Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Therapeutic Vaccines and Antibody Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2021) | Viewed by 37254

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Research, Riga Stradins University, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
2. Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: human immunodeficiency virus type 1; human hepatitis C virus; DNA vaccines; in vivo imaging; T cell response; B cell response; mouse models; cancer; oxidative stress
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Co-Guest Editor
1. Division of Virology, National Health Laboratory Service, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
2. Division of Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Interests: virology; immunology; viral haemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues!

We are pleased to introduce the 4th International on-line Conference devoted to vaccines, vaccination and immunotherapy “Perspective technologies of vaccination and immunotherapy”  October 27-29, 2020 (www.techvac.org).

This conference was organized and supported by the Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and- Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, St Petersburg, and International Society for Vaccines (ww.isv.org).

First held in November 2016, this series of vaccine conferences bring together specialists from all over the world including researchers, both advanced and early carrier investigators, healthcare professionals, government officials, and industry representatives from the many disciplines of vaccinology field.

TECHVAC conferences cover all fields related to vaccines and vaccination, new vaccines, new vaccination strategies, techniques and policies, vaccine-specific issues (including polio, measles, meningococcal & pneumococcal diseases, influenza, HIV and AIDS, HPV, flaviviruses), ethical issues related to vaccine trials, finances and communication. This year, special section was devoted to SARS-CoV-2 pandemics and development of COVID-19 vaccines.

Conferences feature invited lectures by world-renowned vaccinology experts, peer-reviewed submitted oral abstracts and posters, panel discussions, scientific awards, and networking events to create a rich environment stimulating engagement and collaboration.

Program and Organizing Committees of TECHVAC2020 conference together with the Board of the International Society for Vaccines is preparing a communique on the urgent needs and deeds of the vaccinology today addressing broad audience of researchers, vaccine developers and health care professionals, which will be published in the conference web.

 

Conference Overview
Program of the conference held on line October 27-29, 2020 can be viewed at the link http://techvac.org/programme/conference-programme/ . Conference was attended by 74 registered participants from 9 countries. It was organized in eight sessions with the total of 39 oral and 9 poster presentations. All materials, abstracts and photogallery will be available at www.techvac.org by the end of November 2020.
Recordings of the presentations are available to the registered participants.

Expert Review of the Presented Studies
Content of the presented studies was evaluated by the committee of five independent experts. Based on their scores, 16 studies were suggested for submission as manuscripts to this Vaccines issue, including 9 studies from the research institutes in Moscow, St Petersburg and Novosibirsk in Russia, and 7 studies from USA, Italy, France, Sweden, China and Latvia.

The Expert Committee of The International Conference "Perspective technologies of vaccination and immunotherapy" TECHVAC2020 held on-line October 27-29, 2020 has selected for Young Researcher Awards the following studies presented on the conference:

First prize - 300 euro
to the study by Olga Trofimova  (Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Center, Riga, Latvia) "Alphavirus-driven IFN-gamma: intratumoral expression promotes macrophage polarization to M1 phenotype with further tumour growth inhibition" (oral)

Second prize - 200 euro
to the study by Thomas Tipih (University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa) "Sindbis virus replicon DNA vector expressing Crimean-Congo hemmorhagic fever virus nucleoprotein antigen induces humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice" (oral)

Third prize - 100 euro
to the study by Starostina Ekaterina (State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltzovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia) "Immunogenicity of DNA vaccines carrying artificial genes encoding fragments of influenza A virus hemagglutinin stem and M2 protein" (oral)

Best poster presentation - 100 euro
to the study by Tatiana Ozharovskaia (N.F. Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia) "Immunogenicity and protective activity of recombinant adenoviruses type 5, expressing different forms of MERS coronavirus S protein"

Expert Committee of TECHVAC2020 conference has given special award for young researchers "Prize for Excellence" to Dr Inna Dolzhikova (Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia) for the oral presentation "Safety and immunogenicity of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine in two formulations: two open, non-randomized phase 1/2 studies from Russia"

Winners of the awards for oral presentations can submit manuscripts describing these studies to the special issue of VACCINES. Studies should be presented in full, including the complementing data obtained before and/or after the conference presentation and not presented on the meeting, if so requested by the Expert Committee of TECHVAC2020. If accepted, these manuscripts will be published free of charge (Sponsored by Vaccines).

Dr. Maria Isaguliants
Prof. Dr. Felicity Jane Burt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vaccination
  • immunotherapy
  • new vaccines
  • new vaccination strategies, techniques and policies
  • vaccine-specific issues
  • polio
  • measles
  • meningococcal & pneumococcal diseases
  • influenza
  • HIV and AIDS
  • HPV
  • flaviviruses
  • ethical issues related to vaccine trials, finances and communication

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 217 KiB  
Editorial
Perspective Technologies of Vaccination: Do We Still Need Old Vaccines?
by Maria Isaguliants and Felicity Jane Burt
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060891 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Until December 2019, we were living in the world of successfully functioning vaccines and vaccination programs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)

Research

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16 pages, 1788 KiB  
Communication
Immunogenicity of a DNA-Based Sindbis Replicon Expressing Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Nucleoprotein
by Thomas Tipih, Mark Heise and Felicity Jane Burt
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121491 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2774
Abstract
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infrequently causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality rate of 30%. Currently, there is neither an internationally approved antiviral drug nor a vaccine against the virus. A replicon based on the Sindbis virus vector encoding the [...] Read more.
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infrequently causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality rate of 30%. Currently, there is neither an internationally approved antiviral drug nor a vaccine against the virus. A replicon based on the Sindbis virus vector encoding the complete open reading frame of a CCHFV nucleoprotein from a South African isolate was prepared and investigated as a possible candidate vaccine. The transcription of CCHFV RNA and recombinant protein production by the replicon were characterized in transfected baby hamster kidney cells. A replicon encoding CCHFV nucleoprotein inserted in plasmid DNA, pSinCCHF-52S, directed transcription of CCHFV RNA in the transfected cells. NIH-III heterozygous mice immunized with pSinCCHF-52S generated CCHFV IgG specific antibodies with notably higher levels of IgG2a compared to IgG1. Splenocytes from mice immunized with pSinCCHF-52S secreted IFN-γ and IL-2, low levels of IL-6 or IL-10, and no IL-4. No specific cytokine production was registered in splenocytes of mock-immunized mice (p < 0.05). Thus, our study demonstrated the expression of CCHFV nucleoprotein by a Sindbis virus vector and its immunogenicity in mice. The spectrum of cytokine production and antibody profile indicated predominantly Th1-type of an anti-CCHFV immune response. Further studies in CCHFV-susceptible animals are necessary to determine whether the induced immune response is protective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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31 pages, 10105 KiB  
Article
Alphavirus-Driven Interferon Gamma (IFNg) Expression Inhibits Tumor Growth in Orthotopic 4T1 Breast Cancer Model
by Olga Trofimova, Ksenija Korotkaja, Dace Skrastina, Juris Jansons, Karina Spunde, Maria Isaguliants and Anna Zajakina
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111247 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3442
Abstract
Interferon gamma (IFNg) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can potentially reprogram the tumor microenvironment; however, the antitumor immunomodulatory properties of IFNg still need to be validated due to variable therapeutic outcomes in preclinical and clinical studies. We developed a replication-deficient Semliki Forest virus [...] Read more.
Interferon gamma (IFNg) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can potentially reprogram the tumor microenvironment; however, the antitumor immunomodulatory properties of IFNg still need to be validated due to variable therapeutic outcomes in preclinical and clinical studies. We developed a replication-deficient Semliki Forest virus vector expressing IFNg (SFV/IFNg) and evaluated its immunomodulatory antitumor potential in vitro in a model of 3D spheroids and in vivo in an immunocompetent 4T1 mouse breast cancer model. We demonstrated that SFV-derived, IFN-g-stimulated bone marrow macrophages can be used to acquire the tumoricidal M1 phenotype in 3D nonattached conditions. Coculturing SFV/IFNg-infected 4T1 spheroids with BMDMs inhibited spheroid growth. In the orthotopic 4T1 mouse model, intratumoral administration of SFV/IFNg virus particles alone or in combination with the Pam3CSK4 TLR2/1 ligand led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to the administration of the control SFV/Luc virus particles. Analysis of the composition of intratumoral lymphoid cells isolated from tumors after SFV/IFNg treatment revealed increased CD4+ and CD8+ and decreased T-reg (CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+) cell populations. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the populations of cells bearing myeloid cell markers CD11b, CD38, and CD206 was observed. In conclusion, the SFV/IFNg vector induces a therapeutic antitumor T-cell response and inhibits myeloid cell infiltration in treated tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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15 pages, 4435 KiB  
Article
Alum Pickering Emulsion as Effective Adjuvant to Improve Malaria Vaccine Efficacy
by Qiuting Chen, Nan Wu, Yuhui Gao, Xiaojun Wang, Jie Wu and Guanghui Ma
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111244 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Malaria is a life-threatening global epidemic disease and has caused more than 400,000 deaths in 2019. To control and prevent malaria, the development of a vaccine is a potential method. An effective malaria vaccine should either combine antigens from all stages of the [...] Read more.
Malaria is a life-threatening global epidemic disease and has caused more than 400,000 deaths in 2019. To control and prevent malaria, the development of a vaccine is a potential method. An effective malaria vaccine should either combine antigens from all stages of the malaria parasite’s life cycle, or epitopes of multiple key antigens due to the complexity of the Plasmodium parasite. Malaria’s random constructed antigen-1 (M.RCAg-1) is one of the recombinant vaccines, which was selected from a DNA library containing thousands of diverse multi-epitope chimeric antigen genes. Moreover, besides selecting an antigen, using an adjuvant is another important procedure for most vaccine development procedures. Freund’s adjuvant is considered an effective vaccine adjuvant for malaria vaccine, but it cannot be used in clinical settings because of its serious side effects. Traditional adjuvants, such as alum adjuvant, are limited by their unsatisfactory immune effects in malaria vaccines, hence there is an urgent need to develop a novel, safe and efficient adjuvant. In recent years, Pickering emulsions have attracted increasing attention as novel adjuvant. In contrast to classical emulsions, Pickering emulsions are stabilized by solid particles instead of surfactant, having pliability and lateral mobility. In this study, we selected aluminum hydroxide gel (termed as “alum”) as a stabilizer to prepare alum-stabilized Pickering emulsions (ALPE) as a malaria vaccine adjuvant. In addition, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an immunostimulant was incorporated into the Pickering emulsion (ALMPE) to further enhance the immune response. In vitro tests showed that, compared with alum, ALPE and ALMPE showed higher antigen load rates and could be effectively endocytosed by J774a.1 cells. In vivo studies indicated that ALMPE could induce as high antibody titers as Freund’s adjuvant. The biocompatibility study also proved ALMPE with excellent biocompatibility. These results suggest that ALMPE is a potential adjuvant for a malaria vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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11 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity and Safety of Inactivated Sabin-Strain Polio Vaccine “PoliovacSin”: Clinical Trials Phase I and II
by Anastasia Piniaeva, Georgy Ignatyev, Liubov Kozlovskaya, Yury Ivin, Anastasia Kovpak, Alexander Ivanov, Anna Shishova, Liliia Antonova, Yusuf Khapchaev, Irina Feldblium, Olga Ivanova, Aleksandra Siniugina and Aydar Ishmukhametov
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060565 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5411
Abstract
Global polio eradication requires both safe and effective vaccines, and safe production processes. Sabin oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) strains can evolve to virulent viruses and result in poliomyelitis outbreaks, and conventional inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Salk-IPV) production includes accumulation of large stocks of neurovirulent [...] Read more.
Global polio eradication requires both safe and effective vaccines, and safe production processes. Sabin oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) strains can evolve to virulent viruses and result in poliomyelitis outbreaks, and conventional inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Salk-IPV) production includes accumulation of large stocks of neurovirulent wild polioviruses. Therefore, IPV based on attenuated OPV strains seems a viable option. To increase the global supply of affordable inactivated vaccine in the still not-polio free world we developed an IPV made from the Sabin strains–PoliovacSin. Clinical trials included participants 18–60 years of age. A phase I single-center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial included 60 participants, who received one dose of PoliovacSin or Placebo. A phase II multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trial included 200 participants, who received one dose of PoliovacSin or Imovax Polio. All vaccinations were well tolerated, and PoliovacSin had a comparable safety profile to the Placebo or the reference Imovax Polio preparations. A significant increase in neutralizing antibody levels to polioviruses types 1–3 (Sabin and wild) was observed in PoliovacSin and Imovax Polio vaccinated groups. Therefore, clinical trials confirmed good tolerability, low reactogenicity, and high safety profile of the PoliovacSin and its pronounced immunogenic properties. The preparation was approved for clinical trials involving infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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14 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Construction and Immunogenicity of Modified mRNA-Vaccine Variants Encoding Influenza Virus Antigens
by Ekaterina V. Starostina, Sergei V. Sharabrin, Denis N. Antropov, Grigory A. Stepanov, Georgiy Yu. Shevelev, Anna E. Lemza, Andrey P. Rudometov, Mariya B. Borgoyakova, Nadezhda B. Rudometova, Vasiliy Yu. Marchenko, Natalia V. Danilchenko, Anton N. Chikaev, Sergei I. Bazhan, Alexander A. Ilyichev and Larisa I. Karpenko
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050452 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4965
Abstract
Nucleic acid-based influenza vaccines are a promising platform that have recently and rapidly developed. We previously demonstrated the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding artificial immunogens AgH1, AgH3, and AgM2, which contained conserved fragments of the hemagglutinin stem of two subtypes of influenza A—H1N1 [...] Read more.
Nucleic acid-based influenza vaccines are a promising platform that have recently and rapidly developed. We previously demonstrated the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding artificial immunogens AgH1, AgH3, and AgM2, which contained conserved fragments of the hemagglutinin stem of two subtypes of influenza A—H1N1 and H3N2—and conserved protein M2. Thus, the aim of this study was to design and characterize modified mRNA obtained using the above plasmid DNA vaccines as a template. To select the most promising protocol for creating highly immunogenic mRNA vaccines, we performed a comparative analysis of mRNA modifications aimed at increasing its translational activity and decreasing toxicity. We used mRNA encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model. Eight mRNA-GFP variants with different modifications (M0–M7) were obtained using the classic cap(1), its chemical analog ARCA (anti-reverse cap analog), pseudouridine (Ψ), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in different ratios. Modifications M2, M6, and M7, which provided the most intensive fluorescence of transfected HEK293FT cells were used for template synthesis when mRNA encoded influenza immunogens AgH1, AgH3, and AgM2. Virus specific antibodies were registered in groups of animals immunized with a mix of mRNAs encoding AgH1, AgH3, and AgM2, which contained either ARCA (with inclusions of 100% Ψ and 20% m6A (M6)) or a classic cap(1) (with 100% substitution of U with Ψ (M7)). M6 modification was the least toxic when compared with other mRNA variants. M6 and M7 RNA modifications can therefore be considered as promising protocols for designing mRNA vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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17 pages, 4531 KiB  
Article
Mucosal Influenza Vector Vaccine Carrying TB10.4 and HspX Antigens Provides Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice and Guinea Pigs
by Mariia Sergeeva, Ekaterina Romanovskaya-Romanko, Natalia Zabolotnyh, Anastasia Pulkina, Kirill Vasilyev, Anna Polina Shurigina, Janna Buzitskaya, Yana Zabrodskaya, Artem Fadeev, Andrey Vasin, Tatiana I. Vinogradova and Marina A. Stukova
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040394 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2823
Abstract
New strategies providing protection against tuberculosis (TB) are still pending. The airborne nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection assumes that the mucosal delivery of the TB vaccine could be a more promising strategy than the systemic route of immunization. We developed a [...] Read more.
New strategies providing protection against tuberculosis (TB) are still pending. The airborne nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection assumes that the mucosal delivery of the TB vaccine could be a more promising strategy than the systemic route of immunization. We developed a mucosal TB vaccine candidate based on recombinant attenuated influenza vector (Flu/THSP) co-expressing truncated NS1 protein NS1(1–124) and a full-length TB10.4 and HspX proteins of M.tb within an NS1 protein open reading frame. The Flu/THSP vector was safe and stimulated a systemic TB-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune response after intranasal immunization in mice. Double intranasal immunization with the Flu/THSP vector induced protection against two virulent M.tb strains equal to the effect of BCG subcutaneous injection in mice. In a guinea pig TB model, one intranasal immunization with Flu/THSP improved protection against M.tb when tested as a vaccine candidate for boosting BCG-primed immunity. Importantly, enhanced protection provided by a heterologous BCG-prime → Flu/THSP vector boost immunization scheme was associated with a significantly reduced lung and spleen bacterial burden (mean decrease of 0.77 lg CFU and 0.72 lg CFU, respectively) and improved lung pathology 8.5 weeks post-infection with virulent M.tb strain H37Rv. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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11 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Universal Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A in Children in a Region of High Endemicity
by Mikhail I. Mikhailov, Maria A. Lopatukhina, Fedor A. Asadi Mobarhan, Lyudmila Yu. Ilchenko, Tatyana V. Kozhanova, Olga V. Isaeva, Anastasiya A. Karlsen, Ilya A. Potemkin, Vera S. Kichatova, Anna A. Saryglar, Natalia D. Oorzhak and Karen K. Kyuregyan
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040780 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Since August 2012, universal single-dose vaccination in children aged at least three years has been implemented in the Republic of Tuva, which was previously the region most affected by hepatitis A in Russia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was the assessment of [...] Read more.
Since August 2012, universal single-dose vaccination in children aged at least three years has been implemented in the Republic of Tuva, which was previously the region most affected by hepatitis A in Russia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was the assessment of the immunological and epidemiological effectiveness of vaccination program five years following its implementation. In the pre-vaccination period, anti-HAV antibody detection rates in Tuva was 66.0% [95% CI: 56.3–74.6%] in children aged 10–14 years and reached a plateau (>95%) by age 20–29 years. Annual incidence rates in children under 18 years of age peaked at 450–860 per 100,000 in pre-vaccination years but dropped to 7.5 per 100,000 in this age group and to 3.2 per 100,000 in the total population one year after the start of vaccination. Since 2016, no cases of hepatitis A has been reported in Tuva. Serum anti-HAV antibodies were quantified in samples from healthy children following single-dose vaccination. Protective anti-HAV antibody concentrations (≥10 mIU/mL) were detected in 98.0% (95% CI: 96.2–99.0% (442/451)) of children tested one month after single-dose immunization, in 93.5% (95% CI: 91.0–95.4% (477/510)) and in 91.1% (95% CI: 88.2–93.4% (422/463)) of children one year and five years after single-dose immunization, respectively. Anti-HAV antibody geometric mean concentrations were similar in sera collected one month, one year, and five years following single-dose vaccination: 40.24 mIU/mL, 44.96 mIU/mL, and 57.73 mIU/mL, respectively (p > 0.05). These data confirm that single-dose vaccination is an effective method of bringing hepatitis A under control in a short period of time in a highly endemic region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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Review

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36 pages, 1927 KiB  
Review
Predictive Markers of Immunogenicity and Efficacy for Human Vaccines
by Matthieu Van Tilbeurgh, Katia Lemdani, Anne-Sophie Beignon, Catherine Chapon, Nicolas Tchitchek, Lina Cheraitia, Ernesto Marcos Lopez, Quentin Pascal, Roger Le Grand, Pauline Maisonnasse and Caroline Manet
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060579 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6635
Abstract
Vaccines represent one of the major advances of modern medicine. Despite the many successes of vaccination, continuous efforts to design new vaccines are needed to fight “old” pandemics, such as tuberculosis and malaria, as well as emerging pathogens, such as Zika virus and [...] Read more.
Vaccines represent one of the major advances of modern medicine. Despite the many successes of vaccination, continuous efforts to design new vaccines are needed to fight “old” pandemics, such as tuberculosis and malaria, as well as emerging pathogens, such as Zika virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Vaccination aims at reaching sterilizing immunity, however assessing vaccine efficacy is still challenging and underscores the need for a better understanding of immune protective responses. Identifying reliable predictive markers of immunogenicity can help to select and develop promising vaccine candidates during early preclinical studies and can lead to improved, personalized, vaccination strategies. A systems biology approach is increasingly being adopted to address these major challenges using multiple high-dimensional technologies combined with in silico models. Although the goal is to develop predictive models of vaccine efficacy in humans, applying this approach to animal models empowers basic and translational vaccine research. In this review, we provide an overview of vaccine immune signatures in preclinical models, as well as in target human populations. We also discuss high-throughput technologies used to probe vaccine-induced responses, along with data analysis and computational methodologies applied to the predictive modeling of vaccine efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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15 pages, 869 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Immunomonitoring after Vaccination and during Infection
by Lucille Adam, Pierre Rosenbaum, Olivia Bonduelle and Behazine Combadière
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040365 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
Immunomonitoring is the study of an individual’s immune responses over the course of vaccination or infection. In the infectious context, exploring the innate and adaptive immune responses will help to investigate their contribution to viral control or toxicity. After vaccination, immunomonitoring of the [...] Read more.
Immunomonitoring is the study of an individual’s immune responses over the course of vaccination or infection. In the infectious context, exploring the innate and adaptive immune responses will help to investigate their contribution to viral control or toxicity. After vaccination, immunomonitoring of the correlate(s) and surrogate(s) of protection is a major asset for measuring vaccine immune efficacy. Conventional immunomonitoring methods include antibody-based technologies that are easy to use. However, promising sensitive high-throughput technologies allowed the emergence of holistic approaches. This raises the question of data integration methods and tools. These approaches allow us to increase our knowledge on immune mechanisms as well as the identification of key effectors of the immune response. However, the depiction of relevant findings requires a well-rounded consideration beforehand about the hypotheses, conception, organization and objectives of the immunomonitoring. Therefore, well-standardized and comprehensive studies fuel insight to design more efficient, rationale-based vaccines and therapeutics to fight against infectious diseases. Hence, we will illustrate this review with examples of the immunomonitoring approaches used during vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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