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Open AccessArticle

Preliminary Pilot Study of Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Achievement of LDL-Cholesterol Target on Coronary Plaque Volume Changes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
2
Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Fitness, Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo 113-8431, Japan
3
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8666, Japan
4
Faculty of Health Science, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051578
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Rehabilitation)
Background: We investigated the combined effects of physical activity (PA) and aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on the changes in coronary plaque volume (PV) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from two different prospective clinical trials that involved 101 ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed the non-culprit sites of PCI lesions using IVUS at baseline and at the follow-up. After PCI, all the patients participated in early phase II comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. Patients were divided into four groups based on whether the average daily step count, measured using a pedometer, was 7000 steps of more and whether the follow-up LDL-C level was <70 mg/dL. At the time of follow-up, we examined the correlation of changes in the PV with LDL-C and PA. Results: The baseline characteristics of the four study groups were comparable. At the follow-up, plaque regression in both the achievement group (PA and LDL-C reduction) was higher than that in the other three groups. In addition, plaque reduction independently correlated with increased PA and reduction in LDL-C level. Conclusions: Combined therapy of intensive PA and achievement of LDL-C target retarded coronary PV in patients with ACS. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; cardiac rehabilitation; coronary plaque regression; physical activity; achievement of LDL-C target; integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound acute coronary syndrome; cardiac rehabilitation; coronary plaque regression; physical activity; achievement of LDL-C target; integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound
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Nishitani-Yokoyama, M.; Miyauchi, K.; Shimada, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Ouchi, S.; Aikawa, T.; Kunimoto, M.; Yamada, M.; Honzawa, A.; Okazaki, S.; Tsujita, H.; Koba, S.; Daida, H. Preliminary Pilot Study of Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Achievement of LDL-Cholesterol Target on Coronary Plaque Volume Changes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1578.

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