, p = 0.029) and treatment with bisphosphonates (OR 5.636, 95% CI 1.876‒16.930, p = 0.002) were independently related to the presence of VF. After a median follow-up of 35 months (IQR: 17‒37 months), 62 patients (10%) died. The causes of death were cardiovascular (n = 21, 34%) and infectious (n = 11, 18%). In the crude analysis, fractured patients group had poorer survival (log-rank test, p = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for age, MDRD, albumin, diabetes mellitus, comorbidity, Adragao Score > 3 and serum phosphate, the presence of VF (HR 1.983, 95% CI 1.009‒3.898, p = 0.047) were an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Conclusions: In our study 18% of patients with NDD-CKD have VF. Factors associated with VF were age, low serum phosphate levels and peripheral vascular disease. The presence of VF was an independent risk factor for mortality in stages 3‒5 NDD-CKD patients. Clinical trials are needed to confirm whether this relationship is causal and reversible with treatment for osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of the Progression and Complications of CKD)
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Open AccessPerspective
Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Kidney Outcomes: True Renoprotection, Loss of Muscle Mass or Both?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051603 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have emerged as practice-changing treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes, reducing both the risk of cardiovascular events and kidney events. However, regarding the latter, caution is warranted, as these kidney endpoints are defined using glomerular filtration [...] Read more.
Inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have emerged as practice-changing treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes, reducing both the risk of cardiovascular events and kidney events. However, regarding the latter, caution is warranted, as these kidney endpoints are defined using glomerular filtration rate estimations based on creatinine, the non-enzymatic product of creatine residing in muscles. Creatinine-based estimations of the glomerular filtration rate are only valid if the treatment has no effect on changes in muscle mass over time. Yet, circumstantial evidence suggests that treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors does result in a loss of muscle mass, rendering serum creatinine-based kidney endpoints invalid. Currently, it cannot be excluded that the described renoprotective effect of SGLT2 inhibitors is in part or in whole the consequence of a loss of muscle mass. Post-hoc analyses of existing trials or new trials based on kidney function markers independent of muscle mass can provide more definitive answers on the proposed renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
Open AccessArticle
Neutrophil Phenotypes in Coronary Artery Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051602 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at investigating the association of neutrophil phenotypes with ACS. 108 patients were categorized into chronic stable coronary artery disease (n = 37), unstable angina [...] Read more.
Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at investigating the association of neutrophil phenotypes with ACS. 108 patients were categorized into chronic stable coronary artery disease (n = 37), unstable angina (UA) (n = 19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n = 25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n = 27). At the time of inclusion, blood neutrophil subpopulations were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of neutrophilic soluble markers were recorded at admission and, for half of patients, at six-month follow-up. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio than stable and UA patients (p < 0.0001), which normalized at six-month post-MI. Atypical low-density neutrophils were detected in the blood of the four patient groups. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells compared to the other patients (p = 0.019). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total myeloperoxidase was associated with STEMI compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119–1.837; P < 0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146–1.886; p = 0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1–1.134; p = 0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil side scatter (SSC) signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033–14.184; p = 0.045). Hence, changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Algorithm for Clinical Management of Sickle Cell Bone Disease: Evidence for a Role of Vertebral Fractures in Patient Follow-up
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051601 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a worldwide distributed hemoglobinopathy, characterized by hemolytic anemia associated with vaso-occlusive events. These result in acute and chronic multiorgan damage. Bone is early involved, leading to long-term disability, chronic pain and fractures. Here, we carried out a retrospective study [...] Read more.
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a worldwide distributed hemoglobinopathy, characterized by hemolytic anemia associated with vaso-occlusive events. These result in acute and chronic multiorgan damage. Bone is early involved, leading to long-term disability, chronic pain and fractures. Here, we carried out a retrospective study to evaluate sickle bone disease (SBD) in a cohort of adults with SCD. We assessed bone density, metabolism and turnover. We also evaluated the presence of fractures and the correlation between SCD severity and skeletal manifestations. A total of 71 patients with SCD were analyzed. The mean age of population was 39 ± 10 years, 56% of which were females. We found osteoporosis in a range between 7% and 18% with a high incidence of vertebral fractures. LDH and AST were predictive for the severity of vertebral fractures, while bone density was not. Noteworthy, we identified -1.4 Standard Deviations T-score as the cutoff for detecting the presence of fractures in patients with SCD. Collectively our data allowed us to develop an algorithm for the management of SBD, which may be useful in daily clinical practice to early intersect and treat SBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Red Orange and Lemon Extract in Obese Diabetic Zucker Rats: Role of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051600 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease, worldwide, and oxidative stress has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis and progression of DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase has the most important contribution to reactive oxygen [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease, worldwide, and oxidative stress has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis and progression of DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase has the most important contribution to reactive oxygen species generation during the development of DN. Bioactive compound use has emerged as a potential approach to reduce chronic renal failure. Therefore, a red orange and lemon extract (RLE) rich in anthocyanins was chosen in our study, to reduce the toxic renal effects during the development of DN in Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF). RLE effects were examined daily for 24 weeks, through gavage, in ZDF rats treated with RLE (90 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, ZDF rats treated with RLE showed a reduction of the diabetes-associated up-regulation of both NOX4 and the p47-phox and p22-phox subunits, and restored the BAX/BCL-2 ratio respect to ZDF rats. Furthermore, RLE was able to reduce the oxidative DNA damage measured in urine samples in ZDF rats. This study showed that RLE could prevent the renal damage induced by DN through its capacity to inhibit NOX4 and apoptosis mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Kidney and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Open AccessCommunication
Relationship between HIF-1 and Circadian Clock Proteins in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients—Preliminary Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051599 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and associated with the disruption of circadian rhythm. The study aimed to assess the relationship between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) subunits, circadian clock proteins, and polysomnography (PSG) variables, in healthy individuals and severe OSA patients. [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and associated with the disruption of circadian rhythm. The study aimed to assess the relationship between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) subunits, circadian clock proteins, and polysomnography (PSG) variables, in healthy individuals and severe OSA patients. The study included 20 individuals, who underwent PSG and were divided into severe OSA group (n = 10; AHI ≥ 30) and healthy control (n = 10; AHI < 5) based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). All participants had their peripheral blood collected in the evening before and the morning after the PSG. HIF-1α, HIF-1β, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, and PER1 protein concertation measurements were performed using ELISA. In a multivariate general linear model with the concentration of all circadian clock proteins as dependent variables, evening HIF-1α protein level was the only significant covariant (p = 0.025). Corrected models were significant for morning and evening PER1 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively), evening (p = 0.043), and evening BMAL protein level (p = 0.046). In corrected models, evening HIF-1α protein level had an influence only on the evening PER1 protein level. Results suggest that OSA patients are at risk for developing circadian clock disruption. This process might be mediated by subunit α of HIF-1, as its increased protein level is associated with overexpression of circadian clock proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA))
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions on Cognition and Brain Health in Healthy Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051598 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Context: Affecting older and even some younger adults, neurodegenerative disease represents a global public health concern and has been identified as a research priority. To date, most anti-aging interventions have examined older adults, but little is known about the effects of polyphenol interventions [...] Read more.
Context: Affecting older and even some younger adults, neurodegenerative disease represents a global public health concern and has been identified as a research priority. To date, most anti-aging interventions have examined older adults, but little is known about the effects of polyphenol interventions on brain-related aging processes in healthy young and middle-aged adults. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of (poly)phenol-rich diet supplementation on cognitive function and brain health in young and middle-aged adults. In July 2019, two electronic databases (PubMed and Web of Science) were used to search for relevant trials examining the effect of acute or chronic (poly)phenol-rich supplementation on cognitive function and neuroprotective measures in young and middle-aged adults (<60 years old). A total of 4303 records were screened by two researchers using the PICOS criteria. Fifteen high quality (mean PEDro score = 8.8 ± 0.58) trials with 401 total participants were included in the final analyses. Information on treatment, study design, characteristics of participants, outcomes and used tools were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. When items were shown to be sufficiently comparable, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool estimates across studies. Effect size (ES) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. The meta-analysis indicated that (poly)phenol supplementation significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (ES = 3.259, p = 0.033), which was accompanied by higher performance in serial (7s) subtraction (ES = 1.467, p = 0.001) and decreases in simple reaction time (ES = −0.926, p = 0.015) and mental fatigue (ES = −3.521, p = 0.010). Data related to cognitive function were skewed towards an effect from acute compared to chronic polyphenol intervention; data related to BDNF were skewed toward an effect from higher bioavailability phenolic components. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides promising findings regarding the usefulness of polyphenol-rich intervention as an inexpensive approach for enhancing circulation of pro-cognitive neurotrophic factors. These beneficial effects appear to depend on the supplementation protocols. An early acute and/or chronic application of low- to high-dose phenolic components with high bioavailability rates (≥30%) at a younger age appear to provide more promising effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Exchange or Immunoadsorption in Demyelinating Diseases: A Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051597 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease mainly affecting the central nervous system. In MS, abnormal immune mechanisms induce acute inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss, and the formation of central nervous system plaques. The long-term treatment involves options to modify the disease progression, whereas [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease mainly affecting the central nervous system. In MS, abnormal immune mechanisms induce acute inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss, and the formation of central nervous system plaques. The long-term treatment involves options to modify the disease progression, whereas the treatment for the acute relapse has its focus in the administration of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (up to 1000 mg daily) over a period of three to five days as a first step. If symptoms of the acute relapse persist, it is defined as glucocorticosteroid-unresponsive, and immunomodulation by apheresis is recommended. However, several national and international guidelines have no uniform recommendations on using plasma exchange (PE) nor immunoadsorption (IA) in this case. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, including observational studies or randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of PE or IA on different courses of MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). One thousand, three hundred and eighty-three patients were included in the evaluation. Therapy response in relapsing-remitting MS and clinically isolated syndrome was 76.6% (95%CI 63.7–89.8%) in PE- and 80.6% (95%CI 69.3–91.8%) in IA-treated patients. Based on the recent literature, PE and IA may be considered as equal treatment possibilities in patients suffering from acute, glucocorticosteroid-unresponsive MS relapses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apheresis in Neurological Disorders)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Atorvastatin Mediated Effects on Blood Lipids
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051596 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Background and Aims: The mechanisms of interindividual variation of lipid regulation by statins, such as the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) lowering effects, are not fully understood yet. Here, we used a gut microbiota depleted mouse model to investigate the relation between the gut [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: The mechanisms of interindividual variation of lipid regulation by statins, such as the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) lowering effects, are not fully understood yet. Here, we used a gut microbiota depleted mouse model to investigate the relation between the gut microbiota and the regulatory property of atorvastatin on blood lipids. Methods: Mice (C57BL/6) with intact gut microbiota or antibiotic induced abiotic mice (ABS) were put on standard chow diet (SCD) or high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) or a control vehicle were applied per gavage for the last four weeks of dietary treatment. Blood lipids including total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and sphingolipids were measured to probe microbiota-dependent effects of atorvastatin. The expression of genes involved in hepatic and intestinal cholesterol metabolism was analyzed with qRT-PCR. The alteration of the microbiota profile was examined using 16S rRNA qPCR in mice with intact gut microbiota. Results: HFD feeding significantly increased total blood cholesterol and LDL levels, as compared to SCD in both mice with intact and depleted gut microbiota. The cholesterol lowering effect of atorvastatin was significantly attenuated in mice with depleted gut microbiota. Moreover, we observed a global shift in the abundance of several sphingolipids upon atorvastatin treatment which was absent in gut microbiota depleted mice. The regulatory effect of atorvastatin on the expression of distinct hepatic and intestinal cholesterol-regulating genes, including Ldlr, Srebp2 and Npc1l1 was altered upon depletion of gut microbiota. In response to HFD feeding, the relative abundance of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes decreased, while the abundance of Firmicutes increased. The altered ratio between Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was partly reversed in HFD fed mice treated with atorvastatin. Conclusions: Our findings support a regulatory impact of atorvastatin on the gut microbial profile and, in turn, demonstrate a crucial role of the gut microbiome for atorvastatin-related effects on blood lipids. These results provide novel insights into potential microbiota-dependent mechanisms of lipid regulation by statins, which may account for variable response to statin treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atherosclerosis: Endothelial Dysfunction and Beyond)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051595 - 24 May 2020
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Abstract
We investigated the role of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in identifying delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We measured the cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) continuously for 14 days. The differences in rSO2 according to DCI were analyzed. We [...] Read more.
We investigated the role of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in identifying delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We measured the cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) continuously for 14 days. The differences in rSO2 according to DCI were analyzed. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of NIRS and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) for DCI detection using the area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Fifty-two patients treated with coil embolization were enrolled, including 18 with DCI (34.6%) and 34 without DCI (65.4%). Significant differences in rSO2 levels were observed from days 7 to 9. The rSO2 level was 60.95 (58.10–62.30) at day 7 in the DCI vs. 63.90 (62.50–67.10) in the non-DCI patients. By day 8, it was 59.50 (56.90–64.50) in the DCI vs. 63.30 (59.70–68.70) in the non-DCI cases. By day 9, it was 61.85 (59.40–65.20) in the DCI vs. 66.00 (62.70–68.30) in the non-DCI. A decline of >12.7% in SO2 rate yielded a sensitivity of 94.44% (95% CI: 72.7–99.9%) and a specificity of 70.59% (95% CI: 52.5–84.9%) for identifying DCI. Changes in NIRS tended to yield better diagnostic accuracy than TCD, but were not statistically significant. NIRS is a feasible method for real-time detection of DCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clinical Care and Diagnosis)
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Open AccessReview
Anti-angiogenesis and Immunotherapy: Novel Paradigms to Envision Tailored Approaches in Renal Cell-Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051594 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Although decision making strategy based on clinico-histopathological criteria is well established, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a spectrum of biological ecosystems characterized by distinct genetic and molecular alterations, diverse clinical courses and potential specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. Given the plethora of drugs available, the [...] Read more.
Although decision making strategy based on clinico-histopathological criteria is well established, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a spectrum of biological ecosystems characterized by distinct genetic and molecular alterations, diverse clinical courses and potential specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. Given the plethora of drugs available, the subtype-tailored treatment to RCC subtype holds the potential to improve patient outcome, shrinking treatment-related morbidity and cost. The emerging knowledge of the molecular taxonomy of RCC is evolving, whilst the antiangiogenic and immunotherapy landscape maintains and reinforces their potential. Although several prognostic factors of survival in patients with RCC have been described, no reliable predictive biomarkers of treatment individual sensitivity or resistance have been identified. In this review, we summarize the available evidence able to prompt more precise and individualized patient selection in well-designed clinical trials, covering the unmet need of medical choices in the era of next-generation anti-angiogenesis and immunotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Classification of Colorectal Neoplasms in White-Light Colonoscopy Images via Deep Learning
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051593 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Background: Classification of colorectal neoplasms during colonoscopic examination is important to avoid unnecessary endoscopic biopsy or resection. This study aimed to develop and validate deep learning models that automatically classify colorectal lesions histologically on white-light colonoscopy images. Methods: White-light colonoscopy images of colorectal [...] Read more.
Background: Classification of colorectal neoplasms during colonoscopic examination is important to avoid unnecessary endoscopic biopsy or resection. This study aimed to develop and validate deep learning models that automatically classify colorectal lesions histologically on white-light colonoscopy images. Methods: White-light colonoscopy images of colorectal lesions exhibiting pathological results were collected and classified into seven categories: stages T1-4 colorectal cancer (CRC), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), tubular adenoma (TA), and non-neoplasms. The images were then re-classified into four categories including advanced CRC, early CRC/HGD, TA, and non-neoplasms. Two convolutional neural network models were trained, and the performances were evaluated in an internal test dataset and an external validation dataset. Results: In total, 3828 images were collected from 1339 patients. The mean accuracies of ResNet-152 model for the seven-category and four-category classification were 60.2% and 67.3% in the internal test dataset, and 74.7% and 79.2% in the external validation dataset, respectively, including 240 images. In the external validation, ResNet-152 outperformed two endoscopists for four-category classification, and showed a higher mean area under the curve (AUC) for detecting TA+ lesions (0.818) compared to the worst-performing endoscopist. The mean AUC for detecting HGD+ lesions reached 0.876 by Inception-ResNet-v2. Conclusions: A deep learning model presented promising performance in classifying colorectal lesions on white-light colonoscopy images; this model could help endoscopists build optimal treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI in Medical Practice/Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy)
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Open AccessArticle
Pentaglobin® Efficacy in Reducing the Incidence of Sepsis and Transplant-Related Mortality in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051592 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The 12-month mortality rate in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains high, especially with respect to transplant-related mortality (TRM), which includes mortality due to infection complications through the aplasia phase. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration [...] Read more.
The 12-month mortality rate in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains high, especially with respect to transplant-related mortality (TRM), which includes mortality due to infection complications through the aplasia phase. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of Pentaglobin® could decrease TRM by lowering sepsis onset or weakening sepsis through the aplasia phase. One hundred and ninety-nine pediatric patients who had undergone HSCT were enrolled in our retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups: the Pentaglobin group, which had received Pentaglobin® in addition to the standard antibiotic treatment protocol established for the aplasia phase, and the Control group, which received only the standard treatment. As compared to the control group outcome, Pentaglobin® led to a significant decrease in the days of temperature increase (p < 0.001) and a reduced infection-related mortality rate (p = 0.04). In addition, the number of antibiotics used to control infections, and the number of antibiotic therapy changes needed following first-line drug failure, were significantly lowered in the Pentaglobin group as compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). With respect to the onset of new infections following the primary infection detected, the Pentaglobin group showed a significant reduction for bacterial events, as compared to the control group (p < 0.03). Pentaglobin® use in patients undergoing HSCT seems to produce a significant decrease in infection-associated TRM rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Outcomes of Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Liver Transplant Patients with High Preoperative Serum Bilirubin Levels Are at Increased Risk of Postoperative Delirium: A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051591 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Postoperative delirium is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). A high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium, but it is unclear which of the components of this score are risk indicators. The aim [...] Read more.
Postoperative delirium is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). A high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium, but it is unclear which of the components of this score are risk indicators. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of postoperative delirium according to the preoperative serum bilirubin level, a component of the MELD score, in patients who underwent LT. The medical records of 325 patients who underwent LT from January 2010 to February 2019 at a single university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: those who experienced postoperative delirium (Delirium group, n = 69) and those who did not (Control group, n = 256). Data on the patients’ demographic characteristics, perioperative management, and postoperative complications were collected. Mean preoperative bilirubin level was higher in the Delirium group than in the Control group (p < 0.0001). In the Delirium group, 54 (78.26%) patients had preoperative bilirubin levels above 3.5 mg/dL. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative bilirubin above 3.5 mg/dL was associated with postoperative delirium (p = 0.002). Therefore, preoperative hyperbilirubinemia is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Elbow Joint Arthritis and Enthesitis in Rheumatoid Arthritis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051590 - 24 May 2020
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Abstract
Objectives: The prevalence of elbow joint arthritis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assessed by ultrasound has not yet been investigated. Methods: We investigated 102 patients with RA and 50 patients without rheumatological disease. Both elbow joints were examined by ultrasound for effusion, hypervascularization, and [...] Read more.
Objectives: The prevalence of elbow joint arthritis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assessed by ultrasound has not yet been investigated. Methods: We investigated 102 patients with RA and 50 patients without rheumatological disease. Both elbow joints were examined by ultrasound for effusion, hypervascularization, and enthesitis. A clinical examination was performed, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), and visual analog scale for pain (VASp) were recorded. Arthritis was defined as joint effusion (≥grade II) and synovial hyperperfusion. Results: The RA cohort versus the control group displayed a joint effusion in 54.9% vs. 6.9%, a hypervascularization in 6.8% vs. 0%. Arthritis was detected in 36 RA patients (35.29%) and no one in the control group. Four (3.8%) RA patients and one (1%) control displayed enthesitis. The RA cohort showed a significant correlation between movement restriction and joint effusion (p-value = 0.001) as well as DAS28 (p-value = 0.02) and between DAS28 and ultrasound detected arthritis (p-value = 0.022). In an overall analysis, a highly significant correlation of VASp with movement restriction (MR) (p-value ≤ 0.001), the presence of joint effusion (p-value ≤ 0.001), and the diagnosis of RA (p-value ≤ 0.001) were observed. Interrater analysis of ultrasound imaging showed good agreement with Cohen’s kappa of 0.896. Conclusion: The prevalence of elbow arthritis in RA seems to be high, with 35.29%. Movement restriction is a good indicator, but not in all RA patients (32 vs. 70 patients without MR) compared to the control group (5 vs. 45 patients without MR). Reported pain correlates with joint effusion and MR (p-value ≤ 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Major Lipids, Apolipoproteins, and Alterations of Gut Microbiota
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051589 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The gut microbiota has been linked to blood lipids. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and other lipid markers like apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B (apoB) as well as classical lipid markers in Asians remain unclear. Here, we examined the associations between [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota has been linked to blood lipids. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and other lipid markers like apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B (apoB) as well as classical lipid markers in Asians remain unclear. Here, we examined the associations between gut microbial diversity and taxonomic compositions with both apolipoproteins and lipid markers in a large number of Korean patients. The fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing data from 1141 subjects were analyzed and subjects were categorized into control group (G0) or abnormal group (G1) according to blood lipid measurements. The microbial diversity and several taxa of the gut microbiota were significantly associated with triglyceride, apoA1, and apoB levels, but not with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The alpha diversity of the gut microbiota was inversely associated with high triglyceride level. Interestingly, G1 of apoA1 showed increased microbial richness and distinct microbial community compared with G0 of apoA1. A high abundance of Fusobacteria and low abundance of Oscillospira were found in the hypertriglyceridemia group. In this large-scale study, we identified associations of gut microbiota with apolipoproteins and classical lipid markers, indicating that the gut microbiota may be an important target for regulating blood lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Menopausal Transition and Physical Activity in Loss of Lean and Muscle Mass: A Follow-Up Study in Middle-Aged Finnish Women
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051588 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 657
Abstract
In midlife, women experience hormonal changes due to menopausal transition. A decrease especially in estradiol has been hypothesized to cause loss of muscle mass. This study investigated the effect of menopausal transition on changes in lean and muscle mass, from the total body [...] Read more.
In midlife, women experience hormonal changes due to menopausal transition. A decrease especially in estradiol has been hypothesized to cause loss of muscle mass. This study investigated the effect of menopausal transition on changes in lean and muscle mass, from the total body to the muscle fiber level, among 47–55-year-old women. Data were used from the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study, where 234 women were followed from perimenopause to early postmenopause. Hormone levels (estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone), total and regional body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) scans), physical activity level (self-reported and accelerometer-measured) and muscle fiber properties (muscle biopsy) were assessed at baseline and at early postmenopause. Significant decreases were seen in lean body mass (LBM), lean body mass index (LBMI), appendicular lean mass (ALM), appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), leg lean mass and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Menopausal status was a significant predictor for all tested muscle mass variables, while physical activity was an additional significant contributor for LBM, ALM, ALMI, leg lean mass and relative muscle CSA. Menopausal transition was associated with loss of muscle mass at multiple anatomical levels, while physical activity was beneficial for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia: Skeletal Muscle Health and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Risk Score to Predict Low Birthweight Using Characteristics of the Mother: Analysis from BUNMAP Cohort in Ethiopia
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051587 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
At least one ultrasound is recommended to predict fetal growth restriction and low birthweight earlier in pregnancy. However, in low-income countries, imaging equipment and trained manpower are scarce. Hence, we developed and validated a model and risk score to predict low birthweight using [...] Read more.
At least one ultrasound is recommended to predict fetal growth restriction and low birthweight earlier in pregnancy. However, in low-income countries, imaging equipment and trained manpower are scarce. Hence, we developed and validated a model and risk score to predict low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy, for use in resource limited settings. We developed the model using a prospective cohort of 379 pregnant women in South Ethiopia. A stepwise multivariable analysis was done to develop the prediction model. To improve the clinical utility, we developed a simplified risk score to classify pregnant women at high- or low-risk of low birthweight. The accuracy of the model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration plot. All accuracy measures were internally validated using the bootstrapping technique. We evaluated the clinical impact of the model using a decision curve analysis across various threshold probabilities. Age at pregnancy, underweight, anemia, height, gravidity, and presence of comorbidity remained in the final multivariable prediction model. The AUC of the model was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.88). The decision curve analysis indicated the model provides a higher net benefit across ranges of threshold probabilities. In general, this study showed the possibility of predicting low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy. The model could help to identify pregnant women at higher risk of having a low birthweight baby. This feasible prediction model would offer an opportunity to reduce obstetric-related complications, thus improving the overall maternal and child healthcare in low- and middle-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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Open AccessReview
Association between Periodontal Diseases and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051586 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 215
Abstract
Background: A convergent association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and periodontal disease, in particular chronic periodontitis (CP), has recently been proposed. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this association are not fully understood, though it is thought that chronic inflammation is responsible. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Background: A convergent association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and periodontal disease, in particular chronic periodontitis (CP), has recently been proposed. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this association are not fully understood, though it is thought that chronic inflammation is responsible. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal disease—gingivitis and CP—and PCOS. Materials and Methods: The PICO (Participants, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes) question was as follows: “Is there an association between PCOS and CP?” A systematic review of three databases—PubMed, Embase and Scopus—was performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Original studies in human cohorts carried out in the last 10 years and including a control group were eligible for inclusion. Letters to the editor, case reports, and reviews were not considered. Results: Ten articles met all the selection criteria and provided a positive answer to the PICO question. Our review of these articles revealed an association between CP and PCOS, since periodontal parameters were altered more frequently in patients with these conditions than in healthy young women. This altered periodontal response in PCOS was associated with a proinflammatory status that seemed to increase susceptibility to periodontal disease. Conclusion: Patients with PCOS appear to be more susceptible to developing periodontal diseases than women without the pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Systemic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Periodontitis and High Blood Pressure: Results from the Study of Periodontal Health in Almada-Seixal (SoPHiAS)
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051585 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease which could have an important impact on blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to explore (a) the association between periodontal health and BP in a large representative cohort, (b) the predictive value of diagnosis of periodontitis [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease which could have an important impact on blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to explore (a) the association between periodontal health and BP in a large representative cohort, (b) the predictive value of diagnosis of periodontitis in undiagnosed raised BP and (c) whether age is a mediator of this relationship. In total, 1057 randomly recruited individuals (mean age, 60.9 ± 16.3 years, 57.7% women) underwent periodontal clinical assessment and one-single BP measurement using an automated sphygmomanometer device. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the odds of hypertension based on periodontitis case definitions. Mediation analysis was performed to understand the effect of age on the association of periodontitis with hypertension. Adjusted logistic model for gender, smoking habits and body mass index confirmed the association between high BP and periodontitis (OR = 2.31, 95%CI: 1.75–3.04, p < 0.001). Among 168 participants with undiagnosed high BP (15.9% of the study sample), 62.5% had periodontitis (n = 105). In this study, the association between periodontitis with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) (77.6%, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (66.0%, p < 0.001) was mediated by age. Periodontitis is closely linked to BP in a representative Portuguese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Systemic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Chest Compression Quality Using Wing Boards versus Walking Next to a Moving Stretcher: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051584 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
Background: When a rescuer walks alongside a stretcher and compresses the patient’s chest, the rescuer produces low-quality chest compressions. We hypothesized that a stretcher equipped with wing boards allows for better chest compressions than the conventional method. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, crossover [...] Read more.
Background: When a rescuer walks alongside a stretcher and compresses the patient’s chest, the rescuer produces low-quality chest compressions. We hypothesized that a stretcher equipped with wing boards allows for better chest compressions than the conventional method. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, crossover study, we enrolled 45 medical workers and students. They performed hands-on chest compressions to a mannequin on a moving stretcher, while either walking (the walk method) or riding on wings attached to the stretcher (the wing method). The depths of the chest compressions were recorded. The participants’ vital signs were measured before and after the trials. Results: The average compression depth during the wing method (5.40 ± 0.50 cm) was greater than during the walk method (4.85 ± 0.80 cm; p < 0.01). The average compression rates during the two minutes were 215 ± 8 and 217 ± 5 compressions in the walk and wing methods, respectively (p = ns). Changes in blood pressure (14 ± 11 vs. 22 ± 14 mmHg), heart rate (32 ± 13 vs. 58 ± 20 bpm), and modified Borg scale (4 (interquartile range: 2–4) vs. 6 (5–7)) were significantly lower in the wing method cohort compared to the walking cohort (p < 0.01). The rescuer’s size and physique were positively correlated with the chest compression depth during the walk method; however, we found no significant correlation in the wing method. Conclusions: Chest compressions performed on the stretcher while moving using the wing method can produce high-quality chest compressions, especially for rescuers with a smaller size and physique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051583 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide outbreak of respiratory illness. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events of herbal medicines for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Twelve databases were searched through 12 May 2020. Randomized [...] Read more.
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide outbreak of respiratory illness. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events of herbal medicines for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Twelve databases were searched through 12 May 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the effects of herbal medicines for the treatment of COVID-19 were eligible. The study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used for the assessment of the risk of bias in all included RCTs. Mean differences (MDs), risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and the effect sizes of the studies were pooled. Results: Seven RCTs with a total of 855 patients were included. All included trials compared the combined therapy of herbal medicine with Western medicine to Western medicine alone. The combined therapy significantly improved the total effective rate (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.34, p < 0.001), cough symptom disappearance rate (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.89, p = 0.005), and sputum production symptom disappearance rate (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.50, p = 0.004). Beneficial effects of the combined therapy were also seen in TCM syndrome score of cough (MD −1.18, 95% CI −1.34 to −1.03, p < 0.001), fever (MD −0.62, 95% CI −0.79 to −0.45, p < 0.001), dry and sore throat (MD −0.83, 95% CI −1.45 to −0.20, p = 0.009), and fatigue (MD −0.60, 95% CI −1.04 to −0.17, p = 0.007). The overall risk of bias of the included studies was unclear. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Significant effects of the combined therapy of herbal medicine with Western medicine were found, and revealed the potential role of herbal medicine in treating COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed to further validate the effectiveness and adverse events of herbal medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Predicting the Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051582 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a commonly diagnosed condition and requires treatment with anticoagulation to reduce the risk of embolisation as well as recurrent venous thrombotic events. In many cases, cessation of anticoagulation is associated with an unacceptably high risk of recurrent VTE, [...] Read more.
Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a commonly diagnosed condition and requires treatment with anticoagulation to reduce the risk of embolisation as well as recurrent venous thrombotic events. In many cases, cessation of anticoagulation is associated with an unacceptably high risk of recurrent VTE, precipitating the use of indefinite anticoagulation. In contrast, however, continuing anticoagulation is associated with increased major bleeding events. As a consequence, it is essential to accurately predict the subgroup of patients who have the highest probability of experiencing recurrent VTE, so that treatment can be appropriately tailored to each individual. To this end, the development of clinical prediction models has aided in calculating the risk of recurrent thrombotic events; however, there are several limitations with regards to routine use for all patients with acute VTE. More recently, focus has shifted towards the utility of novel biomarkers in the understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as their application in predicting recurrent VTE. Below, we review the current strategies used to predict the development of recurrent VTE, with emphasis on the application of several promising novel biomarkers in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venous Thromboembolism — Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Diagnostic Value of MRI and Whole Body 18F-FDG PET/CT in Diagnosis of Spondylodiscitis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051581 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Spondylodiscitis is a spine infection for which a diagnosis by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the most appropriate imaging technique. The aim of this study was to compare the role of an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG [...] Read more.
Spondylodiscitis is a spine infection for which a diagnosis by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the most appropriate imaging technique. The aim of this study was to compare the role of an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and an MRI in this field. For 56 patients with suspected spondylodiscitis for whom MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were performed, we retrospectively analyzed the results. Cohen’s κ was applied to evaluate the agreement between the two techniques in all patients and in subgroups with a different number of spinal districts analyzed by the MRI. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were also evaluated. The agreements of the 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in the evaluation of the entire population, whole-spine MRI, and two-districts MRI were moderate (κ = 0.456, κ = 0.432, and κ = 0.429, respectively). In patients for whom one-district MRI was performed, 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI were both positive and completely concordant (κ = 1). We also separately evaluated patients with suspected spondylodiscitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis for whom the MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were always concordant excepting in 2 of the 18 (11%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were 100%, 60%, 97%, and 92%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. Our results confirmed the 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnostic value in the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis is comparable to that of MRI for the entire spine evaluation. This could be considered a complementary technique or a valid alternative to MRI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intracellular Water Content in Lean Mass as an Indicator of Muscle Quality in an Older Obese Population
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051580 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Background: In aged populations, muscle strength depends more on muscle quality than on muscle quantity, while all three are criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Intracellular water content (ICW) in lean mass (LM) has been proposed as an indicator of muscle quality related [...] Read more.
Background: In aged populations, muscle strength depends more on muscle quality than on muscle quantity, while all three are criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Intracellular water content (ICW) in lean mass (LM) has been proposed as an indicator of muscle quality related to muscle strength in older people. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the ICW/LM ratio, muscle strength and indicators of functional performance in obese older adults, and to assess the value of the ICW/LM ratio as an indicator of muscle quality. Methodology: Design: cross-sectional study. Population: persons aged 65–75 years with a body mass index of 30–39 kg/m2. ICW and LM were estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Hand grip, gait speed, unipedal stance test, timed up-and-go (TUG) test, Barthel score and frailty (Fried criteria) were assessed. Sarcopenia was established according to EWGSOP2 criteria. Results: Recruited were 305 subjects (66% women), mean age 68 years. The ICW/LM ratio correlated with the TUG test, gait speed and grip strength, and was also associated with sex, the unipedal stance test and frailty. Independently of age, sex and muscle mass, the ICW/LM ratio was related with gait speed, the TUG test and unipedal stance capacity. One person (0.3%) had sarcopenia defined as low muscle strength and low muscle mass, while 25 people (8.2%) had sarcopenia defined as low muscle strength and poor muscle quality (ICW/LM). With this last definition, sarcopenia was related to frailty, gait speed and the TUG test. Conclusions: ICW content in LM could be a useful muscle quality indicator for defining sarcopenia. However, more studies are required to confirm our findings for other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Isolated Orbital Floor Fractures Pre- and Post-Reconstruction with Standard Titanium Meshes and “Hybrid” Patient-Specific Implants
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051579 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the intraoperative bending of titanium mesh with the efficacy of pre-contoured “hybrid” patient-specific titanium mesh for the surgical repair of isolated orbital floor fractures. In-house 3D-printed anatomical models were used as bending [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the intraoperative bending of titanium mesh with the efficacy of pre-contoured “hybrid” patient-specific titanium mesh for the surgical repair of isolated orbital floor fractures. In-house 3D-printed anatomical models were used as bending guides. The main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative orbital volume and surgery time. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 22 patients who had undergone surgery between May 2016 and November 2018. The first twelve patients underwent conventional reconstruction with intraoperative free-hand bending of an orbital floor mesh plate. The subsequent ten patients received pre-contoured plates based on 3D-printed orbital models that were produced by mirroring the non-fractured orbit of the patient using a medical imaging software. We compared the preoperative and postoperative absolute volume difference (unfractured orbit, fractured orbit), the fracture area, the fracture collapse, and the effective surgery time between the two groups. In comparison to the intraoperative bending of titanium mesh, the application of preformed plates based on a 3D-printed orbital model resulted in a non-significant absolute volume difference in the intervention group (p = 0.276) and statistically significant volume difference in the conventional group (p = 0.002). Further, there was a significant reduction of the surgery time (57.3 ± 23.4 min versus 99.8 ± 28.9 min, p = 0.001). The results of this study suggest that the use of 3D-printed orbital models leads to a more accurate reconstruction and a time reduction during surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Head and Neck Reconstructive Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Pilot Study of Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Achievement of LDL-Cholesterol Target on Coronary Plaque Volume Changes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051578 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Background: We investigated the combined effects of physical activity (PA) and aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on the changes in coronary plaque volume (PV) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated the combined effects of physical activity (PA) and aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on the changes in coronary plaque volume (PV) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from two different prospective clinical trials that involved 101 ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed the non-culprit sites of PCI lesions using IVUS at baseline and at the follow-up. After PCI, all the patients participated in early phase II comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. Patients were divided into four groups based on whether the average daily step count, measured using a pedometer, was 7000 steps of more and whether the follow-up LDL-C level was <70 mg/dL. At the time of follow-up, we examined the correlation of changes in the PV with LDL-C and PA. Results: The baseline characteristics of the four study groups were comparable. At the follow-up, plaque regression in both the achievement group (PA and LDL-C reduction) was higher than that in the other three groups. In addition, plaque reduction independently correlated with increased PA and reduction in LDL-C level. Conclusions: Combined therapy of intensive PA and achievement of LDL-C target retarded coronary PV in patients with ACS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Analgesic Efficacy of Preemptive Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051577 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Despite rapid advancements in laparoscopic surgical devices and techniques, pain remains a significant issue. We examined the efficacy of preemptive transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients who underwent [...] Read more.
Despite rapid advancements in laparoscopic surgical devices and techniques, pain remains a significant issue. We examined the efficacy of preemptive transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery with or without TAP block; among them, 142 were allocated to the TAP or non-TAP group. We performed between-group comparisons of demographic, clinical, and anesthetic data and pain scores at a postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) and at postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic and clinical characteristics. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) were significantly lower in the TAP group at the start and end of surgery. The post-extubation bispectral index was significantly higher in the TAP group. There were no significant between-group differences in the pain scores and opioid consumption at the PACU or at postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, or in the time to pass flatus, the hospital stay length, and postoperative complications. Preemptive TAP block showed an intraoperative, but not postoperative, analgesic effect, characterized by a low mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and MAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
Open AccessReview
Return to Sport after Anatomic and Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Elderly Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051576 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the rate of return to sport in elderly patients who underwent anatomic (ATSA) and reverse (RTSA) total shoulder arthroplasty, to assess postoperative pain and functional outcomes and to give an overview of [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the rate of return to sport in elderly patients who underwent anatomic (ATSA) and reverse (RTSA) total shoulder arthroplasty, to assess postoperative pain and functional outcomes and to give an overview of postoperative rehabilitation protocols. A systematic search in Pubmed-Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was carried out to identify eligible randomized clinical trials, observational studies, or case series that evaluated the rate of return to sport after RTSA or ATSA. Six retrospective studies, five case series, and one prospective cohort study were included in this review. The overall rate of return to sport was 82% (95% CI 0.76–0.88, p < 0.01). Patients undergoing ATSA returned at a higher rate (90%) (95% CI 0.80–0.99, p < 0.01) compared to RTSA (77%) (95% CI 0.69–0.85, p < 0.01). Moreover, the results showed that patients returned to sport at the same or a higher level in 75% of cases. Swimming had the highest rate of return (84%), followed by fitness (77%), golf (77%), and tennis (69%). Thus, RTSA and ATSA are effective to guarantee a significative rate of return to sport in elderly patients. A slightly higher rate was found for the anatomic implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity in the Elderly and Orthopaedic Surgery)
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Open AccessEditorial
Science, Innovation and Education as Pillars of High-Quality Implant Dentistry: Overcoming Challenges through Innovation Dictates Trends
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051575 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The evolution of implant dentistry since the discovery of the osseointegration concept has been remarkable [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implant Dentistry—Trends, Challenges and Innovations)
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