Background: A convergent association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and periodontal disease, in particular chronic periodontitis (CP), has recently been proposed. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this association are not fully understood, though it is thought that chronic inflammation is responsible. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal disease—gingivitis and CP—and PCOS. Materials and Methods: The PICO (Participants, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes) question was as follows: “Is there an association between PCOS and CP?” A systematic review of three databases—PubMed, Embase and Scopus—was performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Original studies in human cohorts carried out in the last 10 years and including a control group were eligible for inclusion. Letters to the editor, case reports, and reviews were not considered. Results: Ten articles met all the selection criteria and provided a positive answer to the PICO question. Our review of these articles revealed an association between CP and PCOS, since periodontal parameters were altered more frequently in patients with these conditions than in healthy young women. This altered periodontal response in PCOS was associated with a proinflammatory status that seemed to increase susceptibility to periodontal disease. Conclusion: Patients with PCOS appear to be more susceptible to developing periodontal diseases than women without the pathology.
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