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Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessReview BDCA1+CD14+ Immunosuppressive Cells in Cancer, a Potential Target?
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines show promising effects in cancer immunotherapy. However, their efficacy is affected by a number of factors, including (1) the quality of the DC vaccine and (2) tumor immune evasion. The recently characterized BDCA1+CD14+ immunosuppressive cells combine both aspects; their
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Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines show promising effects in cancer immunotherapy. However, their efficacy is affected by a number of factors, including (1) the quality of the DC vaccine and (2) tumor immune evasion. The recently characterized BDCA1+CD14+ immunosuppressive cells combine both aspects; their presence in DC vaccines may directly hamper vaccine efficacy, whereas, in patients, BDCA1+CD14+ cells may suppress the induced immune response in an antigen-specific manner systemically and at the tumor site. We hypothesize that BDCA1+CD14+ cells are present in a broad spectrum of cancers and demand further investigation to reveal treatment opportunities and/or improvement for DC vaccines. In this review, we summarize the findings on BDCA1+CD14+ cells in solid cancers. In addition, we evaluate the presence of BDCA1+CD14+ cells in leukemic cancers. Preliminary results suggest that the presence of BDCA1+CD14+ cells correlates with clinical features of acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. Future research focusing on the differentiation from monocytes towards BDCA1+CD14+ cells could reveal more about their cell biology and clinical significance. Targeting these cells in cancer patients may improve the outcome of cancer immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle A Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine Candidate Tested in a Pig Vaccination-Infection Model in the Presence of Maternal Antibodies
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
The antigenically conserved hemagglutinin stalk region is a target for universal influenza virus vaccines since antibodies against it can provide broad protection against influenza viruses of different subtypes. We tested a universal influenza virus vaccination regimen based on sequential immunization with chimeric hemagglutinin
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The antigenically conserved hemagglutinin stalk region is a target for universal influenza virus vaccines since antibodies against it can provide broad protection against influenza viruses of different subtypes. We tested a universal influenza virus vaccination regimen based on sequential immunization with chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) containing viruses in a swine influenza virus pig model with maternal antibodies against pandemic H1N1. Vaccines were administered as live attenuated virus or inactivated influenza virus split vaccine (+/− Emulsigen adjuvant). As controls, we included groups that received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine that contained pandemic H1N1 antigens, inactivated adjuvanted H1N2 vaccine (control group for vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease in the pig model) or mock-vaccination. No induction of H1 head or stalk-specific antibody responses was observed upon vaccination, while responses against H3 and influenza B HA were elicited in the group vaccinated with the trivalent vaccine. Four weeks post vaccination, pigs were intratracheally challenged with pandemic H1N1 virus and euthanized 5 days after challenge. Despite the lack of detectable anti-stalk immunity, the chimeric hemagglutinin vaccine resulted in better clinical outcomes compared to control groups. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cathelicidins: Immunomodulatory Antimicrobials
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Cathelicidins are host defense peptides with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. These effector molecules of the innate immune system of many vertebrates are diverse in their amino acid sequence but share physicochemical characteristics like positive charge and amphipathicity. Besides being antimicrobial, cathelicidins have a
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Cathelicidins are host defense peptides with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. These effector molecules of the innate immune system of many vertebrates are diverse in their amino acid sequence but share physicochemical characteristics like positive charge and amphipathicity. Besides being antimicrobial, cathelicidins have a wide variety in immunomodulatory functions, both boosting and inhibiting inflammation, directing chemotaxis, and effecting cell differentiation, primarily towards type 1 immune responses. In this review, we will examine the biology and various functions of cathelicidins, focusing on putting in vitro results in the context of in vivo situations. The pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions are highlighted, as well both direct and indirect effects on chemotaxis and cell differentiation. Additionally, we will discuss the potential and limitations of using cathelicidins as immunomodulatory or antimicrobial drugs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Zika Virus Vaccines: Challenges and Perspectives
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Zika virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread within the Americas since 2014, presenting a variety of clinical manifestations and neurological complications resulting in congenital malformation, microcephaly, and possibly, in male infertility. These significant clinical manifestations have led investigators to develop several
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Zika virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread within the Americas since 2014, presenting a variety of clinical manifestations and neurological complications resulting in congenital malformation, microcephaly, and possibly, in male infertility. These significant clinical manifestations have led investigators to develop several candidate vaccines specific to Zika virus. In this review we describe relevant targets for the development of vaccines specific for Zika virus, the development status of various vaccine candidates and their different platforms, as well as their clinical progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines against Zika Virus)
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Open AccessReview Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Advantages and Challenges of HPV Vaccination
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
Cervical cancer is a critical public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is the second leading cause of cancer among women and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Incidence and mortality rates are substantially higher than in high-income countries with
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Cervical cancer is a critical public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is the second leading cause of cancer among women and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Incidence and mortality rates are substantially higher than in high-income countries with population-based screening programs, yet implementing screening programs in SSA has so far proven to be challenging due to financial, logistical, and sociocultural factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is an effective approach for primary prevention of cervical cancer and presents an opportunity to reduce the burden from cervical cancer in SSA. With a number of SSA countries now eligible for Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support for vaccine introduction, it is timely to consider the factors that impede and facilitate implementation of vaccine programs in SSA. This article describes epidemiological features of cervical cancer in SSA and the current status of HPV vaccine implementation in SSA countries. Rwanda’s experience of achieving high vaccination coverage in their national HPV immunization program is used as a case study to explore effective approaches to the design and implementation of HPV vaccination programs in SSA. Key factors in Rwanda’s successful implementation included government ownership and support for the program, school-based delivery, social mobilization, and strategies for reaching out-of-school girls. These findings might usefully be applied to other SSA countries planning for HPV vaccination. Full article
Open AccessArticle Novel Whole-Cell Inactivated Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Microparticles as Vaccine Formulation in Microneedle-Based Transdermal Immunization
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen responsible for more than 100 million new sexually transmitted infections worldwide each year. Due to the global emergence of antibiotic resistance, the Center for Disease control (CDC) recently listed N. gonorrhoeae as an urgent threat to
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen responsible for more than 100 million new sexually transmitted infections worldwide each year. Due to the global emergence of antibiotic resistance, the Center for Disease control (CDC) recently listed N. gonorrhoeae as an urgent threat to public health. No vaccine is available in spite of the huge disease burden and the possibility of untreatable gonorrhea. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunogenicity of a novel whole-cell-based inactivated gonococcal microparticle vaccine formulation loaded in dissolvable microneedles for transdermal administration. The nanotechnology-based vaccine formulation consists of inactivated whole-cell gonococci strain CDC-F62, spray dried and encapsulated into biodegradable cross-linked albumin matrix with sustained slow antigen release. The dry vaccine nanoparticles were then loaded in a dissolvable microneedle skin patch for transdermal delivery. The efficacy of the whole-cell microparticles vaccine formulation loaded in microneedles was assessed in vitro using dendritic cells and macrophages as well as in vivo mouse model. Antibody titers were measured using an enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antigen-specific T lymphocytes were assessed in spleens and lymph nodes. Here we report that whole-cell-based gonococcal microparticle vaccine loaded in dissolvable microneedles for transdermal administration induced significant increase in antigen-specific IgG antibody titers and antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in mice compared to gonococcal antigens in solution or empty microneedles. Significant increase in antigen-specific IgG antibody levels was observed at the end of week 2 in groups that received the vaccine compared to the group receiving empty nanoparticles. The advantages of using formalin-fixed whole-cell gonococci that all immunogenic epitopes are covered and preserved from degradation. The spherical shaped micro and nanoparticles are biological mimics of gonococci, therefore present to the immune system as invaders but without the ability to suppress adaptive immunity. In conclusion, the transdermal delivery of microparticles vaccine via a microneedle patch was shown to be an effective system for vaccine delivery. The novel gonorrhea nanovaccine is cheap to produce in a stable dry powder and can be delivered in microneedle skin patch obviating the need for needle use or the cold chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticles-based Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Relative Clinical and Cost Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Older Adults in the United States—A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
The relative burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in older adults (≥65 years old) compared to other serious diseases is important to prioritize preventive treatment. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the 2014 National Readmission Database to evaluate the length of stay, inpatient mortality,
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The relative burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in older adults (≥65 years old) compared to other serious diseases is important to prioritize preventive treatment. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the 2014 National Readmission Database to evaluate the length of stay, inpatient mortality, 30-day readmissions, and costs of CAP compared to diabetes mellitus (DM), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. 275,790 hospitalizations were analyzed and represented a national estimate of 616,300 hospitalizations, including 269,961 for CAP, 71,284 for DM, 126,946 for MI, and 148,109 for stroke. The mean length of stay in CAP was 5.2 days, which was higher than DM (4.6) and MI (4.3) but similar to stroke (5.6). The inpatient mortality risk was lower for DM (RR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.29–0.46) but higher for MI (RR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.50–1.85) and stroke (RR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.51–1.83). The median costs for CAP ($7282) were higher compared to DM ($6217) but lower compared to MI ($14,802) and stroke ($8772). The 30-day readmission rate was 17% in CAP, which was higher compared to MI (15%) and stroke (11.5%) and lower compared to DM (20.3%). In patients with CAP, disease burden is on par with other serious diseases. CAP should be prioritized for prevention in older adults with strategies such as vaccination and smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Pneumococcal Infections)
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Open AccessReview The Future of Influenza Vaccines: A Historical and Clinical Perspective
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
For centuries, the development of vaccines to prevent infectious disease was an empirical process. From smallpox variolation in Song dynasty China, through the polysaccharide capsule vaccines developed in the 1970s, vaccines were made either from the pathogen itself, treated in some way to
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For centuries, the development of vaccines to prevent infectious disease was an empirical process. From smallpox variolation in Song dynasty China, through the polysaccharide capsule vaccines developed in the 1970s, vaccines were made either from the pathogen itself, treated in some way to render it attenuated or non-infectious, or from a closely related non-pathogenic strain. In recent decades, new scientific knowledge and technologies have enabled rational vaccine design in a way that was unimaginable before. However, vaccines optimal against some infectious diseases, influenza among them, have remained elusive. This review will highlight the challenges that influenza viruses pose for rational vaccine design. In particular, it will consider the clinically beneficial endpoints, beyond complete sterilizing immunity, that have been achieved with vaccines against other infectious diseases, as well as the barriers to achieving similar success against influenza. Full article
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Open AccessArticle β-Defensins Coordinate In Vivo to Inhibit Bacterial Infections of the Trachea
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
β-defensins are predicted to play an important role in innate immunity against bacterial infections in the airway. We previously observed that a type III-secretion product of Bordetella bronchiseptica inhibits the NF-κB-mediated induction of a β-defensin in airway epithelial cells in vitro. To confirm
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β-defensins are predicted to play an important role in innate immunity against bacterial infections in the airway. We previously observed that a type III-secretion product of Bordetella bronchiseptica inhibits the NF-κB-mediated induction of a β-defensin in airway epithelial cells in vitro. To confirm this in vivo and to examine the relative roles of other β-defensins in the airway, we infected wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mice with a deletion of the mBD-1 gene with B. bronchiseptica wild-type strain, RB50 and its mutant strain lacking the type III-secretion system, WD3. The bacteria were quantified in the trachea and the nasal tissue and mRNA levels of mouse β-defensin-3 (mBD-3) were assessed after 24 h. Infection with the wild-type bacterial strain resulted in lower mBD-3 mRNA levels in the trachea than in mice infected with the type III-deficient strain. Furthermore, we observed an increase in bacterial numbers of RB50 only in the tracheas of mBD-1-deficient mice. Neutrophils were also more abundant on the trachea in RB50 infected WT mice but not in the bronchiolar lavage fluid (BAL), compared with WD3 infected WT and mBD-1−/− mice, indicating that the coordination of β-defensin chemotactic effects may be confined to tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). RB50 decreased the ability of mice to mount an early specific antibody response, seven days after infection in both WT and mBD-1−/− mice but there were no differences in titers between RB50-infected WT and mBD-1−/− mice or between WD3-infected WT and mBD-1−/− mice, indicating mBD-1 was not involved in induction of the humoral immune response to the B. bronchiseptica. Challenge of primary mouse TEC in vitro with RB50 and WD3, along with IL-1β, further corroborated the in vivo studies. The results demonstrate that at least two β-defensins can coordinate early in an infection to limit the growth of bacteria in the trachea. Full article
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Open AccessReview Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas: A Revision of Their Potential as Targets for Immunotherapy
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
Endometrial stromal sarcomas are a subtype of uterine sarcomas that are characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in the expression of tumor-specific fusion proteins that contribute to their tumorigenicity. These characteristics make the translocation breakpoints promising targets for immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review,
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas are a subtype of uterine sarcomas that are characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in the expression of tumor-specific fusion proteins that contribute to their tumorigenicity. These characteristics make the translocation breakpoints promising targets for immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review, we first describe the current knowledge about the classification of endometrial stromal sarcomas, and their molecular and genetic characteristics. Next, we summarize the available data on the use of translocation breakpoints as immunotherapeutic targets. Finally, we propose a roadmap to evaluate the feasibility of immunologic targeting of the endometrial stromal sarcoma-specific translocations in patients with recurrent disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Vaccines for Genitourinary Malignancies
Received: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval
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The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer. Several vaccine strategies have emerged, such as autologous or allogeneic whole-tumor vaccines, DNA vaccines, use of viral vectors, and peptides as immunostimulatory adjuvants. Despite impressive early trials, vaccine monotherapy has achieved limited success in the clinical world; however, combinations of vaccine and immune checkpoint inhibition or vaccine and cytokine stimulation are expected to move the field forward. This article reviews pivotal trials of cancer vaccines in prostate, renal, and bladder cancer and ongoing trials combining vaccines with other immune therapy agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Early Investigations and Recent Advances in Intraperitoneal Immunotherapy for Peritoneal Metastasis
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction
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Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction of anti-cancer memory against tumor-associated antigens. Early investigations with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells), vaccine-based therapies, dendritic cells (DCs) in combination with pro-inflammatory cytokines and natural killer cells (NKs), adoptive cell transfer, and immune checkpoint inhibitors represent significant advances in the treatment of PM. IP delivery of CAR-T cells has shown demonstrable suppression of tumors expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. This response was enhanced when IP injected CAR-T cells were combined with anti-PD-L1 or anti-Gr1. Similarly, CAR-T cells against folate receptor α expressing tumors improved T-cell tumor localization and survival when combined with CD137 co-stimulatory signaling. Moreover, IP immunotherapy with catumaxomab, a trifunctional antibody approved in Europe, targets epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and has shown considerable promise with control of malignant ascites. Herein, we discuss immunologic approaches under investigation for treatment of PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview The Vestigial Esterase Domain of Haemagglutinin of H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus: Antigenicity and Contribution to Viral Pathogenesis
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that
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Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that bind to the head domain of haemagglutinin (HA), which generally have potent neutralisation capabilities that block viral entry or viral membrane fusion. However, this class of antibodies has a narrow breadth of protection in that they are usually strain-specific. This led to the emphasis on stalk-targeting antibodies, which are able to bind a broad range of viral targets that span across different influenza subtypes. Recently, a third class of antibodies targeting the vestigial esterase (VE) domain have been characterised. In this review, we describe the key features of neutralising VE-targeting antibodies and compare them with head- and stalk-class antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Hemagglutinin in Influenza Viruses Infection)
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Open AccessReview Next Generation Cancer Vaccines—Make It Personal!
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Dramatic success in cancer immunotherapy has been achieved over the last decade with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors, leading to response rates higher than with chemotherapy in certain cancer types. These responses are often restricted to cancers that have a high mutational burden
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Dramatic success in cancer immunotherapy has been achieved over the last decade with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors, leading to response rates higher than with chemotherapy in certain cancer types. These responses are often restricted to cancers that have a high mutational burden and show pre-existing T-cell infiltrates. Despite extensive efforts, therapeutic vaccines have been mostly unsuccessful in the clinic. With the introduction of next generation sequencing, the identification of individual mutations is possible, enabling the production of personalized cancer vaccines. Combining immune check point inhibitors to overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment and personalized cancer vaccines for directing the host immune system against the chosen antigens might be a promising treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle Cytokines IL-17, TNF and IFN-γ Alter the Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins Disparately: A Targeted Proteomics Analysis using SOMAscan Technology
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defence peptides, are immunomodulatory molecules required to resolve infections. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APPs) are important in the control of infections in the lungs. Despite evidence that APPs exhibit a wide range of immune functions and modulate
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Antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defence peptides, are immunomodulatory molecules required to resolve infections. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APPs) are important in the control of infections in the lungs. Despite evidence that APPs exhibit a wide range of immune functions and modulate inflammation, the effect of inflammatory cytokines on the expression of APPs is not completely defined. In this study, we profiled the expression of 39 different APPs in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMAmer)-based protein array, in the presence and absence of three different inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF and IFN-γ). Expression of 13 different APPs was altered in response to IL-17, TNF or IFN-γ. Independent validations of selected proteins from the proteomics screen i.e., those that were significantly enhanced by >2-fold change (p < 0.01) using western blots conclusively demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines alter the expression of APPs differentially. For example, the abundance of cathepsin S was enhanced by only IFN-γ, whereas lipocalin-2 was increased by IL-17 alone. Abundance of elafin increased in presence of IL-17 or TNF, but decreased in response to IFN-γ. Whereas the abundance of cathepsin V decreased following stimulation with IL-17, TNF and IFN-γ. The results of this study demonstrate that inflammatory cytokines alter the expression of APPs disparately. This suggests that the composition of the inflammatory cytokine milieu may influence APPs abundance and thus alter the processes required for infection control and regulation of inflammation in the lungs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Activation-induced Markers Detect Vaccine-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses Not Measured by Assays Conventionally Used in Clinical Trials
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Immunogenicity of T cell-inducing vaccines, such as viral vectors or DNA vaccines and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), are frequently assessed by cytokine-based approaches. While these are sensitive methods that have shown correlates of protection in various vaccine studies, they only identify a small proportion
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Immunogenicity of T cell-inducing vaccines, such as viral vectors or DNA vaccines and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), are frequently assessed by cytokine-based approaches. While these are sensitive methods that have shown correlates of protection in various vaccine studies, they only identify a small proportion of the vaccine-specific T cell response. Responses to vaccination are likely to be heterogeneous, particularly when comparing prime and boost or assessing vaccine performance across diverse populations. Activation-induced markers (AIM) can provide a broader view of the total antigen-specific T cell response to enable a more comprehensive evaluation of vaccine immunogenicity. We tested an AIM assay for the detection of vaccine-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in healthy UK adults vaccinated with viral vectored Ebola vaccine candidates, ChAd3-EBO-Z and MVA-EBO-Z. We used the markers, CD25, CD134 (OX40), CD274 (PDL1), and CD107a, to sensitively identify vaccine-responsive T cells. We compared the use of OX40+CD25+ and OX40+PDL1+ in CD4+ T cells and OX40+CD25+ and CD25+CD107a+ in CD8+ T cells for their sensitivity, specificity, and associations with other measures of vaccine immunogenicity. We show that activation-induced markers can be used as an additional method of demonstrating vaccine immunogenicity, providing a broader picture of the global T cell response to vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Memory to Vaccination)
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Open AccessReview Contribution of Host Defence Proteins and Peptides to Host-Microbiota Interactions in Chronic Inflammatory Lung Diseases
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
The respiratory tract harbours a variety of microorganisms, collectively called the respiratory microbiota. Over the past few years, alterations in respiratory and gut microbiota composition have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the lungs. How these changes influence disease development and progression
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The respiratory tract harbours a variety of microorganisms, collectively called the respiratory microbiota. Over the past few years, alterations in respiratory and gut microbiota composition have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the lungs. How these changes influence disease development and progression is an active field of investigation. Identifying and understanding host-microbiota interactions and factors contributing to these interactions could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring host-microbiota homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent literature on host-microbiota interactions in the respiratory tract, with a specific focus on the influence of endogenous host defence peptides and proteins (HDPs) on the composition of microbiota populations in vivo and explore possible HDPs-related therapeutic approaches targeting microbiota dysbiosis in chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Listeria monocytogenes as a Vector for Cancer Immunotherapy: Current Understanding and Progress
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is becoming a popular vector for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, multiple vaccines have been developed utilizing modified Listeria as a tool for generating immune responses against a variety of cancers. Moreover, over a dozen clinical trials
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Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is becoming a popular vector for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, multiple vaccines have been developed utilizing modified Listeria as a tool for generating immune responses against a variety of cancers. Moreover, over a dozen clinical trials testing Listeria cancer vaccines are currently underway, which will help to understand the utility of Listeria vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. This review aims to summarize current views on how Listeria-based vaccines induce potent antitumor immunity and the current state of Listeria-based cancer vaccines in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle A Live-Attenuated Prime, Inactivated Boost Vaccination Strategy with Chimeric Hemagglutinin-Based Universal Influenza Virus Vaccines Provides Protection in Ferrets: A Confirmatory Study
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Influenza viruses cause severe diseases and mortality in humans on an annual basis. The current influenza virus vaccines can confer protection when they are well-matched with the circulating strains. However, due to constant changes of the virus surface glycoproteins, the vaccine efficacy can
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Influenza viruses cause severe diseases and mortality in humans on an annual basis. The current influenza virus vaccines can confer protection when they are well-matched with the circulating strains. However, due to constant changes of the virus surface glycoproteins, the vaccine efficacy can drop substantially in some seasons. In addition, the current seasonal influenza virus vaccines do not protect from avian influenza viruses of human pandemic potential. Novel influenza virus vaccines that aim to elicit antibodies against conserved epitopes like the hemagglutinin stalk could not only reduce the burden of drifted seasonal viruses but potentially also protect humans from infection with zoonotic and emerging pandemic influenza viruses. In this paper, we generated influenza virus vaccine constructs that express chimeric hemagglutinins consisting of exotic, avian head domains and a consistent stalk domain of a seasonal virus. Using such viruses in a sequential immunization regimen can redirect the immune response towards conserved epitopes. In this study, male ferrets received a live-attenuated vaccine virus based on the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 strain expressing a chimeric H8/1 (cH8/1) hemagglutinin, which was followed by a heterologous booster vaccination with a cH5/1N1 formalin inactivated non-adjuvanted whole virus. This group was compared to a second group that received a cH8/1N1 inactivated vaccine followed by a cH5/1N1 inactivated vaccine. Both groups showed a reduction in viral titers in the upper respiratory tract after the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus challenge. Animals that received the live-attenuated vaccine had low or undetectable titers in the lower respiratory tract. The results support the further development of chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination strategies. The outcome of this study confirms and corroborates findings from female ferrets primed with a A/Leningrad/134/17/57-based live attenuated cH8/1N1 vaccine followed by vaccination with an AS03-adjuvanted cH5/1N1 split virus vaccine 10. Full article
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Open AccessReview Avian Influenza A Virus Pandemic Preparedness and Vaccine Development
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, creating opportunities for zoonotic transmission, i.e., transmission from animals to humans, and placing the human population at constant risk of potential pandemics. In the last hundred years, four influenza A virus pandemics have
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Influenza A viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, creating opportunities for zoonotic transmission, i.e., transmission from animals to humans, and placing the human population at constant risk of potential pandemics. In the last hundred years, four influenza A virus pandemics have had a devastating effect, especially the 1918 influenza pandemic that took the lives of at least 40 million people. There is a constant risk that currently circulating avian influenza A viruses (e.g., H5N1, H7N9) will cause a new pandemic. Vaccines are the cornerstone in preparing for and combating potential pandemics. Despite exceptional advances in the design and development of (pre-)pandemic vaccines, there are still serious challenges to overcome, mainly caused by intrinsic characteristics of influenza A viruses: Rapid evolution and a broad host range combined with maintenance in animal reservoirs, making it near impossible to predict the nature and source of the next pandemic virus. Here, recent advances in the development of vaccination strategies to prepare against a pandemic virus coming from the avian reservoir will be discussed. Furthermore, remaining challenges will be addressed, setting the agenda for future research in the development of new vaccination strategies against potentially pandemic influenza A viruses. Full article
Open AccessReview Why Is Eradicating Typhoid Fever So Challenging: Implications for Vaccine and Therapeutic Design
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi, namely typhoidal Salmonellae, are the cause of (para) typhoid fever, which is a devastating systemic infectious disease in humans. In addition, the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhi in
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi, namely typhoidal Salmonellae, are the cause of (para) typhoid fever, which is a devastating systemic infectious disease in humans. In addition, the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhi in many low and middle-income countries poses a significant risk to human health. While currently available typhoid vaccines and therapeutics are efficacious, they have some limitations. One important limitation is the lack of controlling individuals who chronically carry S. Typhi. However, due to the strict host specificity of S. Typhi to humans, S. Typhi research is hampered. As a result, our understanding of S. Typhi pathogenesis is incomplete, thereby delaying the development and improvement of prevention and treatment strategies. Nonetheless, to better combat and contain S. Typhi, it is vital to develop a vaccine and therapy for controlling both acutely and chronically infected individuals. This review discusses how scientists are trying to combat typhoid fever, why it is so challenging to do so, which approaches show promise, and what we know about the pathogenesis of S. Typhi chronic infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Vaccines Against Chronic and Persistent Bacterial Infections)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of LL-37 on Gingival Fibroblasts: A Role in Periodontal Tissue Remodeling?
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Mounting evidence suggests that the host defence peptide, LL-37, plays a role in both inflammation and in wound healing; however, the role of this peptide in the remodeling and maintenance of oral tissues is not yet fully understood. Fibroblasts are the most abundant
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Mounting evidence suggests that the host defence peptide, LL-37, plays a role in both inflammation and in wound healing; however, the role of this peptide in the remodeling and maintenance of oral tissues is not yet fully understood. Fibroblasts are the most abundant cell type within the periodontal tissues, and gingival fibroblasts play an important role in maintaining and repairing the gingival tissues which are constantly exposed to external insults. In this study we examined the direct effects of LL-37 treatment on gingival fibroblasts and found that LL-37 significantly increased secretion of both interleukin 8 (IL-8) and IL-6 from these cells. LL-37 tended to decrease matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in gingival fibroblasts, but this decrease did not reach statistical significance. LL-37 significantly increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production by gingival fibroblasts, but had no significant effect on TIMP-2 levels. LL-37 was also shown to significantly increase production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in gingival fibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for the host defence peptide, LL-37, in modulating the fibroblast response to remodeling in periodontal tissues. Full article
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Open AccessReview Methods for Measuring T-Cell Memory to Vaccination: From Mouse to Man
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
The development of effective vaccines continues to be a key goal for public health bodies, governments, funding bodies and pharmaceutical companies. With new vaccines such as Shingrix targeting Shingles and Bexsero for Meningitis B, licensed in recent years, today’s population can be protected
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The development of effective vaccines continues to be a key goal for public health bodies, governments, funding bodies and pharmaceutical companies. With new vaccines such as Shingrix targeting Shingles and Bexsero for Meningitis B, licensed in recent years, today’s population can be protected from more infectious diseases than ever before. Despite this, we are yet to license vaccines for some of the deadliest endemic diseases affecting children, such as malaria. In addition, the threat of epidemics caused by emerging pathogens is very real as exemplified by the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak. Most licensed vaccines provide efficacy through humoral immunity and correlates of protection often quantify neutralising antibody titre. The role of T-cells in vaccine efficacy is less well understood and more complex to quantify. Defining T-cell responses which afford protection also remains a challenge, although more sophisticated assays for assessing cell-mediated immunity with the potential for higher throughput and scalability are now available and warrant review. Here we discuss the benefits of multiparameter cytokine analysis and omics approaches compared with flow cytometric and ELISpot assays. We also review technical challenges unique to clinical trial studies, including assay validation across laboratories and availability of sample type. Measuring T-cell immunogenicity alongside humoral responses provides information on the breadth of immune responses induced by vaccination. Accurately enumerating and phenotyping T-cell immunogenicity to vaccination is key for the determination of immune correlates of protection. However, identifying such T-cell parameters remains challenging without a clear understanding of the immunological mechanisms by which a T-cell-mediated response induces protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Memory to Vaccination)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Induction of Anti-Melanoma T Cells by Adenovirus-5/3 Fiber Modification to Target Human DCs
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
To mount a strong anti-tumor immune response, non T cell inflamed (cold) tumors may require combination treatment encompassing vaccine strategies preceding checkpoint inhibition. In vivo targeted delivery of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to dendritic cells (DCs), relying on the natural functions of primary DCs
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To mount a strong anti-tumor immune response, non T cell inflamed (cold) tumors may require combination treatment encompassing vaccine strategies preceding checkpoint inhibition. In vivo targeted delivery of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to dendritic cells (DCs), relying on the natural functions of primary DCs in situ, represents an attractive vaccination strategy. In this study we made use of a full-length MART-1 expressing C/B-chimeric adenoviral vector, consisting of the Ad5 capsid and the Ad3 knob (Ad5/3), which we previously showed to selectively transduce DCs in human skin and lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate that chimeric Ad5/3 vectors encoding TAA, and able to target human DCs in situ, can be used to efficiently induce expansion of functional tumor-specific CD8+ effector T cells, either from a naïve T cell pool or from previously primed T cells residing in the melanoma-draining sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). These data support the use of Ad3-knob containing viruses as vaccine vehicles for in vivo delivery. “Off-the-shelf” DC-targeted Ad vaccines encoding TAA could clearly benefit future immunotherapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessCommunication Respiratory Tract Deposition and Distribution Pattern of Microparticles in Mice Using Different Pulmonary Delivery Techniques
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Pulmonary delivery of drugs and vaccines is an established route of administration, with particulate-based carriers becoming an attractive strategy to enhance the benefits of pulmonary therapeutic delivery. Despite the increasing number of publications using the pulmonary route of delivery, the lack of effective
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Pulmonary delivery of drugs and vaccines is an established route of administration, with particulate-based carriers becoming an attractive strategy to enhance the benefits of pulmonary therapeutic delivery. Despite the increasing number of publications using the pulmonary route of delivery, the lack of effective and uniform administration techniques in preclinical models generally results in poor translational success. In this study, we used the IVIS Spectrum small-animal in vivo imaging system to compare the respiratory tract deposition and distribution pattern of a microsphere suspension (5 µm) in mice after 1, 4, and 24 h when delivered by oropharyngeal aspiration, the Microsprayer® Aerosolizer, and the BioLite Intubation System, three-widely reported preclinical inhalation techniques. We saw no significant differences in microsphere deposition in whole body images and excised lungs (at 1, 4, and 24 h); however, the three-dimensional (3D) images showed more localized deposition in the lungs with the MicroSprayer® and BioLite delivery techniques. Further, oropharyngeal aspiration (at 1 h) showed microsphere deposition in the oral cavity, in contrast to the MicroSprayer® and BioLite systems. The studies shown here will allow researchers to choose the appropriate pulmonary delivery method in animal models based on their study requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticles-based Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Cancer Vaccine Using Genetically Modified Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) yield both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages of blood cells and can be reprogrammed into tumor antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to prevent tumor growth. However, the optimal approach for differentiating tumor Ag-specific CTLs from HSCs,
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) yield both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages of blood cells and can be reprogrammed into tumor antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to prevent tumor growth. However, the optimal approach for differentiating tumor Ag-specific CTLs from HSCs, such as HSC-CTLs, remains elusive. In the current study, we showed that a combination of genetic modification of HSCs and in vivo T cell development facilitates the generation of Ag-specific CTLs that suppressed tumor growth. Murine HSCs, which were genetically modified with chicken ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor, were adoptively transferred into recipient mice. In the following week, mice were administered with intraperitoneal injections of an agonist α-Notch 2 antibody and cytokines (rFlt3L and rIL-7) three times. After another two weeks, mice received a subcutaneous inoculation of B16-OVA melanoma cells that express OVA as a surrogate tumor Ag, before the anti-tumor activity of HSC-derived T cells was assessed. OVA-specific CTLs developed in vivo and greatly responded to OVA Ag stimulation ex vivo. In addition, mice receiving genetically modified HSCs and in vivo priming established anti-tumor immunity, resulting in the suppression of tumor growth. These results reported in this present study provide an alternative strategy to develop protective cancer vaccines by using genetically modified HSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccines and Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Birth Year, Age and Sex on Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Responses to Influenza Vaccination
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
The first exposure to influenza is thought to impact subsequent immune responses later in life. The consequences of this can be seen during influenza epidemics and pandemics with differences in morbidity and mortality for different birth cohorts. There is a need for better
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The first exposure to influenza is thought to impact subsequent immune responses later in life. The consequences of this can be seen during influenza epidemics and pandemics with differences in morbidity and mortality for different birth cohorts. There is a need for better understanding of how vaccine responses are affected by early exposures to influenza viruses. In this analysis of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses in two cohorts of military personnel we noticed differences related to age, sex, prior vaccination, deployment and birth year. These data suggest that HI antibody production, in response to influenza vaccination, is affected by these factors. The magnitude of this antibody response is associated with, among other factors, the influenza strain that circulated following birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Hemagglutinin in Influenza Viruses Infection)
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Open AccessArticle The Immunity Gap Challenge: Protection against a Recent Florida Clade 2 Equine Influenza Strain
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several
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Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several weeks. This so-called “immunity gap” poses a challenge to all EI vaccines. During this period, the EI infection of vaccinated animals may be followed by marked clinical signs and virus shedding. However, several EI vaccines have been shown to stimulate equine influenza virus (EIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, which is likely to play a role in protection against EIV infection and/or mitigate the clinical and virological signs of EI. Reducing the interval between V2 and V3 has been shown to be counterproductive to longer-term immunity. Further research is needed to define and address the “immunity gap” in horses. This study aimed to measure the level of protection induced by a whole inactivated, ISCOMatrix adjuvanted, EI and tetanus vaccine (Equilis Prequenza-Te) when challenged during the immunity gap (i.e., immediately before the recommended boost immunisation, more than 5 months after V2) using infection with a recent heterologous Florida Clade 2 (FC2) equine influenza virus (EIV) strain. This vaccine was tested in a Welsh mountain pony model. A group of seven ponies was vaccinated twice, 4 weeks apart. The protective antibody response was measured and ponies were challenged, along with 5 unvaccinated control ponies, by experimental infection with the FC2 A/eq/Northamptonshire/1/13 EIV strain, 158 days (around 5.2 months) after V2 and their clinical signs and virus shedding were monitored. EI serology was measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Clinical signs and virus shedding (measured by qRT-PCR and hen’s egg titration) were compared with controls. All vaccinates had detectable, low SRH antibody titres and most had detectable, low HI titres. Significant clinical and virological protection was observed in vaccinates (p < 0.05), supporting the good performance of this vaccine against a recent EIV strain. In this study, the impact of the immunity gap in ponies was limited after primary vaccination with this whole inactivated, ISCOMatrix adjuvanted EI and tetanus vaccine (Equilis Prequenza-Te) when infected several months after V2 with a recent FC2 strain, which is representative of EIV circulating in the EU. Full article
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Open AccessReview Interaction of Viral Capsid-Derived Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) with the Innate Immune System
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from viral nucleocapsids are an important class of nanoparticles. The structure, uniformity, stability, and function of these VLPs have attracted scientists in utilizing them as a unique tool in various applications in biomedical fields. Their interaction with the innate
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Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from viral nucleocapsids are an important class of nanoparticles. The structure, uniformity, stability, and function of these VLPs have attracted scientists in utilizing them as a unique tool in various applications in biomedical fields. Their interaction with the innate immune system is of major importance for the adaptive immune response they induce. The innate immune cells and molecules recognize and interact with VLPs on the basis of two major characteristics: size and surface geometry. This review discusses the interaction of viral capsid-derived VLPs with the innate immune system. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of Fc Gamma Receptors in Broad Protection against Influenza Viruses
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies have revealed multiple roles for Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) in broad immunity against influenza viruses. Activating FcγR pathways can be harnessed to confer protection mediated by non-neutralizing anti-HA IgGs and to increase the potency of broadly neutralizing anti-HA IgGs and of
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Recent studies have revealed multiple roles for Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) in broad immunity against influenza viruses. Activating FcγR pathways can be harnessed to confer protection mediated by non-neutralizing anti-HA IgGs and to increase the potency of broadly neutralizing anti-HA IgGs and of anti-NA IgGs. Separate FcγR pathways can be targeted to enhance the breadth of antibody responses elicited by seasonal influenza virus vaccines. Here, we review the current understanding of FcγR pathways in broad influenza immunity and suggest mechanisms to bypass FcγR signaling heterogeneity among people that arises from distinctions in structural repertoires of IgG Fc domains. Full article
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