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J. Clin. Med., Volume 11, Issue 9 (May-1 2022) – 407 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cardiovascular development in higher vertebrates involves a number of complex processes that are temporally and spatially orchestrated: migration, proliferation, differentiation, programmed cell death, and interaction of cardiac progenitor cells of different origins. In order to better understand this complex process, it may be helpful to divide it into several regions or steps. As a matter of fact, most congenital heart diseases that we encounter in our daily practice are specific developmental abnormalities in one of these regions. Therefore, this concept is also important for understanding the etiology of congenital heart disease. View this paper
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12 pages, 276 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccination in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
by Aleksandra Kubas and Ewa Malecka-Wojciesko
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092676 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are believed to play a key role in the suppression of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trials. Therefore, concerns regarding vaccination efficacy and safety among those patients were raised. [...] Read more.
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are believed to play a key role in the suppression of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trials. Therefore, concerns regarding vaccination efficacy and safety among those patients were raised. Overall, vaccination is well tolerated in the IBD population, and different gastroenterological societies recommend vaccinating patients with IBD at the earliest opportunity to do so. Nevertheless, very little is known about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in special IBD populations such as pregnant and breastfeeding women or pediatric patients, and further research on this matter is crucial. The available data on vaccine efficacy are promising and show high seroconversion rates in IBD patients on different immune-modifying therapies. However, patients treated with high doses of systemic corticosteroids, infliximab or infliximab and immunomodulators may have a blunted response to the vaccination. The data on COVID-19 vaccination willingness among patients with IBD are conflicting. Nevertheless, vaccine effectiveness and safety are reported to be the most common reasons for hesitancy. This review examines the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines and describes vaccination willingness and the reasons for potential hesitancy among patients with IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
9 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
The Accuracy of Jaws Repositioning in Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Compared to Non-Syndromic Skeletal Class III Patients
by Benedetta Bollato, Martina Barone, Antonio Gracco, Ugo Baciliero, Giorgia Crivellin, Giovanni Bruno and Alberto De Stefani
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092675 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Background: The present study aims to compare the accuracy of jaw repositioning in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery using digital surgical planning in cleft lip and palate patients and in non-syndromic skeletal class III patients in order to investigate if orthognathic surgery achieves different [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aims to compare the accuracy of jaw repositioning in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery using digital surgical planning in cleft lip and palate patients and in non-syndromic skeletal class III patients in order to investigate if orthognathic surgery achieves different results in the first group of patients. Method: This study included 32 class III adult patients divided into 2 groups: cleft lip and palate (A, n = 16) and non-cleft (B, n = 16). For each patient, a 2D pre-surgical visual treatment objective was performed by the surgeon to predict hard tissue changes, and the surgical outcome was compared with that planned by using cephalometric measurement (ANB, SNA, SNB, Ar-Go-Me, S-Ar-Go). The statistical analysis showed equivalence between obtained and planned results for each measurement both in group A and in group B, but the difference between the planned and the obtained result was smaller in group B regarding ANB angle. Conclusions: Digital surgical planning ensures better predictability of the surgical results and higher accuracy of surgery in complex patients, such as those with cleft lip and palate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breakthroughs in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
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11 pages, 1978 KiB  
Article
90-Day Patient-Centered Outcomes after Totally Endoscopic Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Jade Claessens, Alaaddin Yilmaz, Toon Mostien, Silke Van Genechten, Marithé Claes, Loren Packlé, Maud Pierson, Jeroen Vandenbrande, Abdullah Kaya and Björn Stessel
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092674 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Over the past years, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to reduce surgical trauma after cardiac surgery. The value of patient-centered outcomes, including the quality of recovery after hospital discharge, is increasingly recognized. Identifying meaningful changes in postoperative function that might have a [...] Read more.
Over the past years, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to reduce surgical trauma after cardiac surgery. The value of patient-centered outcomes, including the quality of recovery after hospital discharge, is increasingly recognized. Identifying meaningful changes in postoperative function that might have a negative impact on patients without noticeable complications can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact on the patient’s life. In total, 209 patients were included in this trial. Of these, 193 patients underwent totally endoscopic cardiac surgery, 8 underwent cardiac surgery through a sternotomy, and 8 underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients who previously underwent cardiac surgery were excluded. Quality of life was determined through the Short Form 36 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaires before the surgery and 14, 30, and 90 days afterward. In patients who underwent totally endoscopic cardiac surgery, the quality of life improved over the three time periods. The different domains of the questionnaire evolved in a positive manner. However, 14 days postoperatively, a decline in quality of life was noted, followed by a return to baseline at 30 days and an increase at 90 days. In conclusion, totally endoscopic cardiac surgery improves the quality of life 90 days after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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9 pages, 1244 KiB  
Article
Standardization of Post-Vitrification Human Blastocyst Expansion as a Tool for Implantation Prediction
by Anat Hershko-Klement, Shaul Raviv, Luba Nemerovsky, Tal Rom, Ayelet Itskovich, Danit Bakhshi, Adrian Shulman and Yehudith Ghetler
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2673; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092673 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
The increased use of vitrified blastocysts has encouraged the development of various criteria for selecting the embryo most likely to implant. Post-thaw assessment methods and timetables vary among investigators. We investigated the predictive value of well-defined measurements of human blastocyst re-expansion, following a [...] Read more.
The increased use of vitrified blastocysts has encouraged the development of various criteria for selecting the embryo most likely to implant. Post-thaw assessment methods and timetables vary among investigators. We investigated the predictive value of well-defined measurements of human blastocyst re-expansion, following a fixed incubation period. Post-thaw measurements were taken exactly at 0 and 120 ± 15 min. Minimum and maximum cross-sectional axes were measured. Three groups were defined: Group 1: embryos that continued to shrink by 10 µm or more; group 2: embryos that ranged from −9 to +9 µm; and group 3: re-expansion of 10 µm or more. Patient and morphokinetic data were collected and integrated into the analysis. A total of 115 cases were included. The clinical pregnancy rate for group 1 was 18.9%; group 2, 27%; and group 3, 51.2% (p = 0.007). Pre-thaw morphologic grading and morphokinetic scores of the study groups did not reveal differences. p-values were 0.17 for the pre-thaw morphologic score, 0.54 for KID3, and 0.37 for KID5. The patients’ demographic and clinical data were similar. The clinical pregnancy rate correlated with the degree of thawed blastocyst re-expansion measured 2 h after incubation. This standardized measure is suggested as a tool to predict the potential of treatment success before embryo transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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12 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Naldemedine for Patients with Cancer with Opioid-Induced Constipation in Clinical Practice: A Real-World Retrospective Study
by Hiromi Nishiba, Hisao Imai, Yukiyoshi Fujita, Eriko Hiruta, Takashi Masuno, Shigeki Yamazaki, Hajime Tanaka, Teruhiko Kamiya, Masako Ito, Satoshi Takei, Masato Matsuura, Junnosuke Mogi, Koichi Minato and Kyoko Obayashi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092672 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
The efficacy and safety of naldemedine for opioid-induced constipation in patients with cancer has not been investigated in clinical practice. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study to assess the effects of naldemedine among 10 Japanese institutions between June 2017 and August 2019. We [...] Read more.
The efficacy and safety of naldemedine for opioid-induced constipation in patients with cancer has not been investigated in clinical practice. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study to assess the effects of naldemedine among 10 Japanese institutions between June 2017 and August 2019. We evaluated the number of defecations 7 days before and after naldemedine administration. A total of 149 patients (89 male) with a median age of 72 years (range, 38–96) were included. The performance status was 0–1, 2, and ≥3 in 40, 38, and 71 patients, respectively. The median opioid dose in oral morphine equivalents was 30 mg/day (range: 7.5–800 mg). We observed 98 responders and 51 non-responders. The median number of defecations increased significantly in the 7 days following naldemedine administration from three to six (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that an opioid dose <30 mg/day [odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.32; p = 0.042] was significantly correlated with the effect of naldemedine. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event (38.2%) among all grades. The efficacy and safety of naldemedine in clinical practice are comparable to those of prospective studies, suggesting that it is effective in most patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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14 pages, 1728 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Different Anthropometric Indices with Vascular Ageing in an Adult Population without Cardiovascular Disease—EVA Study
by Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Carmen Patino-Alonso, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Ines Llamas-Ramos, Luis García-Ortiz, Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos and on behalf of the EVA Investigators
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092671 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3273
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to analyse the capacity of different anthropometric indices to predict vascular ageing and this association in Spanish adult population without cardiovascular disease. A total of 501 individuals without cardiovascular disease residing in the capital of Salamanca (Spain) [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to analyse the capacity of different anthropometric indices to predict vascular ageing and this association in Spanish adult population without cardiovascular disease. A total of 501 individuals without cardiovascular disease residing in the capital of Salamanca (Spain) were selected (mean age: 55.9 years, 50.3% women), through stratified random sampling by age and sex. Starting from anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, and waist circumference, hip circumference, or biochemical parameters, we could estimate different indices that reflected general obesity, abdominal obesity, and body fat distribution. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) using a SphygmoCor® device. Vascular ageing was defined in three steps: Step 1: the participants with vascular injury were classified as early vascular ageing (EVA); Step 2: classification of the participants using the 10 and 90 percentiles of cf-PWV in the study population by age and sex in EVA, healthy vascular ageing (HVA) and normal vascular ageing (NVA); Step 3: re-classification of participants with arterial hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus included in HVA as NVA. The total prevalence of HVA and EVA was 8.4% and 21.4%, respectively. All the analysed anthropometric indices, except waist/hip ratio (WHpR), were associated with vascular ageing. Thus, as the values of the different anthropometric indices increase, the probability of being classified with NVA and as EVA increases. The capacity of the anthropometric indices to identify people with HVA showed values of area under the curve (AUC) ≥ 0.60. The capacity to identify people with EVA, in total, showed values of AUC between 0.55 and 0.60. In conclusion, as the values of the anthropometric indices increased, the probability that the subjects presented EVA increased. However, the relationship of the new anthropometric indices with vascular ageing was not stronger than that of traditional parameters. Therefore, BMI and WC can be considered to be the most useful indices in clinical practice to identify people with vascular ageing in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Obesity: From Diagnosis to Treatment)
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11 pages, 1469 KiB  
Article
Determinants in the Underdiagnosis of COPD in Spain—CONOCEPOC Study
by Myriam Calle Rubio, Juan Luis Rodríguez Hermosa, Marc Miravitlles and José Luis López-Campos
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2670; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092670 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3028
Abstract
Factors such as seeking medical attention for respiratory symptoms and health professionals ordering spirometry come into play in the underdiagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to analyze seeking medical attention and the use of spirometry in [...] Read more.
Factors such as seeking medical attention for respiratory symptoms and health professionals ordering spirometry come into play in the underdiagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to analyze seeking medical attention and the use of spirometry in individuals with chronic respiratory symptoms and to compare these results with those obtained in the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological study was conducted via phone interview in December 2020 in Spain, with a representative sample from 17 autonomous communities. The study design was identical to that of the studies carried out in 2005 and 2011 to evaluate the changes that have occurred in seeking medical attention and performing spirometry in Spain, as well as the variability between autonomous communities. Results: From 89,601 phone contacts, a total of 6534 respondents were obtained. A total of 24.8% reported having some chronic respiratory symptom, and 17.9% reported a respiratory disease. Only 51.6% of those who had some chronic respiratory symptom had seen their doctor, which was less likely among current smokers (OR: 0.599, 95% CI: 0.467–0.769, p < 0.001) and those living in a rural setting (OR: 0.797, 95% CI: 0.651–0.975, p = 0.027). A total of 68.7% of the individuals who saw a doctor reported having undergone spirometry, most frequently males (OR: 1.535, 95% CI: 2.074–1.136, p < 0.005), former smokers (OR: 1.696, 95% CI: 2.407–1.195, p < 0.003), and those seen by a pulmonologist (OR: 6.151, 95% CI: 8.869–4.265, p < 0.001). With respect to the 2005 survey, more frequent use of spirometry has been observed (42.6 vs. 68.7%), without any change in seeking medical attention for respiratory symptoms. There is a clear variability according to the autonomous community (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Many individuals with chronic respiratory symptoms do not seek medical attention and although the use of spirometry has increased in the past 15 years, it is still an important area that needs improving in the primary care setting, especially among women. Both of these factors can be determinants in the underdiagnosis of COPD and its variability between autonomous communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
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12 pages, 458 KiB  
Review
Wound-Related Complication in Growth-Friendly Spinal Surgeries for Early-Onset Scoliosis—Literature Review
by Michał Latalski, Grzegorz Starobrat, Marek Fatyga, Ireneusz Sowa, Magdalena Wójciak, Joanna Wessely-Szponder, Sławomir Dresler and Anna Danielewicz
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092669 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Background: The treatment for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is one of the most challenging for pediatric orthopedics. Surgical treatment is often necessary, and wound problems and surgical site infections (SSIs) are common, with potentially severe complications in these patients. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
Background: The treatment for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is one of the most challenging for pediatric orthopedics. Surgical treatment is often necessary, and wound problems and surgical site infections (SSIs) are common, with potentially severe complications in these patients. The aim of the study was to review current literature according to this complication. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were systematically searched for relevant articles by two independent reviewers in January 2022. Every step of the review was done according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of 3579 articles were found. Twenty four articles were included in this systematic review after applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria. EOS surgery has a varying but high rate of wound-related problems (on average, 15.5%). Conclusion: The literature concerning the definitions, collection, and interpretation of data regarding EOS wound-related complications is often difficult to interpret. This causes problems in the comparison and analysis. Additionally, this observation indicates that data on the incidence of SSI may be underestimated. Awareness of the high rate of SSI of EOS surgery is crucial, and an optimal strategy for prevention should become a priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Infections)
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9 pages, 4003 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Anxiety in the Surgical Transfer and Waiting Area: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Method Study
by Mikhail Dziadzko, Tessa Mazard, Myriam Bonhomme, Mahé Raffin, Pierre Pradat, Jean-Marc Forcione, Raphael Minjard and Frederic Aubrun
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092668 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
Severe preoperative anxiety (SPA) in surgical patients may have clinical consequences and worsen satisfaction. Some institutions have a surgical transfer and waiting area (TWA) for patient reception/dispatch to operating rooms. We measured the frequency of SPA, investigated predicting factors, and quantified the effect [...] Read more.
Severe preoperative anxiety (SPA) in surgical patients may have clinical consequences and worsen satisfaction. Some institutions have a surgical transfer and waiting area (TWA) for patient reception/dispatch to operating rooms. We measured the frequency of SPA, investigated predicting factors, and quantified the effect of the TWA stay on anxiety levels in a single centre cross-sectional study. Preoperative anxiety was assessed using three scales. Patients’ perceptions/suggestions were studied by a psychoanalyst. A total of 933 adult patients, undergoing elective procedures, were interviewed. SPA was detected in 24.7%, non-modified by anxiolytic premedication. Patients’ median stay was 9 min, and anxiety level was decreasing in those with SPA. In multivariable analysis, female sex, inpatient settings, and pain before the procedure were predictive for SPA. Previous operating room experience, and a supine arrival position were associated with less SPA. Patients complained about a lack of information, and an uncomfortable environment in the waiting area. To reduce anxiety, they mainly asked for warm blankets/music (physical/sound barriers), and extra sedative agents. The holding area may be a place to measure patients’ anxiety by paramedical staff, and to apply simple non-pharmacological interventions. The psychological concept of psychical envelopes may be useful for the development and investigation of such interventions in improving patients’ experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivery of Anesthesia: Pre-Operative and Post-Operative)
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8 pages, 1359 KiB  
Article
Tricuspid Structural Valve Deterioration Treated with a Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Implantation: A Single-Center Prospective Registry
by Nili Schamroth Pravda, Hana Vaknin Assa, Amos Levi, Guy Witberg, Yaron Shapira, Mordechai Vaturi, Katia Orvin, Yeela Talmor Barkan, Ashraf Hamdan, Raffael Mishaev, Ram Sharoni, Leor Perl, Alexander Sagie, Ran Kornowski and Pablo Codner
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092667 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
The valve-in-valve (ViV) technique is an emerging alternative for the treatment of bioprosthetic structural valve deterioration (SVD) in the tricuspid position. We report on the outcomes of patients treated by a transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve (TT-ViV) implantation for symptomatic SVD in the tricuspid position [...] Read more.
The valve-in-valve (ViV) technique is an emerging alternative for the treatment of bioprosthetic structural valve deterioration (SVD) in the tricuspid position. We report on the outcomes of patients treated by a transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve (TT-ViV) implantation for symptomatic SVD in the tricuspid position during the years 2010–2019 at our center. Three main outcomes were examined during the follow-up period: TT-ViV hemodynamic data per echocardiography, mortality and NYHA functional class. Our cohort consisted of 12 patients with a mean age 65.4 ± 11.9 years, 83.3% male. The mean time from initial valve intervention to TT-ViV was 17.4 ± 8.7 years. The indications for TT-ViV were varied (41.7% for predominant regurgitation, 33.3% for predominant stenosis and 25.0% with a mixed pathology). All patients were treated with a balloon-expandable device. The mean follow-up was 3.4 ± 1.3 years. Tricuspid regurgitation was ≥ moderate in 57.2% of patients prior to the procedure and this decreased to 0% following the procedure. The mean transtricuspid valve gradients mildly decreased from the mean pre-procedural values of 9.0 mmHg to 7.0 mmHg at one month following the procedure (p = 0.36). Mortality at one year was 8.0% (95% CI 0–23). At the baseline, 4 patients (33.3%) were in NYHA functional class III/IV; this was reduced to 2 patients (18.2%) at the one year follow-up and both were in NYHA III. The TT-ViV procedure offered a safe, feasible and less invasive treatment option for patients with SVD in our detailed cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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14 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Triglyceride-Glucose Index for Early Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis of 121,975 Individuals
by Azizullah Beran, Hazem Ayesh, Mohammed Mhanna, Waseem Wahood, Sami Ghazaleh, Ziad Abuhelwa, Wasef Sayeh, Nameer Aladamat, Rami Musallam, Reem Matar, Saif-Eddin Malhas and Ragheb Assaly
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092666 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index has recently gained popularity for the assessment of IR and NAFLD due to its ease of acquisition and calculation. Therefore, we conducted this [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index has recently gained popularity for the assessment of IR and NAFLD due to its ease of acquisition and calculation. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the existing studies in the literature and provide a quantitative assessment of the significance of the TyG index in predicting the incidence of NAFLD. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases from inception until 25 March 2022 was conducted. Published observational studies that evaluated the association between TyG index and NAFLD among the adult population and reported the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) for this association after multivariate analysis were included. The random-effects model was used as the primary statistical analysis model in the estimation of pooled ORs and HRs with the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 17 observational studies, including 121,975 participants, were included. For studies analyzing the TyG index as a categorical variable, both pooled OR (6.00, CI 4.12–8.74) and HR (1.70, CI 1.28–2.27) were significant for the association between TyG index and incident NAFLD. For studies analyzing the TyG index as a continuous variable, pooled OR (2.25, CI 1.66–3.04) showed similar results. Consistent results were obtained in subgroup analyses according to the study design, sample size, ethnicity, and diabetic status. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrates that a higher TyG index is associated with higher odds of NAFLD. TyG index may serve as an independent predictive tool to screen patients at high risk of NAFLD in clinical practice, especially in primary care settings. Patients with a high TyG index should be referred for a liver ultrasound and start intense lifestyle modifications. However, further large-scale prospective cohort studies are necessary to validate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research Advances in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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12 pages, 1329 KiB  
Article
Marginal versus Standard Donors in Heart Transplantation: Proper Selection Means Heart Transplant Benefit
by Olimpia Bifulco, Tomaso Bottio, Raphael Caraffa, Massimiliano Carrozzini, Alvise Guariento, Jonida Bejko, Marny Fedrigo, Chiara Castellani, Giuseppe Toscano, Giulia Lorenzoni, Vincenzo Tarzia, Dario Gregori, Massimo Cardillo, Francesca Puoti, Giuseppe Feltrin, Annalisa Angelini and Gino Gerosa
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092665 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Background: In this study, we assessed the mid-term outcomes of patients who received a heart donation from a marginal donor (MD), and compared them with those who received an organ from a standard donor (SD). Methods: All patients who underwent HTx between January [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, we assessed the mid-term outcomes of patients who received a heart donation from a marginal donor (MD), and compared them with those who received an organ from a standard donor (SD). Methods: All patients who underwent HTx between January 2012 and December 2020 were enrolled at a single institution. The primary endpoints were early and long-term survival of MD recipients. Risk factors for primary graft failure (PGF) and mortality in MD recipients were also analyzed. The secondary endpoint was the comparison of survival of MD versus SD recipients. Results: In total, 238 patients underwent HTx, 64 (26.9%) of whom received an organ from an MD. Hospital mortality in the MD recipient cohort was 23%, with an estimated 1 and 5-year survival of 70% (59.2–82.7) and 68.1% (57.1–81), respectively. A multivariate analysis in MD recipients showed that decreased renal function and increased inotropic support of recipients were associated with higher mortality (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03). Cold ischemic time (p = 0.03) and increased donor inotropic support (p = 0.04) were independent risk factors for PGF. Overall survival was higher in SD than MD (85% vs. 68% at 5 years, log-rank = 0.008). However, risk-adjusted mortality (p = 0.2) and 5-year conditional survival (log-rank = 0.6) were comparable. Conclusions: Selected MDs are a valuable resource for expanding the cardiac donor pool, showing promising results. The use of MDs after prolonged ischemic times, increased inotropic support of the MD or the recipient and decreased renal function are associated with worse outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgical Treatment of End Stage Heart Failure)
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13 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Sagittal Condylar Inclination and Transversal Condylar Inclination in Different Skeletal Classes
by Anahit Lewandowska, Katarzyna Mańka-Malara and Jolanta Kostrzewa-Janicka
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092664 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Background: During prosthodontic treatment, the averaged values of the transversal condylar inclination (TCI) and the sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) are used for articulator settings. This study evaluated different parameters of measurable mandibular movements according to skeletal classes. Methods: Seventy-five patients (mean age 30.8 [...] Read more.
Background: During prosthodontic treatment, the averaged values of the transversal condylar inclination (TCI) and the sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) are used for articulator settings. This study evaluated different parameters of measurable mandibular movements according to skeletal classes. Methods: Seventy-five patients (mean age 30.8 ± 5.49) had a condylography using the Cadiax Compact device (Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg, Austria) and cephalometric analysis performed. Statistical analysis was performed using R statistical software. Results: There was no statistical evidence to state that the value of SCI angle is different in I compared to II Skeletal Class. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing the I vs. III and II vs. III Skeletal Class. The lowest mean SCI angle values were found in subjects with Skeletal Class III. There were statistically significant differences in left-sided TCI between Class I and II. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between ANB angle value and SCI value. Conclusions: Due to the wide individual variation in SCI and TCI values, it is advisable to use individual measurable parameters of mandibular movements during prosthetic reconstructions. The statistically significant relationship between SCI and ANB angle can be used to individualize the articulating parameters, especially in significant skeletal disproportions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine)
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12 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Gamma Variants among Symptomatic Pregnant Women: A Two-Center Retrospective Cohort Study between France and Brazil
by Elie Mosnino, Lisandra S. Bernardes, Jeremie Mattern, Bruna Hipólito Micheletti, Amarilis Aparecida de Castro Maldonado, Christelle Vauloup-Fellous, Florence Doucet-Populaire, Daniele De Luca, Alexandra Benachi and Alexandre J. Vivanti
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092663 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are a major source of concern, especially for pregnant women and in the perinatal context. The primary aim of this study was to compare the severity of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women depending on strain predominance between wild-type Alpha [...] Read more.
New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are a major source of concern, especially for pregnant women and in the perinatal context. The primary aim of this study was to compare the severity of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women depending on strain predominance between wild-type Alpha and Gamma variants. The secondary aim was to study the impact of these strains on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. We conducted a two-center international retrospective cohort study, which included two type III maternity hospitals, one in France and one in Brazil, comparing the first period corresponding to the wild-type strain and the second period corresponding to the predominance of the Alpha variant in France and the Gamma variant in Brazil. We included 151 pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR. The rate of severe-to-critical infection, according to the WHO definition, was seven-fold higher in patients infected during the “variant period” than in patients infected during the “wild-type period” (aOR = 7.07, 95CI [2.50–21.6], p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences concerning composite obstetrical and neonatal outcomes between the different periods. While analyzing each variant separately, it was found that, in France, the risk of developing a severe-to-critical infection was three times greater during the Alpha period than during the wild-type period (OR = 3.25, 95CI [0.70–15.6], p = 0.13) and, in Brazil, the risk was twelve times greater during the Gamma period than during the wild-type period (OR = 11.8, 95CI [2.46–72.3], p = 0.003). The Alpha and Gamma variants of SARS-CoV-2 seem to be more dangerous in the obstetrical context. With the rapid emergence of new variants, it is necessary to accelerate vaccination to protect women and newborn children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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10 pages, 438 KiB  
Review
Use of Hyperoncotic Human Albumin Solution in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Revisited—A Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis
by Christian J. Wiedermann
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092662 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5662
Abstract
A significant proportion of patients with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have hypoalbuminemia and require fluid resuscitation. Intravenous fluids can have both favorable and unfavorable consequences because of the risk of hyperhydration and hypo- or hyperosmolar conditions, which may affect the outcome [...] Read more.
A significant proportion of patients with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have hypoalbuminemia and require fluid resuscitation. Intravenous fluids can have both favorable and unfavorable consequences because of the risk of hyperhydration and hypo- or hyperosmolar conditions, which may affect the outcome of a TBI. Fluid resuscitation with human albumin solution (HAS) corrects low serum albumin levels and aids in preserving euvolemia in non-brain-injured intensive care units and in perioperative patients. However, the use of HAS for TBI remains controversial. In patients with TBI, the infusion of hypooncotic (4%) HAS was associated with adverse outcomes. The side effects of 4% HAS and the safety and efficacy of hyperoncotic (20–25%) HAS used in the Lund concept of TBI treatment need further investigation. A nonsystematic review, including a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials, was performed to evaluate hyperoncotic HAS in TBI treatment. For the meta-analysis, the MEDLINE and EMBASE Library databases, as well as journal contents and reference lists, were searched for pertinent articles up to March 2021. Four controlled clinical studies involving 320 patients were included. The first was a randomized trial. Among 165 patients treated with hyperoncotic HAS, according to the Lund concept, 24 (14.5%) died vs. 59 out of 155 control patients (38.1%). A Lund concept intervention using hyperoncotic HAS was associated with a significantly reduced mortality (p = 0.002). Evidence of the beneficial effects of fluid management with hyperoncotic HAS on mortality in patients with TBI is at a high risk of bias. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required, which could lead to changes in clinical practice recommendations for fluid management in patients with TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Care Update: Innovations in Diagnostic & Treatment)
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10 pages, 3620 KiB  
Article
Coracoid Impingement and Morphology Is Associated with Fatty Infiltration and Rotator Cuff Tears
by Saadiq F. El-Amin III, Nicola Maffulli, Matthew C. Mai, Hugo C. Rodriguez, Victoria Jaso, Dylan Cannon and Ashim Gupta
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092661 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
This study describes measurements between the coracoid, glenoid, and humerus; characterizes coracoid shape, rotator cuff fatty infiltration, and quantitatively evaluates coracoid impingement and its association with anterosuperior rotator cuff tears (ASCT). 193 shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans demonstrating: rotator cuff tear; isolated [...] Read more.
This study describes measurements between the coracoid, glenoid, and humerus; characterizes coracoid shape, rotator cuff fatty infiltration, and quantitatively evaluates coracoid impingement and its association with anterosuperior rotator cuff tears (ASCT). 193 shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans demonstrating: rotator cuff tear; isolated tear of the supraspinatus; tear of supraspinatus and subscapularis, were included. MRI measurements included coracohumeral interval (CHI), coracoid overlap (CO), coracoid recess (CR), coracoglenoid angle (CGA), and coracoglenoid interval (CGI) on axial slices; acromiohumeral interval (AHI) on coronal slices; and coracohumeral interval (CHI) and coracoacromial ligament (CAL) thickness on sagittal slices. The coracoid shape was classified as flat, curved, or hooked. An Independent T-test was used to compare the MRI measurements and the different rotator cuff tear groups. In 79% of the patients with ASCT tears, the coracoid was curved. Axial CHI, CGA, sagittal CHI, and AHI were decreased in ASCT when compared to no tears and isolated supraspinatus tears (p < 0.05). CO was increased in ASCT compared to no tears and isolated supraspinatus tears (p < 0.05). Patients with an ASCT had a significantly increased subscapularis and supraspinatus Goutallier fatty infiltration score when compared to no tear and isolated supraspinatus tears (p < 0.05). These quantitative measurements may be useful in identifying patients at risk for ASCT. Level of Evidence III. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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17 pages, 2714 KiB  
Review
Lifestyle Modification and Atrial Fibrillation: Critical Care for Successful Ablation
by John L. Fitzgerald, Melissa E. Middeldorp, Celine Gallagher and Prashanthan Sanders
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092660 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4663
Abstract
Management of atrial fibrillation (AF) requires a comprehensive approach due to the limited success of medical or procedural approaches in isolation. Multiple modifiable risk factors contribute to the development and progression of the underlying substrate, with a heightened risk of progression evident with [...] Read more.
Management of atrial fibrillation (AF) requires a comprehensive approach due to the limited success of medical or procedural approaches in isolation. Multiple modifiable risk factors contribute to the development and progression of the underlying substrate, with a heightened risk of progression evident with inadequate risk factor management. With increased mortality, stroke, heart failure and healthcare utilisation linked to AF, international guidelines now strongly support risk factor modification as a critical pillar of AF care due to evidence demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. Effective lifestyle management is key to arrest and reverse the progression of AF, in addition to increasing the likelihood of freedom from arrhythmia following catheter ablation. Full article
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10 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Survival Impact of Residual Cancer Cells in Intraoperative Peritoneal Washes following Radical Hysterectomy for Cervical Cancer
by Jong Mi Kim, Gun Oh Chong, Nora Jee-Young Park, Yeong Eun Choi, Juhun Lee, Yoon Hee Lee, Dae Gy Hong and Ji Young Park
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092659 - 9 May 2022
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Objective: Residual cancer cells (RCCs) contribute to cancer recurrence either because of tumor spillage or undetectable pre-existing micrometastatic tumor clones. We hypothesized that the pathologic evaluation of intraoperative peritoneal washes may reveal RCCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival [...] Read more.
Objective: Residual cancer cells (RCCs) contribute to cancer recurrence either because of tumor spillage or undetectable pre-existing micrometastatic tumor clones. We hypothesized that the pathologic evaluation of intraoperative peritoneal washes may reveal RCCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival impact of RCCs identified in intraoperative peritoneal washes and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters following radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 229 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy were included. The intraoperative peritoneal washes after surgery were filtered through a strainer and the presence of tumor cells in the residual aspirate was determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinicopathological parameters were performed to identify predictors of recurrence. Results: RCCs in intraoperative peritoneal washes were identified in 19 patients (8.3%). Multivariate analysis revealed that deep stromal invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 13.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81–98.27; p = 0.0111), lymph node metastasis (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01–3.99; p = 0.0482), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.89–4.61; p = 0.0139) were associated with tumor recurrence. However, the presence of RCCs was not associated with tumor recurrence (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 0.74–9.11; p = 0.1352). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that RCCs were associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05–0.99; p = 0.0488) and large tumor size (OR, 4.16; 95% CI, 0.77–22.48; p = 0.0981). Conclusions: Although the presence of RCCs in intraoperative peritoneal washes do not significantly impact survival outcomes, there was a tendency of inferior survival outcomes in patients with RCCs. RCCs were associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and large tumor size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in the Treatment of Gynecological Cancers)
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8 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Duodenal Gastric Metaplasia and Duodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: More Than a Simple Coincidence?
by Sara Massironi, Roberta Elisa Rossi, Anna Caterina Milanetto, Valentina Andreasi, Davide Campana, Gennaro Nappo, Stefano Partelli, Camilla Gallo, Miki Scaravaglio, Alessandro Zerbi, Francesco Panzuto, Claudio Pasquali, Massimo Falconi, Pietro Invernizzi and on behalf of ItaNet (Italian Association for Neuroendocrine Tumours) Study Group
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092658 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
Background: Duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) is considered a precancerous lesion. No data are available regarding its possible role as a risk factor for duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms (dNENs). Aims: To assess the prevalence of DGM in a cohort of dNENs. Methods: Subgroup analysis of [...] Read more.
Background: Duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) is considered a precancerous lesion. No data are available regarding its possible role as a risk factor for duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms (dNENs). Aims: To assess the prevalence of DGM in a cohort of dNENs. Methods: Subgroup analysis of a retrospective study including dNEN patients who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2019 and were observed at eight Italian tertiary referral centers. Results: 109 dNEN patients were evaluated. Signs of DGM associated with the presence of dNEN were reported in 14 patients (12.8%). Among these patients, nine (64.4%) had a dNEN of the superior part of the duodenum, one (7.1%) a periampullary lesion, three (21.4%) a dNEN located in the second portion of the duodenum, with a different localization distribution compared to patients without DGM (p = 0.0332). Ten were G1, three G2, and in one patient the Ki67 was not available. In the group with DGM, six patients (35.7%) were classified at stage I, five (28.6%) at stage II, three (21.4%) at stage III, and no one at stage IV. In the group without DGM, 20 patients (31%) were at stage I, 15 (15%) at stage II, 42 (44%) at stage III, and 19 (20%) at stage IV (p = 0.0236). At the end of the study, three patients died because of disease progression. Conclusions: our findings might suggest that DGM could represent a feature associated with the occurrence of dNEN, especially for forms of the superior part of the duodenum, which should be kept in mind in the endoscopic follow up of patients with DGM. Interestingly, dNEN inside DGM showed a more favorable staging, with no patients in stage IV. The actual relationship and the clinical relevance of this possible association require further clarification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Tumors: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Therapy)
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10 pages, 8871 KiB  
Article
Laparoscopic Fluorescence Guided Detection of Uterine Niche—The Next Step in Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment
by Harald Krentel, Lisa-Kathrin Lauterbach, Georgios Mavrogiannis and Rudy Leon De Wilde
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092657 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5590
Abstract
(1) Background: Uterine niche is a frequent condition in patients with a history of cesarean section. Although the relation to uterotomy seems to be clear, the exact pathogenesis is not fully understood. Uterine niche can easily be diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. It can [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Uterine niche is a frequent condition in patients with a history of cesarean section. Although the relation to uterotomy seems to be clear, the exact pathogenesis is not fully understood. Uterine niche can easily be diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. It can be related to symptoms like dysmenorrhea, bleeding disorders, dysuria and dyspareunia. Uterine niche can be the cause of scar pregnancy, a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which can be related to severe complications; (2) Methods: We present a series of nine cases with different uterine niche related findings and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options reviewing the current literature and introduce a novel intrauterine ICG use for laparoscopic niche detection in one case; (3) Results: Most of uterine niche related symptoms and complications can be treated by a minimally invasive approach. Laparoscopic fluorescence guided niche detection is feasible; (4) Conclusions: Hysteroscopic and laparoscopic techniques allow the treatment of uterine niche related symptoms and complications. Intrauterine ICG application during fluorescence guided laparoscopy may allow easy niche detection. Full article
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16 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenia and Myosteatosis Are Associated with Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio but Not Glasgow Prognostic Score in Colorectal Cancer Patients
by Raila Aro, Sanna Meriläinen, Päivi Sirniö, Juha P. Väyrynen, Vesa-Matti Pohjanen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Tero T. Rautio, Elisa Mäkäräinen, Reetta Häivälä, Kai Klintrup, Markus J. Mäkinen, Juha Saarnio and Anne Tuomisto
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092656 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Cancer patients commonly present sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and systemic inflammation, which are risk factors of poor survival. In this study, sarcopenia and myosteatosis were defined from preoperative body computed tomography scans of 222 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and analyzed in relation to tumor and [...] Read more.
Cancer patients commonly present sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and systemic inflammation, which are risk factors of poor survival. In this study, sarcopenia and myosteatosis were defined from preoperative body computed tomography scans of 222 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and analyzed in relation to tumor and patient characteristics, markers of systemic inflammation (modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and 13 cytokines, and survival. Of the systemic inflammation markers, sarcopenia and/or myosteatosis associated with elevated NLR (p = 0.005) and low albumin levels (≤35 g/L) (p = 0.018), but not with mGPS or serum cytokine levels. In addition, myosteatosis was associated with a proximal tumor location (p = 0.039), serrated tumor subtype (p < 0.001), and severe comorbidities (p = 0.004). Multivariable analyses revealed that severe comorbidities and serrated histology were independent predictors of myosteatosis, and older age and elevated NLR were independent indicators of sarcopenia. Myosteatosis associated with shorter overall survival in univariable analysis (HR 1.959, 95% CI 1.24–3.10, p = 0.004) but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.075). We conclude that sarcopenia and myosteatosis were associated with inflammatory marker NLR, but not with mGPS. Moreover, patients with serrated CRC may have an increased risk of myosteatosis. Myosteatosis or sarcopenia were not independent predictors of patient survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia and Gastrointestinal Disease)
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13 pages, 835 KiB  
Article
Are Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Useful as Markers in Diagnostic Management of Children with Newly Diagnosed Ulcerative Colitis?
by Aleksandra Czajkowska, Katarzyna Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Anna Pryczynicz, Dariusz Lebensztejn and Urszula Daniluk
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092655 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Matrix Metaloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metaloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), enzymes involved in tissue remodelling, have been previously reported to be overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of patients with Ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to determine the relation of MMP-9 [...] Read more.
Matrix Metaloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metaloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), enzymes involved in tissue remodelling, have been previously reported to be overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of patients with Ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to determine the relation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with UC phenotypes, the disease activity index and routinely tested inflammatory markers in newly diagnosed paediatric patients. The study group comprised 35 children diagnosed with UC and 20 control groups. Serum and faecal concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were estimated using enzyme-like immunosorbent assay kits and correlated to the disease activity index (Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index, PUCAI), UC phenotype (Paris Classification), inflammatory markers and endoscopic score (Mayo score). Children with UC presented with significantly higher serum and faecal concentrations of studied markers compared to the control group. Both serums, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, were higher in children with more extended and severe lesions in the colon. Furthermore, serum MMP-9 correlated with the Mayo score, Paris classification and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Serum TIMP-1 showed correlation with PUCAI, Paris Classification, CRP levels and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum and faecal levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 are useful in discriminating UC patients and non-invasive assessments of disease phenotypes. It seemed that simultaneous measurement of these proteins in combination with other common markers of inflammation could be applied in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pediatrics)
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17 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Impact of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the Incidence and Outcomes of COVID-19 Needing Hospital Admission According to Sex: Retrospective Cohort Study Using Hospital Discharge Data in Spain, Year 2020
by Jose M. de Miguel-Yanes, Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia, Javier de Miguel-Diez, Valentin Hernández-Barrera, David Carabantes-Alarcon, Jose J. Zamorano-Leon, Ricardo Omaña-Palanco and Ana Lopez-de-Andres
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092654 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
(1) Background: To analyze incidence and in-hospital mortality (IHM) of COVID-19 needing hospital admission in Spain (2020) in patients with T2DM. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Using the Spanish Register of Specialized Care-Basic Minimum Database we estimated age-adjusted incidence rates [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To analyze incidence and in-hospital mortality (IHM) of COVID-19 needing hospital admission in Spain (2020) in patients with T2DM. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Using the Spanish Register of Specialized Care-Basic Minimum Database we estimated age-adjusted incidence rates (IR). (3) Results: We included 203,488 patients (56.77% men), of whom 45,620 (22.41%) had T2DM. Age-adjusted IRs/1000 for men with and without T2DM was 12.90 and 5.87, respectively (IRR 2.20; 95% CI 2.18–2.22; p < 0.001), and for women with and without T2DM was 9.23 and 4.27, respectively (IRR 2.16; 95% CI 2.13–2.19; p < 0.001). Crude IHM was 23.86% in people with T2DM, and 15.94% in non-T2DM people (p < 0.001). After matching, intensive-care admission (7.37% vs. 6.15%; p < 0.001) and IHM (23.37% vs. 20.41%; p < 0.001) remained higher in women with T2DM. After matching, IHM among T2DM men was 1.5% higher than among non-T2DM men (24.27% vs. 22.72%; p < 0.001). Men with T2DM had a 34% higher IHM than women with T2DM. Prevalent T2DM increased IHM among women (1.09; 95% 1.03–1.16) and men (1.05; 95% 1.01–1.10). (4) Conclusions: Incidence rates of COVID-19 needing hospital admission were higher in men vs. women, and for people with T2DM vs. non-T2DM. Men had higher IHM beside T2DM status. Prevalent T2DM was associated with higher IHM for both sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment)
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12 pages, 2042 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors on Renal Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Wan-Chia Hsu, Chun-Sheng Lin, Jung-Fu Chen and Chih-Min Chang
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092653 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Past studies have confirmed that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists can improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to evaluate whether dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which elevate GLP-1 levels, also have similar effects on [...] Read more.
Past studies have confirmed that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists can improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to evaluate whether dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which elevate GLP-1 levels, also have similar effects on renal function. In this retrospective study, diabetic patients treated with anti-hyperglycemic agents between 2008 and 2011 were selected. We compared the time to first occurrence of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ≥30% from the baseline between patients treated with DPP-4 inhibitors and those treated with other anti-hyperglycemic drugs. A total of 2202 patients were enrolled. The incidence of eGFR decline ≥30% from the baseline was 10.08% in the DPP-4 inhibitor group and 16.17% in the non-DPP-4 inhibitor group (p < 0.001). The mean time to event was significantly longer in patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitors (2.84 ± 1.60 vs. 1.96 ± 1.30 years, p < 0.001). Patients who were younger than 65 years old, had better baseline eGFR, did not have preexisting hyperlipidemia, or who were untreated with concomitant statin showed greater reductions in the risk of renal function decline (all p for interaction < 0.05). Conclusively, DPP-4 inhibitors used alone or in combination with other glucose-lowering agents were correlated with lower risks of eGFR decline in patients with type 2 DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
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12 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
High Levels of Thromboxane (TX) Are Associated with the Sex-Dependent Non-Dipping Phenomenon in Ischemic Stroke Patients
by Arleta Drozd, Małgorzata Szczuko, Andrzej Bohatyrewicz, Alina Jurewicz and Dariusz Kotlęga
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092652 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Background: Inflammation and high blood pressure (nondipping profile) during the rest/sleep period have been associated with an effect on the incidence of cardiovascular disorders and a more severe course in the ischemic cerebrovascular event. There are no available data on the relationship between [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammation and high blood pressure (nondipping profile) during the rest/sleep period have been associated with an effect on the incidence of cardiovascular disorders and a more severe course in the ischemic cerebrovascular event. There are no available data on the relationship between dipping status and the pro-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA); therefore, we undertook a study to investigate the influence of thromboxane on the incidence of nondipping among patients after stroke. Methods: Sixty-two patients with ischemic stroke (including 34 women and 28 men) were tested for the involvement of thromboxane in the nondipping phenomenon. Subjects were analyzed for the presence of the physiological phenomenon of dipping (DIP group) versus its absence—nondipping (NDIP group). Thromboxane (TX) measurements were performed using liquid chromatography, and blood pressure was measured 24 h a day in all subjects. Results: The analysis of the thromboxane level in the plasma of patients after ischemic stroke showed significant differences in terms of sex (p = 0.0004). Among women in both groups, the concentration of TX was high, while similar levels were observed in the group of men from the NDIP group. However, when comparing men in the DIP and NDIP groups, a lower TX level was noticeable in the DIP group. Conclusions: A higher level of TX may be associated with a disturbance of the physiological phenomenon of DIP in men and women. However, in our opinion, TX is not the main determinant of the DIP phenomenon and, at the same time, other pro-inflammatory factors may also be involved in the occurrence of this singularity. Full article
11 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Infective Endocarditis in Diabetic Patients: A Different Profile with Prognostic Consequences
by María Isabel Biezma, Patricia Muñoz, Sofía De la Villa, Mª Carmen Fariñas-Álvarez, Francisco Arnáiz de las Revillas, Encarnación Gutierrez-Carretero, Arístides De Alarcón, Raquel Rodríguez-García, Jaume Llopis, Miguel Ángel Goenaga, Andrea Gutierrez-Villanueva, Antonio Plata, Laura Vidal, Manuel Martínez-Sellés and on behalf of GAMES
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092651 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Background. Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a severe condition. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with a poor prognosis in other settings. Our aim was to describe the profile and prognosis of IE with and without DM and to analyze the prognostic relevance of [...] Read more.
Background. Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a severe condition. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with a poor prognosis in other settings. Our aim was to describe the profile and prognosis of IE with and without DM and to analyze the prognostic relevance of DM-related organ damage. Methods. Retrospective analysis of the Spanish IE Registry (2008–2020). Results. The cohort comprises 5590 IE patients with a mean age of 65.0 ± 15.5 years; 3764 (67.3%) were male. DM was found in 1625 patients (29.1%) and 515 presented DM-related organ damage. DM prevalence during the first half of the study period was 27.6% vs. 30.6% in the last half, p = 0.015. Patients with DM presented higher in-hospital mortality than those without DM (521 [32.1%] vs. 924 [23.3%], p < 0.001) and higher one-year mortality (640 [39.4%] vs. 1131 [28.5%], p < 0.001). Among DM patients, organ damage was associated with higher in-hospital (200 [38.8%] vs. 321 [28.9%], p < 0.001) and one-year mortality (247 [48.0%] vs. 393 [35.4%], p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed an independent association of DM with in-hospital (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.55, p < 0.001) and one-year mortality (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.21–1.59, p < 0.001). Among DM patients, organ damage was independently associated with higher in-hospital (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.06–1.76, p = 0.015) and one-year mortality (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26–2.01, p < 0.001) Conclusions. The prevalence of DM among patients with IE is increasing and is already above 30%. DM is independently associated with a poor prognosis, particularly in the case of DM with organ damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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12 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Target Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Secondary Prevention for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Korean Nationwide Cohort Study
by Ju Hyeon Kim, Jung-Joon Cha, Subin Lim, Jungseok An, Mi-Na Kim, Soon Jun Hong, Hyung Joon Joo, Jae Hyoung Park, Cheol Woong Yu, Do-Sun Lim, Kyeongmin Byeon, Sang-Wook Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Kwang Soo Cha, Jei Keon Chae, Youngkeun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong and Tae Hoon Ahn
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092650 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Although lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the cornerstone of secondary prevention, the attainment of recommended LDL-C goals remains suboptimal in real-world practice. We sought to investigate recurrent adverse events in post-MI patients. From the Korea Acute [...] Read more.
Although lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the cornerstone of secondary prevention, the attainment of recommended LDL-C goals remains suboptimal in real-world practice. We sought to investigate recurrent adverse events in post-MI patients. From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction-National Institutes of Health registry, a total of 5049 patients with both measurements of plasma LDL-C levels at index admission and at the one-year follow-up visit were identified. Patients who achieved an LDL-C reduction ≥ 50% from the index MI and an LDL-C level ≤ 70 mg/dL at follow-up were classified as target LDL-C achievers. The primary endpoint was a two-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), including cardiovascular mortality, recurrent MI, and ischemic stroke. Among the 5049 patients, 1114 (22.1%) patients achieved the target LDL-C level. During a median follow-up of 2.1 years, target LDL-C achievers showed a significantly lower incidence (2.2% vs. 3.5%, log-rank p = 0.022) and a reduced adjusted hazard of MACCE (0.63; p = 0.041). In patients with acute MI, achieving a target LDL-C level was associated with a lower incidence and a reduced hazard of recurrent clinical events. These results highlight the need to improve current practices for managing LDL-C levels in real-world settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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4 pages, 213 KiB  
Brief Report
Humoral and T-Cell Response before and after a Fourth BNT162b2 Vaccine Dose in Adults ≥60 Years
by Erez Bar-Haim, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Amos Stemmer, Hila Cohen, Uri Elia, Asaf Ness, Muhammad Awwad, Nassem Ghantous, Neta Moskovits, Shahar Rotem and Salomon M. Stemmer
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092649 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
Both humoral and cellular anamnestic responses are significant for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, the responses in elderly people before and after a fourth vaccine dose of BNT162b2 were compared to those of individuals immunized with three vaccine doses. Although [...] Read more.
Both humoral and cellular anamnestic responses are significant for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, the responses in elderly people before and after a fourth vaccine dose of BNT162b2 were compared to those of individuals immunized with three vaccine doses. Although a boost effect was observed, the high response following the third administration questions the necessity of an early fourth boost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Clinical Advances and Challenges)
11 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Early and Long-Term Outcomes after Propofol-and Sevoflurane-Based Anesthesia in Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Retrospective Study
by Seungwon Lee, Dae Hee Pyo, Woo Seog Sim, Woo Young Lee and MiHye Park
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092648 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Background: Propofol is considered to protect against immunosuppression and has lower inflammatory responses in the perioperative period than volatile agents. We evaluated whether the anesthetic agent is associated with cancer outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2616 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery under [...] Read more.
Background: Propofol is considered to protect against immunosuppression and has lower inflammatory responses in the perioperative period than volatile agents. We evaluated whether the anesthetic agent is associated with cancer outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2616 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery under general anesthesia between 2016 and 2018 (follow-up closure: July 2021) at a single institution. Patients received propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia or sevoflurane-based inhalational anesthesia. After propensity score matching, the postoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was compared as primary outcome, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: After 1:2 propensity matching, 717 patients were given propofol anesthesia and 1410 patients were given sevoflurane anesthesia. In the matched cohort, preoperative NLR was not significantly different between propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia (mean (95% CI)2.3 (1.8 to 2.8) and 2.2 (1.9 to 3.2); p = 0.72). NLR was significantly lower in propofol anesthesia at postoperative day two and five (mean difference (95% CI) 0.71 (0.43 to 0.98); p = 0.000 and 0.52 (0.30 to 0.74); p = 0.000). Urinary retention showed a higher incidence after propofol anesthesia (4.9% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.008). Other postoperative complications and overall/recurrence-free survival were not different in the two groups. Discussion: Although propofol anesthesia showed lower postoperative NLR than sevoflurane anesthesia, there was no association with clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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9 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Ocular Symptoms and Tear Film Cytokine Profiles in Symptomatic COVID-19 Patients
by Anna Niedźwiedź, Miłosz Kawa, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Agnieszka Kuligowska, Alicja Ziontkowska, Dawid Wrzałek, Miłosz Parczewski, Krzysztof Safranow, Krzysztof Kozłowski, Bogusław Machaliński and Anna Machalińska
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092647 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the presence and duration of ophthalmic symptoms in the early phase of COVID-19 to assess the corresponding local immune response on the ocular surface. Methods: The study included data from 180 COVID-19 patients and 160 age-matched healthy controls. The [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the presence and duration of ophthalmic symptoms in the early phase of COVID-19 to assess the corresponding local immune response on the ocular surface. Methods: The study included data from 180 COVID-19 patients and 160 age-matched healthy controls. The main finding was the occurrence of ophthalmological manifestations at the time of admission to the hospital and during the preceding 7 days. Tear film concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay. Results: Among the COVID-19 patients, 12.64% had at least one ocular symptom at the time of admission, and 24.14% had symptoms within the preceding 7 days (p < 0.001 vs. controls). We found that the COVID-19 patients complained more frequently about eye tearing (p = 0.04) and eye pain (p = 0.01) than controls. A multivariate analysis of the patients and controls adjusted for age and sex revealed that COVID-19 was an independent factor associated with higher VEGF and IL-10 tear film concentrations (β = +0.13, p = 0.047 and β = +0.34, p < 0.001, respectively) and lower IL-1β, IL-8, and GM-CSF levels (β = −0.25, p < 0.001; β = −0.18, p = 0.004; and β = −0.82, p = 0.0 respectively). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 does not attract a strong local response of the conjunctival immune system; therefore, ophthalmic symptoms may not constitute a substantial element in the clinical picture of novel COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Special Populations and Risk Factors)
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