Obesity: From Diagnosis to Treatment (Closed)

A topical collection in Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This collection belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

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Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Digestive, Oncologic and Bariatric Surgery,AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou and UFR Paris Descartes,Université de Paris, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
Interests: obesity; anastomosis gastric bypass; morbid obesity; esophagus

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity is a chronic disease with a very negative impact on health. According to the World Health Organization, 39% of adults worldwide are overweight and 13% are obese. The number of obesity cases has almost tripled since 1975. Obesity is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, and many other comorbid conditions.

Currently, bariatric surgery is the standard treatment for obesity, resulting in significant and lasting weight loss and reducing comorbidities in patients. Despite being a relatively young medical specialty, over these last two decades bariatric and metabolic surgery has had a very sustained development. Some interventions have disappeared, others, even more efficient and secure, have appeared.

This last year, a collective awakening took place due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which highlighted that obesity was an independent factor of mortality causing devastation in the population suffering from obesity. We must meet this challenge. This evolution and perpetual improvement is only possible thanks to clinical and scientific research reported by different teams through publications.

We invite you to submit your research in the field of bariatric and metabolic surgery and nutrition, focusing on all aspects (challenge, trends, and prospects) that can improve our daily practices.

Dr. Tigran Poghosyan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • obesity
  • bariatric and metabolic surgery
  • nutrition
  • gastric bypass
  • sleeve gastrectomy
  • SADI-S
  • diabetes
  • vitamin supplementation
  • SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
  • nutritional complications

Published Papers (27 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

10 pages, 1992 KiB  
Article
Changes in Body Weight in Severely Obese Patients Treated with the Anorexiant Mazindol
by Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Norikazu Maeda, Masahiro Koseki and Kazuhisa Maeda
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071860 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 720
Abstract
(1) Background: The number of severely obese patients worldwide is rapidly increasing. Recently, novel therapeutic approaches, such as bariatric surgery or GLP-1 receptor agonists, have emerged, bringing about a paradigm shift in this field. However, these therapies sometimes face challenges, such as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The number of severely obese patients worldwide is rapidly increasing. Recently, novel therapeutic approaches, such as bariatric surgery or GLP-1 receptor agonists, have emerged, bringing about a paradigm shift in this field. However, these therapies sometimes face challenges, such as peri-surgical complications or supply shortages. Mazindol, which is an appetite suppressant approved decades ago in Japan, remains a valuable option. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of mazindol in reducing body weight in 147 patients, and we examined the factors influencing said effectiveness. (2) Methods: The patients were divided into four groups based on the treatment cycles they underwent: 1 cycle, 2 cycles, 3–5 cycles, and over 6 cycles. We compared the changes in body weight before and after the treatment among these four groups. Additionally, we sought to identify the factors correlated to the effectiveness of mazindol. (3) Results: The change in body weight was more pronounced in the group which underwent 3–5 cycles compared to the groups which underwent 1 cycle and 2 cycles; this change was also more pronounced in the group which underwent over 6 cycles compared to those which underwent 1 cycle. Furthermore, we observed a significant correlation between the initial body weight and the extent of body weight change. (4) Conclusions: Mazindol demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the body weight of patients in a cycle-dependent manner. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

12 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
Mirabegron, a Selective β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist, as a Potential Anti-Obesity Drug
by Anna Maria Dąbrowska and Jarosław Dudka
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6897; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216897 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Obesity is becoming a global health epidemic. Brown and “beige” adipose tissue may produce heat, leading to energy expenditure enhancement and weight loss. Mirabegron, a selective β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been found to be effective as a brown adipose tissue activator, a “beige” [...] Read more.
Obesity is becoming a global health epidemic. Brown and “beige” adipose tissue may produce heat, leading to energy expenditure enhancement and weight loss. Mirabegron, a selective β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been found to be effective as a brown adipose tissue activator, a “beige” cells stimulator and a metabolic homeostasis controller in animal and human studies. Although in animal studies, administration of mirabegron led to obesity improvement, significant weight loss in obese patients after mirabegron treatment has not been demonstrated so far, which may be associated with the too-short duration of the trials and the small number of participants in the studies. In humans, the most effective treatment for adipose tissue stimulation was high doses of mirabegron; however, cardiovascular side effects may limit the use of such doses, so the long-term safety must be evaluated. In cases of tachycardia or blood pressure elevation, the co-administration of a β1-adrenergic receptor blocker may be useful. It should be checked whether smaller doses of mirabegron, taken for a longer time, will be sufficient to stimulate brown and “beige” adipose tissue, leading to weight loss. The introduction of mirabegron into obesity treatment in the future will require long-term trials with larger numbers of subjects, to assess mirabegron efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Full article
14 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
An Alarmingly High Number of Candidates for Bariatric Procedures among Professionally Active Poles and Its Strong Relationship with Cardiovascular Co-Morbidities—POL-O-CARIA 2022 Study
by Anna Rulkiewicz, Iwona Pilchowska, Wojciech Lisik, Piotr Pruszczyk, Simona Wójcik, Marcin Poboży and Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6431; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206431 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Over recent years, the global healthcare system has experienced a notable increase in the prevalence of obesity and its associated health complications such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, etc. What is more, one of the significant phenomena is the increasing demand [...] Read more.
Over recent years, the global healthcare system has experienced a notable increase in the prevalence of obesity and its associated health complications such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, etc. What is more, one of the significant phenomena is the increasing demand for bariatric procedures among individuals of working age due to the high prevalence of type III obesity and type II obesity with co-morbidities. This trend is pronounced in Poland, due to the increasing number of patients meeting the qualifying criteria for surgery among professionally active and inactive patients. The aim of this study is to characterize the alarmingly high number of candidates for bariatric procedures among professionally active Poles. In total, the results of 2,056,861 initial, control, and periodic visits as part of the occupational medicine certificate were analyzed—collected from 1,342,749 unique patients (51.7% men; mean age of whole group: 36.81, SD = 10.91). Statistical calculations were performed, qualitative data were assessed using percentage and occurrence counts, while qualitative data were described using mean (M), standard deviation (SD), median, skewness, kurtosis, and range values. Results with p < 0.05 were deemed significant. Chi-square analysis and one-way ANOVA (with Scheffe’s post hoc test) were employed. Charts were created in the R program. It was noticed that there was a consistent rise in the proportion of individuals classified as candidates for bariatric procedures (an increase of 0.3%) alongside a notable decrease in the percentage of individuals maintaining a healthy body weight. Moreover, it is imperative to conduct yearly evaluations of the prevalence of obesity and its associated health conditions. It should be noted that hypertension occurred in 42.2% of patients, type 2 diabetes in 6.2% of patients, and lipid disorders in 8.4% of patients with third-degree obesity. This proactive approach is essential in order to adequately equip the healthcare system to address the increasing population of obese individuals, especially candidates for bariatric procedures. Full article
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11 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Obesity Characteristics Are Poor Predictors of Genetic Mutations Associated with Obesity
by Ahmed W. Al-Humadi, Khaled Alabduljabbar, Moath S. Alsaqaaby, Hani Talaee and Carel W. le Roux
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6396; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196396 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Background: The genetic contribution to obesity is substantial and may underpin the altered pathophysiology. One such pathway involves melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus. Genetic variants can cause dysregulation in the central melanocortin pathway that can result in early onset of hyperphagia and obesity. [...] Read more.
Background: The genetic contribution to obesity is substantial and may underpin the altered pathophysiology. One such pathway involves melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus. Genetic variants can cause dysregulation in the central melanocortin pathway that can result in early onset of hyperphagia and obesity. Clinically identifying patients who are at risk of known genetic mutations is challenging. The main purpose of this study was to identify associations between the clinico-demographical characteristics and the presence of a genetic mutation associated with obesity. Methods: We tested samples from 238 adult patients with class III obesity between October 2021 to February 2023 using next-generation sequencing (NGS) (Illumina, NovaSeq 6000 Sequencing System). The results were classified as “no variant identified” or “variant identified”. Results: 107 patients (45%) had one or more gene mutation in the leptin–melanocortin pathway. All variants were heterozygous. The patients with a gene mutation had a BMI of 48.4 ± 0.8 kg/m2 (mean ± SEM), and those without a gene mutation had a BMI of 49.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.4). The mean age of onset of obesity in patients with a gene mutation was 13.9 ± 1.3 years and for those without gene mutations was 11.5 ± 0.9 years (p = 0.1). The incidence of hyperphagia as a child was also not predictive (p = 0.4). Conclusions: Gene mutations associated with obesity in patients with a BMI > 40 kg/m2 are common. However, a patient’s BMI, age of onset of obesity, or age of onset of hyperphagia did not help to differentiate which patients may be more likely to have genetic mutations associated with obesity. Full article
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18 pages, 795 KiB  
Review
Clinical and Therapeutic Implications of Male Obesity
by Monika Lenart-Lipińska, Michał Łuniewski, Joanna Szydełko and Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5354; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165354 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity, a disorder linked to numerous comorbidities and metabolic complications, has recently increased dramatically worldwide and is highly prevalent in men, even at a young age. Compared to female patients, men with obesity more frequently have delayed diagnosis, higher severity [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity, a disorder linked to numerous comorbidities and metabolic complications, has recently increased dramatically worldwide and is highly prevalent in men, even at a young age. Compared to female patients, men with obesity more frequently have delayed diagnosis, higher severity of obesity, increased mortality rate, and only a minority of obese male patients are successfully treated, including with bariatric surgery. The aim of this review was to present the current state of knowledge about the clinical and therapeutic implications of obesity diagnosed in males. Full article
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14 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
Phase Angle, Inflammation, and Sarcopenia in Late Postoperative Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass
by Gisele Florêncio, Aglécio Souza, Elinton Chaim, Allan Santos, Louise Duran, Camila Carvalho and Sarah Monte Alegre
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155124 - 4 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity is characterized by a disproportion between the amount of muscle to fat. Contrary to most studies evaluating parameters related to sarcopenic obesity in the elderly, this study aims to evaluate the phase angle (PhA) and sarcopenia in young individuals pre- and [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic obesity is characterized by a disproportion between the amount of muscle to fat. Contrary to most studies evaluating parameters related to sarcopenic obesity in the elderly, this study aims to evaluate the phase angle (PhA) and sarcopenia in young individuals pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A total of 69 volunteers (46 women and 23 men; 38.5 ± 8.1 years) participated in this study. Body composition and PhA were assessed using BIA. Sarcopenia was assessed using a handgrip strength test (HGS) and gait speed (GS), and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was assessed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The PhA was significantly lower (p < 0.0007) and the resistance (R) significantly higher (p = 0.0026) in the postoperative group. HGS was negatively correlated with R (r = −0.63669; p < 0.0001), hs-CRP (r = −0.45436; p = 0.0197), and leptin (r = −0.46505; p = 0.0043). GS was negatively correlated with R (r = −0.36220; p = 0.0254), and ALM was negatively correlated with reactance (r = −0.49485; p = 0.0034) and R (r = −0.65797; p ≤ 0.0001). PhA and other components of BIA provide a good correlation with sarcopenia, especially regarding the reduction in muscle function, in an early form, in individuals in the pre- and postoperative period of gastric bypass. Full article
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19 pages, 1548 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Non-Invasive Treatment of Obesity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Guidelines
by Michał Łuniewski, Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek and Monika Lenart-Lipińska
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4431; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134431 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Obesity, a chronic disease with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, is characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity prevalence is growing globally at an alarming rate. The overwhelming majority of obesity cases are caused by inappropriate lifestyles, such as overconsumption of food and inadequate physical [...] Read more.
Obesity, a chronic disease with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, is characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity prevalence is growing globally at an alarming rate. The overwhelming majority of obesity cases are caused by inappropriate lifestyles, such as overconsumption of food and inadequate physical activity. Metabolic and biochemical changes due to increased adiposity resulted in numerous comorbidities, increased all-cause mortality, and reduced quality of life. T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) and obesity have many common pathogenetic points and drive each other in a vicious cycle. The aim of this article is to review obesity management guidelines and highlight the most important points. Management of both obesity-related and T2DM complications incur enormous expenses on healthcare systems. It is, therefore, paramount to provide streamlined yet custom-tailored weight management in order to avoid the negative ramifications of both diseases. Efficient obesity treatment leads to better diabetes control since some antidiabetic medications support weight reduction. Obesity treatment should be overseen by a multi-disciplinary team providing indispensable information and individually tailored regimens to patients. Weight management should be multimodal and consist chiefly of MNT (medical nutrition therapy), physical activity, and lifestyle changes. A comprehensive approach to obesity treatment may give tangible results to quality of life and comorbidities. Full article
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13 pages, 1414 KiB  
Review
Current Insights into the Potential Role of fMRI in Discovering the Mechanisms Underlying Obesity
by Hanna Szmygin, Maciej Szmygin, Mateusz Cheda, Bartosz Kłobuszewski, Anna Drelich-Zbroja and Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134379 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Obesity is becoming one of the major global health concerns. This chronic disease affects around 650 million people worldwide and is an underlying cause of a number of significant comorbidities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report on obesity from 2022, this [...] Read more.
Obesity is becoming one of the major global health concerns. This chronic disease affects around 650 million people worldwide and is an underlying cause of a number of significant comorbidities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report on obesity from 2022, this disorder became the fourth leading cause of deaths in Europe. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying obesity is of essential importance to successfully prevent and treat this disease. The aim of this study was to review the current insights into the potential role of fMRI in discovering the mechanisms underlying obesity on the basis of recent scientific literature published up to December 2022 and searches of the PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases. The literature assessed indicated that a growing body of evidence suggests that obesity leads to changes in both structure and connectivity within the central nervous system. Emerging data from recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies prove that obese individuals present an increased motivational drive to eat as well as impaired processing in reward- and control-related brain regions. Apart from this, it is clear that fMRI might be a useful tool in detection of obesity-induced changes within the central nervous system. Full article
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13 pages, 997 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Protein- or Amino Acid-Based Supplements in the Rehabilitation of Men with Severe Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
by Amelia Brunani, Raffaella Cancello, Michele Gobbi, Elisa Lucchetti, Giulia Di Guglielmo, Sabrina Maestrini, Stefania Cattaldo, Paolo Piterà, Chiara Ruocco, Alessandra Milesi, Alessandra Valerio, Paolo Capodaglio and Enzo Nisoli
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134257 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Background: Weight loss is associated with a reduction in all body compartments, including muscle mass (MM), and this effect produces a decrease in function and muscle strength. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein or amino acid supplements on MM loss [...] Read more.
Background: Weight loss is associated with a reduction in all body compartments, including muscle mass (MM), and this effect produces a decrease in function and muscle strength. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein or amino acid supplements on MM loss in middle-aged men (age < 65 years) with severe obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m2) during weight loss. Materials and Methods: We conducted a single-site randomized controlled trial (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05143398) with 40 in-patient male subjects with severe obesity. Participants underwent an intervention program consisting of a low-calorie balanced diet and structured physical activity. They were randomly assigned to 4-week treatment groups: (1) control (CTR, N = 10), (2) protein (P, N = 10), (3) branched-chain amino acid (BCAA, N = 10), and (4) essential amino acid mixture with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (PD-E07, N = 10) supplementation. Results: Following 4 weeks of intervention, all groups showed similar reductions in body weight compared to baseline. When examining the delta values, a notable increase in muscle mass (MM) was observed in the PD-E07 intervention group [MM (kg): 2.84 ± 3.57; MM (%): 3.63 ± 3.14], in contrast to the CTR group [MM (kg): −2.46 ± 3.04; MM (%): −0.47 ± 2.28], with a statistical significance of p = 0.045 and p = 0.023, respectively. However, the MM values for the P group [MM (kg): −2.75 ± 5.98, p = 0.734; MM (%): −0.44 ± 4.02, p = 0.990] and the BCAA group [MM (kg): −1 ± 3.3, p = 0.734; MM (%): 0.34 ± 2.85, p = 0.956] did not exhibit a statistically significant difference when compared to the CTR group. Conclusions: Amino acid-based supplements may effectively mitigate the loss of MM typically observed during weight reduction. Further validation through large-scale studies is necessary. Full article
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2 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Weight Regain after Bariatric Surgery
by Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Clement Baratte and Tigran Poghosyan
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093265 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Bariatric surgery (BS) is currently the most effective treatment for obesity, with long-lasting weight loss and improvement of related co-morbidities [...] Full article
9 pages, 857 KiB  
Brief Report
No Long-Term Mucosal Lesions in the Esophagus but More Gastric Mucosal Lesions after Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Rats
by Muriel Coupaye, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Clément Baratte, Muriel Hourseau, Alexandra Willemetz, Henri Duboc, Séverine Ledoux, André Bado, Anne Couvelard and Maude Le Gall
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(5), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12051848 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) often induces gastroesophageal reflux, with few and discordant long-term data on the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in operated patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of SG on esogastric mucosa in a rat model at [...] Read more.
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) often induces gastroesophageal reflux, with few and discordant long-term data on the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in operated patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of SG on esogastric mucosa in a rat model at 24 weeks postoperatively, which corresponds to approximately 18 years in humans. After 3 months of a high-fat diet, obese male Wistar rats were subjected to SG (n = 7) or sham surgery (n = 9). Esophageal and gastric bile acid (BA) concentrations were measured at sacrifice, at 24 weeks postoperatively. Esophageal and gastric tissues were analyzed by routine histology. The esophageal mucosa of the SG rats (n = 6) was not significantly different in comparison to that of the sham rats (n = 8), with no esophagitis or BE. However, there was more antral and fundic foveolar hyperplasia in the mucosa of the residual stomach 24 weeks after SG than in the sham group (p < 0.001). Luminal esogastric BA concentrations did not differ between the two groups. In our study, SG induced gastric foveolar hyperplasia but no esophageal lesions at 24 weeks postoperatively in obese rats. Therefore, long-term endoscopic esophageal follow-up that is recommended in humans after SG to detect BE may also be useful for detecting gastric lesions. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

11 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Shortening the Biliopancreatic Limb Length of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass Maintains Glucose Homeostasis Improvement with Limited Weight Loss
by Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Hounayda El Jindi, Alexandra Willemetz, Matthieu Siebert, Nathalie Kapel, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado and Maude Le Gall
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(17), 4976; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11174976 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is associated with similar metabolic improvements and weight loss as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this bariatric procedure is still controversial as it is suspected to result in undernutrition. Reducing the size of the biliopancreatic limb of OAGB [...] Read more.
One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is associated with similar metabolic improvements and weight loss as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this bariatric procedure is still controversial as it is suspected to result in undernutrition. Reducing the size of the biliopancreatic limb of OAGB could be essential to maintain positive outcomes while preventing side effects. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast outcomes of OAGB with two different biliopancreatic limb lengths to RYGB and Sham surgery in obese and non-obese rats. Lean and diet-induced obese Wistar rats were operated on RYGB, OAGB with a short (15 cm OAGB-15) or a long (35 cm OAGB-35) biliopancreatic limb or Sham surgery. Body weight and food intake were monitored over 30 weeks, and rats underwent oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests with a pancreatic and gut hormone secretion assay. Macronutrient absorption was determined by fecal analyses. Statistical analyses used non-parametric one-way or two-way ANOVA tests. Compared to Sham rats, RYGB, OAGB-15 and OAGB-35 rats displayed a significant reduced weight. Weight loss was greater after OAGB-35 than after OAGB-15 or Sham surgery because of transient malabsorption. All OAGB- and RYGB-operated rats displayed an improved pancreatic and gut hormone secretion in response to a meal compared to Sham rats, these effects were independent of limb length, rat weight, and maintained overtime. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis was similarly improved in obese and non-obese OAGB-15 and OAGB-35 rats suggesting that shortening the biliopancreatic limb can improve the metabolic parameters without a major influence on weight. Full article
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29 pages, 3551 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Trajectories in Weight and Health Outcomes Following Multidisciplinary Publicly Funded Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Clinically Severe Obesity (≥ 3 Associated Comorbidities): A Nine-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Australia
by Michelle M.C. Tan, Xingzhong Jin, Craig Taylor, Adrian K. Low, Philip Le Page, David Martin, Ang Li, David Joseph and Nic Kormas
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(15), 4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154466 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3847
Abstract
Background: Real-world data on long-term (> 5 years) weight loss and obesity-related complications after newer bariatric surgical procedures are currently limited. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of bariatric surgery in a cohort with clinically severe [...] Read more.
Background: Real-world data on long-term (> 5 years) weight loss and obesity-related complications after newer bariatric surgical procedures are currently limited. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of bariatric surgery in a cohort with clinically severe obesity in a multidisciplinary publicly funded service in two teaching hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Methods: Patients were adults with complex clinically severe obesity with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 and at least three significant obesity-related comorbidities, who underwent bariatric surgeries between 2009 and 2017. Detailed obesity-related health outcomes were reported from annual clinical data and assessments for up to 9 years of follow-up. Data were also linked with the national joint replacement registry. Results: A total of 65 eligible patients were included (mean, 7; range, 3–12 significant obesity-related comorbidities); 53.8% female; age 54.2 ± 11.2 years, with baseline BMI 52.2 ± 12.5 kg/m2 and weight 149.2 ± 45.5 kg. Most underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (80.0%), followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (10.8%) and one anastomosis gastric bypass (9.2%). Substantial weight loss was maintained over 9 years of follow-up (p < 0.001 versus baseline). Significant total weight loss (%TWL ± SE) was observed (13.2 ± 2.3%) following an initial 1-year preoperative intensive lifestyle intervention, and ranged from 26.5 ± 2.3% to 33.0 ± 2.0% between 1 and 8 years following surgery. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoarthritis-related joint pain and depression/severe anxiety were the most common metabolic, mechanical and mental health comorbidities, with a baseline prevalence of 81.5%, 75.4% and 55.4%, respectively. Clinically significant composite cumulative rates of remission and improvement occurred in T2DM (50.0–82.0%) and hypertension (73.7–82.9%) across 6 years. Dependence on continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with sleep-disordered breathing fell significantly from 63.1% to 41.2% in 6 years. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery using an intensive multidisciplinary approach led to significant long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbidities among the population with clinically complex obesity. These findings have important implications in clinical care for the management of the highest severity of obesity and its medical consequences. Major challenges associated with successful outcomes of bariatric surgery in highly complex patients include improving mental health in the long run and reducing postoperative opioid use. Long-term follow-up with a higher volume of patients is needed in publicly funded bariatric surgery services to better monitor patient outcomes, enhance clinical data comparison between services, and improve multidisciplinary care delivery. Full article
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11 pages, 1346 KiB  
Article
Sleeve Gastrectomy-Induced Body Mass Index Reduction Increases the Intensity of Taste Perception’s and Reduces Bitter-Induced Pleasantness in Severe Obesity
by Sara Rurgo, Elena Cantone, Marcella Pesce, Eleonora Efficie, Mario Musella, Barbara Polese, Barbara De Conno, Marta Pagliaro, Luisa Seguella, Bruna Guida, Giuseppe Esposito and Giovanni Sarnelli
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 3957; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11143957 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Background: The sense of taste is involved in food behavior and may drive food choices, likely contributing to obesity. Differences in taste preferences have been reported in normal-weight as compared to obese subjects. Changes in taste perception with an increased sweet-induced sensitivity [...] Read more.
Background: The sense of taste is involved in food behavior and may drive food choices, likely contributing to obesity. Differences in taste preferences have been reported in normal-weight as compared to obese subjects. Changes in taste perception with an increased sweet-induced sensitivity have been reported in surgically treated obese patients, but data regarding the perception of basic tastes yielded conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate basic taste identification, induced perception, and pleasantness in normal-weight controls and obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery. Methods: Severe obese and matched normal weight subjects underwent a standardized spit test to evaluate sweet, bitter, salty, umami, and sour taste identification, induced perception, and pleasantness. A subset of obese subjects were also studied before and 12 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Results: No significant differences in basic taste-induced perceptions were observed, although a higher number of controls correctly identified umami than did obese subjects. Sleeve-gastrectomy-induced weight loss did not affect the overall ability to correctly identify basic tastes but was associated with a significant increase in taste intensities, with higher scores for sour and bitter, and a significantly reduced bitter-induced pleasantness. Conclusions: The perception of basic tastes is similar in normal-weight and severely obese subjects. Sleeve-gastrectomy-induced weight loss significantly increases basic taste-induced intensity, and selectively reduces bitter-related pleasantness without affecting the ability to identify the tastes. Our findings reveal that taste perception is influenced by body mass index changes, likely supporting the hypothesis that centrally mediated mechanisms modulate taste perception in severe obesity. Full article
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15 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Circulating Chitotriosidase Activity in Children with Obesity
by Ioana Țaranu, Mihaela Iancu, Cecilia Lazea, Camelia Alkhzouz, Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Cristina-Sorina Cătană, Andreea-Manuela Mirea, Diana Miclea, Sorana D. Bolboacă and Cristina Drugan
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3634; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133634 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Childhood obesity progresses to metabolic disturbances via low-grade inflammation. Identifying novel molecules that reflect the activity of the immune responses is critical in understanding its underlying pathogenesis. Our exploratory study aimed to evaluate the change of chitotriosidase (CHIT1) plasma activity according to Body [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity progresses to metabolic disturbances via low-grade inflammation. Identifying novel molecules that reflect the activity of the immune responses is critical in understanding its underlying pathogenesis. Our exploratory study aimed to evaluate the change of chitotriosidase (CHIT1) plasma activity according to Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age z score in pediatric patients. The study evaluated 68 children consisting of 47.1% girls with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.71 years and 52.9% boys with a mean age of 11.93 ± 3.18 years. The effect of the most frequent CHIT1 gene variants, the 24 base pair duplication (dup24) and G102S polymorphism, upon the association between circulating CHIT1 activity and the obesity level, was also investigated. A significantly higher logCHIT1 plasma activity was found in children with extreme obesity than in children with overweight (p = 0.048 for the uncorrected CHIT1 and 0.026 for the corrected CHIT1). The BMI-for-age z score significantly (p = 0.031) predicts increased CHIT1 activity in children with overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity after controlling for the two gene variants, age, gender, and time since weight gain. Dup24 and G102S polymorphism were significant independent predictors (p-values < 0.002) for the change of CHIT1 plasma activity. Circulating CHIT1 might be an accurate indicator of inflammation in children with obesity. Its role and the effect of the dup24 and G102S variants on the CHIT1 activity should be validated in a larger cohort. Full article
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9 pages, 422 KiB  
Review
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Obesity—Novel Ways to Seen the Unseen
by Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Małgorzata Matuszek, Michał Kaczor and Maryla Kuczyńska
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123561 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Obesity remains a pandemic of the 21st century. While there are many causes of obesity and potential treatments that are currently known, source data indicate that the number of patients is constantly increasing. Neural mechanisms have become the subject of research and there [...] Read more.
Obesity remains a pandemic of the 21st century. While there are many causes of obesity and potential treatments that are currently known, source data indicate that the number of patients is constantly increasing. Neural mechanisms have become the subject of research and there has been an introduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging in obesity-associated altered neural signaling. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been established as the gold standard in the assessment of neuronal functions related to nutrition. Thanks to this, it has become possible to delineate those regions of the brain that show altered activity in obese individuals. An integrative review of the literature was conducted using the keywords ““functional neuroimaging” OR “functional magnetic resonance “OR “fmri” and “obesity” and “reward circuit and obesity” in PubMed and Google Scholar databases from 2017 through May 2022. Results in English and using functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate brain response to diet and food images were identified. The results from functional magnetic resonance imaging may help to identify relationships between neuronal mechanisms and causes of obesity. Furthermore, they may provide a substrate for etiology-based treatment and provide new opportunities for the development of obesity pharmacotherapy. Full article
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2 pages, 169 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Papageorgopoulou et al. The Aftermath of Bariatric Surgery: Can the Average Emergency Surgeon Deal with Its Complications? Comment on “Zawadzka et al. Current Knowledge and Perceptions of Bariatric Surgery among Diabetologists and Internists in Poland. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2028”
by Karolina Zawadzka, Krzysztof Więckowski, Tomasz Stefura, Piotr Major and Magdalena Szopa
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123533 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 860
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified obesity and overweight as an epidemic of the 21st century [...] Full article
3 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Bile or Acid Reflux Post One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: What Must We Do? Still an Unsolved Enigma
by Tigran Poghosyan, Sylvia Krivan and Clement Baratte
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123346 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Obesity is a global scourge, affecting over 15% of the world’s population [...] Full article
9 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Effect of Intragastric Botulinum Type A Injection Combined with a Low-Calorie High-Protein Diet in Adults with Overweight or Obesity
by Po-Ke Hsu, Chia-Lin Wu, Yu-Hsuan Yang and James Cheng-Chung Wei
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123325 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
(1) Background/aims: Intragastric botulinum toxin A injection (IGBI) combined with diet control is a new and effective weight loss method for grade 2 obese patients. However, the application of IGIB on overweight or obese adults still needs further research to confirm its efficacy. [...] Read more.
(1) Background/aims: Intragastric botulinum toxin A injection (IGBI) combined with diet control is a new and effective weight loss method for grade 2 obese patients. However, the application of IGIB on overweight or obese adults still needs further research to confirm its efficacy. (2) Methods: We retrospectively collected medical data from 1 July 2021 to 1 January 2022 from a total of 71 patients without diabetes who participated in the bariatric clinic with a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine participants opted for intragastric botulinum injection (IGBI) using 300 units of botulinum injected into the antrum, body, and fundus, followed with a low-calorie high-protein diet course. Another 22 people participated only in the low-calorie high-protein diet course as a placebo group. This study analyzes the weight loss percentage of the two groups. Adverse events after IGBI are also reported in a safety assessment. (3) Results: In terms of the characteristics of the two groups, the mean BMI was 29.3 kg/m2 in the IGBI group and 28.0 kg/m in the placebo group (p = 0.63 without significant difference). Comparing the percent weight loss from baseline in the two groups after 12 weeks, the IGBI group lost 11.5% of their body weight and the placebo group lost 1.8%. In terms of group analysis, the percentages of participants with a weight reduction of at least 5% for the IGBI and placebo groups were 95% and 4%, respectively. For weight reduction of at least 10%, these values for the IGBI and placebo groups were 63% and 4%, respectively. In terms of adverse events after IGBI for 12 weeks, 12 participants (24.4%) had constipation, which was the main side effect. No serious adverse events were observed during the study period. (4) Conclusion: The combination of a low-calorie high-protein diet and IGBI is an effective and safe procedure in overweight or obese adults for weight reduction, but further larger studies are needed. Full article
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14 pages, 1728 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Different Anthropometric Indices with Vascular Ageing in an Adult Population without Cardiovascular Disease—EVA Study
by Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Carmen Patino-Alonso, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Ines Llamas-Ramos, Luis García-Ortiz, Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos and on behalf of the EVA Investigators
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092671 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3220
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to analyse the capacity of different anthropometric indices to predict vascular ageing and this association in Spanish adult population without cardiovascular disease. A total of 501 individuals without cardiovascular disease residing in the capital of Salamanca (Spain) [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to analyse the capacity of different anthropometric indices to predict vascular ageing and this association in Spanish adult population without cardiovascular disease. A total of 501 individuals without cardiovascular disease residing in the capital of Salamanca (Spain) were selected (mean age: 55.9 years, 50.3% women), through stratified random sampling by age and sex. Starting from anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, and waist circumference, hip circumference, or biochemical parameters, we could estimate different indices that reflected general obesity, abdominal obesity, and body fat distribution. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) using a SphygmoCor® device. Vascular ageing was defined in three steps: Step 1: the participants with vascular injury were classified as early vascular ageing (EVA); Step 2: classification of the participants using the 10 and 90 percentiles of cf-PWV in the study population by age and sex in EVA, healthy vascular ageing (HVA) and normal vascular ageing (NVA); Step 3: re-classification of participants with arterial hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus included in HVA as NVA. The total prevalence of HVA and EVA was 8.4% and 21.4%, respectively. All the analysed anthropometric indices, except waist/hip ratio (WHpR), were associated with vascular ageing. Thus, as the values of the different anthropometric indices increase, the probability of being classified with NVA and as EVA increases. The capacity of the anthropometric indices to identify people with HVA showed values of area under the curve (AUC) ≥ 0.60. The capacity to identify people with EVA, in total, showed values of AUC between 0.55 and 0.60. In conclusion, as the values of the anthropometric indices increased, the probability that the subjects presented EVA increased. However, the relationship of the new anthropometric indices with vascular ageing was not stronger than that of traditional parameters. Therefore, BMI and WC can be considered to be the most useful indices in clinical practice to identify people with vascular ageing in the general population. Full article
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11 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Body Composition and Serum Concentration of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Men and Women from General Population
by Agnieszka Adamska, Andrzej Raczkowski, Zofia Stachurska, Marcin Kondraciuk, Adam Jacek Krętowski, Marcin Adamski, Irina Kowalska and Karol Adam Kamiński
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082118 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Body composition, especially an increased amount of fat mass and decreased lean body mass, is connected with metabolic complications. Thyroid hormones can influence body composition pattern. To date, scarce data defining the relationships between thyroid hormones and parameters of body composition using dual-energy [...] Read more.
Body composition, especially an increased amount of fat mass and decreased lean body mass, is connected with metabolic complications. Thyroid hormones can influence body composition pattern. To date, scarce data defining the relationships between thyroid hormones and parameters of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), especially in cohort studies, are available. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among serum concentrations of (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, and distribution of fat tissue assessed using the DXA method in a euthyroid cohort from the Białystok PLUS study. We examined 582 euthyroid subjects who were divided into lean (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) (84 lean men, 182 overweight/obese men, 160 lean women, and 156 overweight/obese women). Serum concentrations of TSH, free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) were assessed, and DXA was performed. We observed lower serum levels of fT4 (p = 0.03) and higher serum levels of fT3 (p = 0.04) in overweight/obese vs. lean men, whereas serum levels of TSH did not differ between these groups (p = 0.38). In lean men, we only observed a relationship between serum levels of TSH and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = −0.24, p = 0.02). In overweight/obese men, we found that serum levels of fT3 were positively connected with total fat mass (r = 0.16, p = 0.02), android fat mass (r = 0.15, p = 0.03), and gynoid fat mass (r = 0.17, p = 0.01), but not with VAT (r = 0.03, p = 0.63). We did not observe differences in serum levels of TSH, fT3, and fT4 between lean and overweight/obese women. Additionally, we did not notice relationships between serum levels of thyroid hormones and fat in different regions estimated by DXA in lean and overweight/obese women (all p > 0.05). We concluded that the serum concentration of TSH is connected with VAT in lean men, whereas, in overweight/obese men, higher fT3 is connected with an increased fat amount. These associations are absent in women. Full article
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11 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Current Knowledge and Perceptions of Bariatric Surgery among Diabetologists and Internists in Poland
by Karolina Zawadzka, Krzysztof Więckowski, Tomasz Stefura, Piotr Major and Magdalena Szopa
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11072028 - 5 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Perioperative care and follow-up after bariatric surgery (BS) engage various medical professionals. It is key for them to be well informed about these procedures. However, knowledge and attitudes may be not satisfactory enough to provide proper care. We aimed to assess knowledge and [...] Read more.
Perioperative care and follow-up after bariatric surgery (BS) engage various medical professionals. It is key for them to be well informed about these procedures. However, knowledge and attitudes may be not satisfactory enough to provide proper care. We aimed to assess knowledge and perceptions of BS among diabetologists and internists. A total of 34 diabetologists and 30 internists completed the electronic questionnaire. There were no differences in self-estimated knowledge between them, except regarding items related to the treatment of diabetes and metabolic control. Several misconceptions were identified in the questions testing the understanding of key issues in BS. Most participants considered BS effective in weight loss and metabolic control. A total of 75% highlighted the lack of appropriate equipment for dealing with morbidly obese patients. Interestingly, in a multivariable linear regression model, self-estimated knowledge was the only variable associated with frequency of referrals to bariatric surgeons. A total of 92% of respondents were interested in broadening their knowledge. Guidelines for long-term follow-up and funding were the most frequently chosen topics to explore. The study showed a positive attitude of diabetologists and internists towards surgical treatment of obesity and identified some significant gaps in knowledge. The results may be helpful in planning trainings to provide the best care for patients suffering from morbid obesity. Full article
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17 pages, 8939 KiB  
Article
Psychological Profiles of Treatment-Seeking Adults with Overweight and Obesity: A Cluster Analysis Approach
by Natalija Plasonja, Anna Brytek-Matera and Greg Décamps
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11071952 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with depression and well-being. Some psychological characteristics play a role in explaining well-being and depression in obesity and in identifying specific patient profiles. However, subtyping individuals with overweight/obesity based on variables like self-esteem or stress has not [...] Read more.
Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with depression and well-being. Some psychological characteristics play a role in explaining well-being and depression in obesity and in identifying specific patient profiles. However, subtyping individuals with overweight/obesity based on variables like self-esteem or stress has not often been done. Therefore, our objective was to explore the psychological profiles of treatment-seeking individuals overweight or with obesity and to compare their depression and well-being. Methods: Data regarding eating self-efficacy, well-being, depression, physical hunger, self-esteem, body satisfaction and perceived stress in individuals with overweight/obesity were collected from the ESTEAM cohort. Hierarchical cluster analysis and mean comparisons were performed on female (n = 1427) and male samples (n = 310). Results: Three psychological profiles were identified in both samples. The “High psychological concerns” profile and the “Low psychological concerns” profile were identical in both samples. The third profile, “Bodily concerns”, differed by sex and was characterized by appearance dissatisfaction for women and by appearance and eating concerns for men. The ”Low psychological concerns” profile presented the highest well-being and the lowest depression scores in both samples. Discussion: The findings support the hypothesis of the heterogeneity of individuals with overweight and obesity and suggest sex-related therapeutic approaches. Full article
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10 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Early and Late Complications after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in One-Year Observation
by Paulina Głuszyńska, Inna Diemieszczyk, Łukasz Szczerbiński, Adam Krętowski, Piotr Major and Hady Razak Hady
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020436 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Background: Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is considered a safe bariatric procedure in the treatment of obesity, it still involves a risk of developing postoperative complications. Knowledge of risk factors for possible complications would allow appropriate preoperative planning, optimization of postoperative care, as [...] Read more.
Background: Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is considered a safe bariatric procedure in the treatment of obesity, it still involves a risk of developing postoperative complications. Knowledge of risk factors for possible complications would allow appropriate preoperative planning, optimization of postoperative care, as well as early diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: A retrospective study of 610 patients who underwent LSG at a tertiary institution were included in the study through retrospective analysis of the medical data. Complications were categorized as early (<30 days) and late (≥30 days) and evaluated according to the Clavien–Dindo Classification. Results: Early complications were observed in 35 patients (5.74%) and late complications occurred in 10 patients (1.64%). Independent risk factors of early complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy included hypercholesterolemia (OR 3.73; p-value = 0.023) and smoking (OR = 274.66, p-value < 0.001). Other factors that may influence the postoperative course are length of hospital stay and operation time. Smoking, peptic ulcer diseases and co-existence of hiatal hernia were found to be an independent predictors of late complications. Conclusions: Smoking is associated with the higher risk of both, early and late complications, while hypercholesterolemia with only <30 days complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Full article

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14 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Egg Consumption and Body Composition as Well as Serum Cholesterol Level: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011
by Jung-Eun Shim and Young-Gyun Seo
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5918; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245918 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
We analyzed the relationship between egg consumption, body composition, and serum cholesterol levels. We obtained data on egg consumption by using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (13,132 adults) and the 24-h dietary recall (24HR) (13,366 adults) from the fourth and fifth Korea National [...] Read more.
We analyzed the relationship between egg consumption, body composition, and serum cholesterol levels. We obtained data on egg consumption by using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (13,132 adults) and the 24-h dietary recall (24HR) (13,366 adults) from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011). In men, consuming 2–3 eggs/week was associated with higher fat mass (FM), percentage body fat (PBF), and fat-to-muscle ratio (FtoM), compared to consuming <1 egg/week. In women, consuming 1–6 eggs/week was associated with higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, consuming 2–6 eggs/week was associated with higher total cholesterol, and consuming 4–6 eggs/week was associated with higher FM and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared to consuming <1 egg/week. There was no relationship between egg consumption and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, and there was no relationship between egg consumption, body composition, and serum cholesterol levels according to the 24HR. However, there was some association with other cardiovascular diseases and consumption of certain amounts of eggs. Egg consumption investigated by FFQ was associated with body composition and serum cholesterol levels. However, the egg consumption investigated by the 24HR resulted in no health benefit or harm with respect to body composition and cholesterol. Full article
12 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Differences in Fat-Free Mass According to Serum Vitamin D Level and Calcium Intake: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011
by Hye-Ji An and Young-Gyun Seo
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(22), 5428; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10225428 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
We analyzed the differences in fat-free mass (FFM) according to serum vitamin D level (VitD) and daily calcium intake (Ca) in 14,444 adults aged over 19 years. We used data from the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011). [...] Read more.
We analyzed the differences in fat-free mass (FFM) according to serum vitamin D level (VitD) and daily calcium intake (Ca) in 14,444 adults aged over 19 years. We used data from the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011). FFM was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. VitD was classified as insufficient or sufficient (cutoff: 20 ng/mL). Ca was classified as unsatisfactory or satisfactory (recommended daily intake: 700 mg). In men, the FFM of group 2 (VitD ≥ 20 ng/mL; Ca < 700 mg), group 3 (VitD < 20 ng/mL; Ca ≥ 700 mg) and group 4 (VitD ≥ 20 ng/mL; Ca ≥ 700 mg) was 0.50 kg (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.084–0.92), 0.78 kg (95% CI, 0.26–1.29) and 1.58 kg (95% CI, 0.95–2.21) higher than that of group 1 (VitD < 20 ng/mL; Ca < 700 mg), respectively. In women, a 1 ng/mL increase in VitD was associated with a 0.023 kg increase in FFM (95% CI, 0.003–0.043) and a 1 g increase in Ca was associated with a 0.62 kg increase in FFM (95% CI, 0.067–1.16). High VitD and Ca were associated with a high FFM. Full article
10 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Systemic Antibiotics and Obesity: Analyses from a Population-Based Cohort
by So Young Park, Morena Ustulin, SangHyun Park, Kyung-Do Han, Joo Young Kim, Dong Wook Shin and Sang Youl Rhee
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(12), 2601; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122601 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Background: In this study, we analyzed the association between antibiotic use and obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a Korean adult population. Methods: Subjects using the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort were retrospectively analyzed in 2015. The differences in obesity and [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, we analyzed the association between antibiotic use and obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a Korean adult population. Methods: Subjects using the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort were retrospectively analyzed in 2015. The differences in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) status were compared and analyzed according to duration of systemic antibiotic treatment in the previous 10 years (non-users, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tertile). Results: Subjects who used systemic antibiotics for longer periods were older, satisfied more criteria for MS, and had more comorbidities than non-users (non-users vs. 3rd tertile, p < 0.0001 for all). After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of obesity was higher in subjects who used systemic antibiotics for longer periods than in non-users (non-users vs. 3rd tertile, OR (odds ratio) (95% CI (confidence interval)); 1.20 (1.12–1.38)). The criteria for MS were more satisfied in the 3rd tertile than in non-users. A higher obesity risk was also found in subjects treated with antibiotics targeting Gram-negative organisms than in those targeting Gram-positive organisms. Conclusion: The risk of obesity was higher in subjects who took systemic antibiotics more frequently. The risk was more prominent when they took antibiotics targeting Gram-negative bacteria. Full article
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