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Revisiting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathology, Treatments, Challenges and Emerging Therapeutics Including Drug Leads from Natural Products

1
Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns QLD 4878, Australia
2
School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051273
Received: 14 March 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ulcerative Colitis: Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and life-long disease characterized by gastrointestinal tract inflammation. It is caused by the interplay of the host’s genetic predisposition and immune responses, and various environmental factors. Despite many treatment options, there is no cure for IBD. The increasing incidence and prevalence of IBD and lack of effective long-term treatment options have resulted in a substantial economic burden to the healthcare system worldwide. Biologics targeting inflammatory cytokines initiated a shift from symptomatic control towards objective treatment goals such as mucosal healing. There are seven monoclonal antibody therapies excluding their biosimilars approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for induction and maintenance of clinical remission in IBD. Adverse side effects associated with almost all currently available drugs, especially biologics, is the main challenge in IBD management. Natural products have significant potential as therapeutic agents with an increasing role in health care. Given that natural products display great structural diversity and are relatively easy to modify chemically, they represent ideal scaffolds upon which to generate novel therapeutics. This review focuses on the pathology, currently available treatment options for IBD and associated challenges, and the roles played by natural products in health care. It discusses these natural products within the current biodiscovery research agenda, including the applications of drug discovery techniques and the search for next-generation drugs to treat a plethora of inflammatory diseases, with a major focus on IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; small molecule drugs; biologics; anti-inflammatory; natural products drugs inflammatory bowel diseases; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; small molecule drugs; biologics; anti-inflammatory; natural products drugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeshi, K.; Ruscher, R.; Hunter, L.; Daly, N.L.; Loukas, A.; Wangchuk, P. Revisiting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathology, Treatments, Challenges and Emerging Therapeutics Including Drug Leads from Natural Products. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051273

AMA Style

Yeshi K, Ruscher R, Hunter L, Daly NL, Loukas A, Wangchuk P. Revisiting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathology, Treatments, Challenges and Emerging Therapeutics Including Drug Leads from Natural Products. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(5):1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yeshi, Karma; Ruscher, Roland; Hunter, Luke; Daly, Norelle L.; Loukas, Alex; Wangchuk, Phurpa. 2020. "Revisiting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathology, Treatments, Challenges and Emerging Therapeutics Including Drug Leads from Natural Products" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 5: 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051273

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