Special Issue "Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines and Society".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2021) | Viewed by 31763

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Pedro Plans-Rubió
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Department of Health of Catalonia, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
2. Ciber of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28028 Madrid, Spain
Interests: vaccination programs; preventive interventions; epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases; seroepidemiology; cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccines and health programs; metabolic risk factors of chronic diseases; health policy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vaccines are effective and cost-effective preventive interventions against infectious diseases occurring in children and adults. The importance of vaccines is emphasized by economic studies reporting that vaccines for children and adults are associated with low cost-effectiveness ratios and societal savings. Nevertheless, the percentages of vaccination coverage registered in developed and undeveloped countries in the target vaccination populations (children, adults, high-risk individuals, specific population groups) remains bellow recommended levels. Vaccine hesitance, defined as a “delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccine services”, is one of the factors explaining suboptimal percentages of vaccination coverage. Vaccine hesitancy depends on the perceived risk of disease, accessibility of vaccines, and vaccine confidence. High confidence in vaccination programs is necessary to achieve high percentages of vaccination coverage. This Special Issue focuses on the strategies and practical solutions to increase the percentages of vaccination coverage by means of increasing vaccine confidence.

Dr. Pedro Plans-Rubió
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Vaccination coverage
  • Interventions to increase vaccination coverage
  • Vaccine confidence
  • Vaccine hesitance

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Barriers Associated with the Uptake Ratio of Seasonal Flu Vaccine and Ways to Improve Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Young Health Care Workers in Poland
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050530 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Despite not being full-time health care workers, annual flu vaccination is nevertheless an important consideration for medical students. This study examined the reasons for refusing flu vaccination among medical students, a group characterized by low vaccination coverage, despite the fact that the flu [...] Read more.
Despite not being full-time health care workers, annual flu vaccination is nevertheless an important consideration for medical students. This study examined the reasons for refusing flu vaccination among medical students, a group characterized by low vaccination coverage, despite the fact that the flu vaccine is arguably the most effective way of preventing serious flu complications. A cross-sectional survey was performed of 1313 students at the Medical University of Lodz. The findings indicate that the main sites of vaccination were primary care centers, and main source of information about influenza vaccination (about 90% of cases) was the general practitioner (GP). The most common motivations for vaccination were a recommendation by the family doctor or the belief that it was an important factor for protection against influenza. Most students reported various adverse effects after vaccination, usually mild pain at the site of vaccination, malaise, or fever. The main reasons for rejecting influenza vaccination were the apparent low risk of disease, the need for annual vaccination, the need to pay for it, lack of time or opportunity, lack of vaccination promotion, negative attitudes toward the flu vaccine, or the belief that there are other methods of preventing flu. To increase long-term vaccine acceptance and increase the vaccination rate among medical students and qualified health care workers, there is a need to adapt the health system and to initiate ongoing promotion programs at university to raise consciousness, promote vaccinations, and develop clinical skills for immunization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
Article
Gender Differences in the Level of Antibodies to Measles Virus in Adults
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050494 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Individuals without a protective antibody level are susceptible to measles infection. There are differences in the persistence of antibodies after vaccination and infection, while the impact of gender on this process has not been sufficiently studied. Measles Ig G antibodies were measured in [...] Read more.
Individuals without a protective antibody level are susceptible to measles infection. There are differences in the persistence of antibodies after vaccination and infection, while the impact of gender on this process has not been sufficiently studied. Measles Ig G antibodies were measured in 1742 employees of a large hospital facility—403 men and 1339 women aged from 25 to 67 years; 15% participants had antibody levels less than the protective threshold of ≥0.18 IU/mL. Significant differences were found in the age group 40–49, where the level of IgG antibodies to measles among men was higher than among women (1.51 IU/mL (0.41; 3.38) vs. 0.70 IU/mL (0.22;1.98) respectively, (U = 3.2, p = 0,001)); in the age group 60 and older, by contrast, the level of antibodies among women was higher compared to men (3.29 IU/mL (1.72; 4.07) vs. 2.90 IU/mL (1.46; 3.53) respectively (U = 2.2, p = 0.03)). The proportion of seronegative women in the age group 40–49 was significantly higher than of seronegative men: 22 [18–26]% and 11 [6–18]% respectively (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.001). The revealed gender characteristics that affect persistence of measles immunity may be important in personalization of vaccinal prevention for men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Attitudes towards COVID-19 Vaccination among Hospital Staff—Understanding What Matters to Hesitant People
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050469 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Hospital staff are a priority target group in the European COVID-19 vaccination strategy. Measuring the extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and understanding the reasons behind it are essential to be able to tailor effective communication campaigns. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as [...] Read more.
Hospital staff are a priority target group in the European COVID-19 vaccination strategy. Measuring the extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and understanding the reasons behind it are essential to be able to tailor effective communication campaigns. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, a survey was conducted among staff members of a Belgian three-site hospital center between 6 and 20 January 2021. Multivariable logistic ordinal regression was performed to assess determinants of the attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. Reasons for and against COVID-19 vaccination and the need for information were explored among hesitant staff members. Among the respondents (N = 1132), 58% and 4.9% said that they would certainly and certainly not get vaccinated, respectively; 37.1% were hesitant, with different degrees of certainty. A positive attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination was associated with being older, being a physician, being vaccinated against seasonal flu, and with several HBM factors (including perceived benefits and cues to actions). Among hesitant staff, concerns about potential side effects and the impression that the vaccine was developed too quickly were the main reasons against COVID-19 vaccination. The key factors in the decision process were data on vaccine efficacy and safety, and knowing that vaccination went well in others. These data are helpful to further tailor the communication campaign and ensure sufficient vaccination coverage among hospital staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Rate and Predictors of Hesitancy toward SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine among Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Results from an Italian Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050460 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy (VH) has been identified as one of the major health concerns of our time by the World Health Organization. It may prove especially detrimental in the light of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as vaccination campaigns still represent the primary strategy against [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy (VH) has been identified as one of the major health concerns of our time by the World Health Organization. It may prove especially detrimental in the light of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as vaccination campaigns still represent the primary strategy against the detrimental consequences of the pandemic. Among patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DB), who are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, VH might represent an even more serious threat. Therefore, our study focuses on identifying potential determinants of VH among patients with type 2 diabetes. Study participants (n = 1176) filled in a two-section online self-administered questionnaire, answering questions regarding demographic and anamnestic data, as well as their intention to accept any vaccination against COVID-19. Some possible reasons underlying VH were investigated as well. An overall hesitancy rate of 14.2% was registered. Data showed how older age, male gender, higher education level, and having been vaccinated for seasonal influenza in 2020–2021 were associated with a significantly higher propensity to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. On the contrary, having experienced adverse effects following past vaccinations was a negative predictor. In addition to confirming an array of predictors of VH, we found a worryingly high prevalence of VH among diabetics, who have been shown to be particularly exposed to severe COVID-19 and death. These findings may be useful in planning targeted action toward acceptance improvement and enhancing the efficacy of vaccination campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
Article
Vaccination Coverage for Routine Vaccines and Herd Immunity Levels against Measles and Pertussis in the World in 2019
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030256 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to promote essential vaccinations in all countries and achieve at least 90% vaccination coverage for all routine vaccines by 2020. The study assessed the mean percentages of [...] Read more.
In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to promote essential vaccinations in all countries and achieve at least 90% vaccination coverage for all routine vaccines by 2020. The study assessed the mean percentages of vaccination coverage in 2019 for 13 routine vaccines, vaccination coverage variation from 2015 to 2019, and herd immunity levels against measles and pertussis in 2019 in countries and regions of WHO. In 2019, the mean percentages of vaccination coverage were lower than 90% for 10 (78.9%) routine vaccines. The mean percentages of vaccination coverage also decreased from 2015 to 2019 for six (46.2%) routine vaccines. The prevalence of individuals with vaccine-induced measles immunity in the target measles vaccination population was 88.1%, and the prevalence of individuals with vaccine-induced pertussis immunity in the target pertussis vaccination population was 81.1%. Herd immunity against measles viruses with Ro = 18 was established in 63 (32.5%) countries but not established in any region. Herd immunity against pertussis agents was not established in any country and in any region of WHO. National immunization programs must be improved to achieve ≥90% vaccination coverage in all countries and regions. Likewise, it is necessary to achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage with two doses of measles vaccines and three doses of pertussis vaccines in all countries and regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
Article
Understanding the Influence of Individual and Systemic Factors on Vaccination Take-Up in European Citizens Aged 55 or Older
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020169 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Background: High vaccination coverage provides extensive public health benefits. Hence, increasing vaccination rates is an important policy goal within the EU and worldwide. We aim to evaluate individual and systemic parameters associated with vaccination in European Union citizens aged 55 or older, using [...] Read more.
Background: High vaccination coverage provides extensive public health benefits. Hence, increasing vaccination rates is an important policy goal within the EU and worldwide. We aim to evaluate individual and systemic parameters associated with vaccination in European Union citizens aged 55 or older, using data from the Special Eurobarometer 488. Methods: Linear probability and probit models are estimated to analyze the determinants of vaccination take-up. Further, descriptive analyses are used to explore how the reasons for not having a vaccination differ by welfare regime. Results: High knowledge about the effectiveness and safety of vaccination increases the probability of receiving a vaccination during the past five years by 26 percentage points (pp), medium knowledge increases it by 15 pp. Focusing on the specific case of the flu, official recommendations increase this probability by, on average, 6 pp; while having to pay out-of-pocket for a recommended vaccination decreases it by, on average, 10 pp. Furthermore, the differences for no vaccination differ widely across welfare systems and television is the primary source for information about vaccination. Conclusions: Reported vaccination rates in Europe fall far below targets set by official recommendations. Increasing vaccination knowledge and offering vaccinations free of charge can help to increase vaccination rates. A specific focus should be put on reaching individuals with potential difficulties of access such as those living alone and unemployed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Sustained Vaccination Coverage during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic in the Republic of Korea
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination coverage may decline due to limited accessibility to healthcare. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination coverage and the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the Republic of Korea. National vaccination coverage of 10 essential [...] Read more.
Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination coverage may decline due to limited accessibility to healthcare. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination coverage and the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the Republic of Korea. National vaccination coverage of 10 essential vaccines administered to children between January–June 2019 and January–June 2020 was analyzed. The national incidence of selected VPDs was compared for the corresponding periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the vaccination rate in children aged 0–35 months in Korea did not decrease significantly, whereas the vaccination rate for children aged 4–6 years decreased by 1.4–1.9%. The overall incidence of VPDs decreased by 10–50% between 2019 and 2020, especially with varicella. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a decrease in vaccination coverage among Korean children, which prevented a surge in VPD incidence. Maintaining essential vaccination coverage without interruption is important during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Knowledge and Attitudes on Vaccination in Southern Romanians: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040774 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4268
Abstract
Vaccines are fundamental instruments upon which all modern medicine is hinged. This has recently come into the light because of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the public regarding vaccination. To this end, a [...] Read more.
Vaccines are fundamental instruments upon which all modern medicine is hinged. This has recently come into the light because of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the public regarding vaccination. To this end, a questionnaire, which was disseminated to the general population between 2017 and 2019, was used. We evaluated the responses from 1647 individuals (61% female, with a median age of 37 years, mostly from urban settings). Most respondents (85%) had children and were in favor of vaccination. Our study underlines the role that family physicians have in the education and information of citizens. A small, but considerable, number of respondents (108, 7.84% of those with children) had not vaccinated their children according to the national vaccination scheme. Deterrents were considered to be lack of information and fear of side effects. However, 167 of our respondents (12.12% out of 1377 respondents with children) said that their child experienced adverse events—most of which were mild local reactions. Alternatives to vaccination were proposed by some. In this study, we highlight the attitudes of respondents and multiple gaps in general knowledge, both of which may need to be addressed, especially in light of the current pandemic situation and past failed campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
Article
Vaccination Attitude and Communication in Early Settings: An Exploratory Study
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040701 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Background: This study assesses attitudes towards vaccination in mothers of new-born babies and explores its association with different exposures to communication. Methods: Data were collected through questionnaires administered by means of interviews. Results: Data highlighted that 20% of mothers showed an orientation towards [...] Read more.
Background: This study assesses attitudes towards vaccination in mothers of new-born babies and explores its association with different exposures to communication. Methods: Data were collected through questionnaires administered by means of interviews. Results: Data highlighted that 20% of mothers showed an orientation towards vaccine hesitancy. As for the reasons behind the attitude to vaccine hesitancy, data showed that concern is a common feature. As for the different exposures to communication, 49% of mothers did not remember having received or looked for any information about vaccination during pregnancy and post-partum; 25% stated they received information from several healthcare and non-healthcare sources; 26% declared having received or looked for information by means of healthcare and non-healthcare sources, as well as having taken part in a specific meeting during antenatal classes or at birth centres. The attitude towards vaccine hesitancy tends to reduce as exposure to different communication increases. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that participation in interactive meetings in small groups focused on vaccination during the prenatal course or at the birth point may act as an enabling factor contributing to a decrease in the tendency to experience vaccine hesitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Strategies to Improve Coverage of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) Immunization Campaign in Karachi, Pakistan
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040697 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
The emergence and spread of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid in Karachi, Pakistan led to an outbreak response in Lyari Town, Karachi utilizing a mass immunization campaign with typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Typbar TCV®. The mass immunization campaign, targeted Lyari Town, Karachi, one of [...] Read more.
The emergence and spread of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid in Karachi, Pakistan led to an outbreak response in Lyari Town, Karachi utilizing a mass immunization campaign with typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Typbar TCV®. The mass immunization campaign, targeted Lyari Town, Karachi, one of the worst affected towns during the XDR typhoid outbreak. Here we describe the strategies used to improve acceptance and coverage of Typbar TCV in Lyari Town, Karachi. The mass immunization campaign with Typbar TCV was started as a school- and hospital-based vaccination campaign targeting children between the age of 6 months to 15 years old. A dose of 0.5 mL Typbar TCV was administered intramuscularly. A mobile vaccination campaign was added to cope with high absenteeism and non-response from parents in schools and to cover children out of school. Different strategies were found to be effective in increasing the vaccination coverage and in tackling vaccine hesitancy. Community engagement was the most successful strategy to overcome refusals and helped to gain trust in the newly introduced vaccine. Community announcements and playing typhoid jingles helped to increase awareness regarding the ongoing typhoid outbreak. Mop-up activity in schools was helpful in increasing coverage. Networking with locally active groups, clubs and community workers were found to be the key factors in decreasing refusals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Understanding the Improvement in Full Childhood Vaccination Coverage in Ethiopia Using Oaxaca–Blinder Decomposition Analysis
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030505 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
In Ethiopia, full vaccination coverage among children aged 12–23 months has improved in recent decades. This study aimed to investigate drivers of the improvement in the vaccination coverage. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique was applied to identify the drivers using data from Ethiopian Demographic [...] Read more.
In Ethiopia, full vaccination coverage among children aged 12–23 months has improved in recent decades. This study aimed to investigate drivers of the improvement in the vaccination coverage. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique was applied to identify the drivers using data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2000 and 2016. The vaccination coverage rose from 14.3% in 2000 to 38.5% in 2016. The decomposition analysis showed that most of the rise in vaccination coverage (73.7%) resulted from the change in the effect of explanatory variables over time and other unmeasured characteristics. Muslim religion had a counteracting effect on the observed increase in vaccination coverage. The remaining 26.3% of the increase was attributed to the change in the composition of the explanatory variables between 2000 and 2016, with maternal educational level and maternal health care utilization as significant contributors. The findings highlight the need for further improvements in maternal health care utilization and educational status to maintain the momentum towards universal coverage of childhood vaccination. Targeted intervention among Muslim-dominated communities is also needed to improve the current situation. Besides which, future studies need to be conducted to identify additional potential modifiable factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
Article
Impact of a Catch-Up Strategy of DT-IPV Vaccination during Hospitalization on Vaccination Coverage among People Over 65 Years of Age in France: The HOSPIVAC Study (Vaccination during Hospitalization)
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020292 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
In France, diphtheria tetanus and inactivated polio vaccine (DT-IPV) coverage and immunization are insufficient in the elderly and decrease with age. The principal objective of this study was to assess the impact of a strategy of catch-up DT-IPV vaccination during hospitalization in people [...] Read more.
In France, diphtheria tetanus and inactivated polio vaccine (DT-IPV) coverage and immunization are insufficient in the elderly and decrease with age. The principal objective of this study was to assess the impact of a strategy of catch-up DT-IPV vaccination during hospitalization in people over the age of 65 years in central France (the Sarthe region). We performed a prospective, single-center, cluster-randomized study (four hospital wards). We included patients aged ≥65 years, without mental impairment, contraindication and who accepted to participate, hospitalized in the internal medicine wards in Le Mans Hospital from 28 May 2018 to 27 May 2019. The DT-IPV vaccination status of the patients was determined at inclusion and the wards were randomized (intervention and control). In the intervention group, vaccination was up-dated during hospitalization. In case of temporary contraindication, vaccination was prescribed at hospital discharge. Patients hospitalized in the control wards received oral information only. Final immunization status was determined by calling the patient’s general practitioner two months after hospital discharge. One hundred and fifty seven patients were included: 73 in the intervention and 84 in the control arm. Baseline immunization coverage was 46.5%. Vaccination coverage increased from 56.2% to 80.8% in the intervention group and from 38.1% to 40.5% in the control group (p < 0.001). Having received sufficient information from the general practitioner was the only factor associated with vaccination being up-to-date in uni- and multivariate analysis: OR = 5.07 [2.45–10.51]. In a setting of low vaccination coverage DT-IPV vaccination during hospitalization is an effective catch-up strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Influenza Vaccination Experiences of Pregnant Women as a Predictor of the Intention to Become Vaccinated in Future Pregnancies in Spain
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020291 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
A good perception of the vaccines administered during pregnancy favors immunization coverage, which is still not optimal for the influenza vaccine. To understand the predisposition towards vaccination in future pregnancies, a study was performed that evaluated the experiences of women with the vaccine [...] Read more.
A good perception of the vaccines administered during pregnancy favors immunization coverage, which is still not optimal for the influenza vaccine. To understand the predisposition towards vaccination in future pregnancies, a study was performed that evaluated the experiences of women with the vaccine or influenza. A cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone interviews given to a total of 683 postpartum women in two health departments from the Valencia Community (Spain). This interview asked about their intention of becoming vaccinated in future pregnancies and whether they were favor or against vaccination. Most of them, 98.5% (n = 673 [95% CI: 97.6–99.4]) (p < 0.001) declared having received the systematic vaccines throughout their lives. The ones who were vaccinated against influenza, 91.9% (n = 387 [95% CI: 89.2–94.6]) (p < 0.001) manifested they would do so in future pregnancies. The probability of future non-vaccination was modeled, which was related to an unfavorable opinion towards vaccines (OR = 4.07 [95% CI: 2.01–8.24]) (p < 0.001), having suffered from influenza during pregnancy (OR = 3.84 [95% CI: 1.41–10.42]) (p < 0.05), and not having been vaccinated during previous pregnancies (OR = 38.47 [95% CI: 23.58–62.76]) (p < 0.001). Vaccination during pregnancy increases the intent of vaccination in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Are the Objectives Proposed by the WHO for Routine Measles Vaccination Coverage and Population Measles Immunity Sufficient to Achieve Measles Elimination from Europe?
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020218 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed two-dose measles vaccination coverage of at least 95% of the population and percentages of measles immunity in the population of 85%−95% in order to achieve measles elimination in Europe. The objectives of this study were: (1) [...] Read more.
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed two-dose measles vaccination coverage of at least 95% of the population and percentages of measles immunity in the population of 85%−95% in order to achieve measles elimination in Europe. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the measles vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity against measles viruses with basic reproduction numbers (Ro) ranging from 6 to 60, and (2) to assess whether the objectives proposed by the WHO are sufficient to establish herd immunity against measles viruses. Methods: The herd immunity effects of the recommended objectives were assessed by considering the prevalence of protected individuals required to establish herd immunity against measles viruses with Ro values ranging from 6 to 60. Results: The study found that percentages of two-dose measles vaccination coverage from 88% to 100% could establish herd immunity against measles viruses with Ro from 6 to 19, assuming 95% measles vaccination effectiveness. The study found that the objective of 95% for two-dose measles vaccination coverage proposed by the WHO would not be sufficient to establish herd immunity against measles viruses with Ro ≥ 10, assuming 95% measles vaccination effectiveness. By contrast, a 97% measles vaccination coverage objective was sufficient to establish herd immunity against measles viruses, with Ro values from 6 to 13. Measles immunity levels recommended in individuals aged 1−4 years (≥85%) and 5−9 years (≥90%) might not be sufficient to establish herd immunity against most measles viruses, while those recommended in individuals aged 10 or more years (≥95%) could be sufficient to establish herd immunity against measles viruses with Ro values from 6 to 20. Conclusion: To meet the goal of measles elimination in Europe, it is necessary to achieve percentages of two-dose measles vaccination coverage of at least 97%, and measles immunity levels in children aged 1−9 years of at least 95%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Article
Exploring Influenza Vaccine Uptake and Its Determinants among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010052 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
While vaccination is the only established option to prevent a susceptible host from influenza, we have yet to clarify the decision-making mechanisms of vaccine uptake among Japanese university and college students. We aimed to explore vaccination coverage and the related demographic, sociocultural, and [...] Read more.
While vaccination is the only established option to prevent a susceptible host from influenza, we have yet to clarify the decision-making mechanisms of vaccine uptake among Japanese university and college students. We aimed to explore vaccination coverage and the related demographic, sociocultural, and socioeconomic factors among university students. We performed a cross-sectional survey involving 604 students at Hokkaido University. Participants were asked if they received influenza vaccination in advance of the 2018/19 season, and subsequently, their demographic and sociocultural/socioeconomic characteristics were surveyed. We also explored the mechanisms underlying students’ vaccination decisions. Vaccination coverage was estimated at 27.3% (95% confidence interval: 23.7–30.9). Freshmen (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with choosing vaccination, and their odds ratio of vaccination was 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 6.2–20.7) times greater than students in other years. Among students other than freshmen, students belonging to medicine- and healthcare-related faculties were vaccinated three times more frequently than other students, and the coverage in students from Hokkaido was twice as large as that for students from other prefectures. Moreover, extracurricular activity was a positive predictor of vaccination. Although the coverage was as small as 27.3% among university students, freshmen in Japan have high vaccination coverage, which we believe is associated with the entrance examination during high influenza activity. In addition to exposing students to proper education regarding their risk self-assessment, consciousness raising via appropriate understanding of influenza and its severity and offering vaccination at university health centers at a reasonable cost may promote vaccine acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)

Review

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Review
COVID-19 Vaccination: From Interesting Agent to the Patient
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020120 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
The vaccination for the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is undergoing its final stages of analysis and testing. It is an impressive feat under the circumstances that we are on the verge of a potential breakthrough vaccination. This will help reduce the stress for millions [...] Read more.
The vaccination for the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is undergoing its final stages of analysis and testing. It is an impressive feat under the circumstances that we are on the verge of a potential breakthrough vaccination. This will help reduce the stress for millions of people around the globe, helping to restore worldwide normalcy. In this review, the analysis looks into how the new branch of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) came into the forefront of the world like a pandemic. This review will break down the details of what COVID-19 is, the viral family it belongs to and its background of how this family of viruses alters bodily functions by attacking vital human respiratory organs, the circulatory system, the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. This review also looks at the process a new drug analogue undergoes, from (i) being a promising lead compound to (ii) being released into the market, from the drug development and discovery stage right through to FDA approval and aftermarket research. This review also addresses viable reasoning as to why the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may have taken much less time than normal in order for it to be released for use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Other

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Letter
Measures to Improve Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Spanish Medical Students
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020238 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Objective: To find out what measures medical students believe could help improve their influenza vaccination coverage. Method: On 5 November 2019, the Dean of the Zaragoza Medical School sent an e-mail to the students asking them to fill out a questionnaire [...] Read more.
Objective: To find out what measures medical students believe could help improve their influenza vaccination coverage. Method: On 5 November 2019, the Dean of the Zaragoza Medical School sent an e-mail to the students asking them to fill out a questionnaire through Google Forms, in which they were asked to describe, in an open field, the measures that they believed could contribute to improving their flu vaccination coverage. The content of the responses was analyzed in a classic way, extracting descriptors and selecting the most representative verbatim accounts. Results: The main measures proposed were to improve the training on influenza and its vaccine, to improve the accessibility of the vaccine in time and space, to provide incentives to get vaccinated, to create visible and positive attitudes towards the vaccine, and to increase the diffusion of information about the vaccination campaign. Conclusion: This qualitative study has found potential measures to be applied specifically to medical students to improve their vaccination coverage in our country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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