Next Article in Journal
Relative Clinical and Cost Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Older Adults in the United States—A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Immunizing the Immune: Can We Overcome Influenza’s Most Formidable Challenge?
Previous Article in Journal
β-Defensins Coordinate In Vivo to Inhibit Bacterial Infections of the Trachea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Avian Influenza A Virus Pandemic Preparedness and Vaccine Development
Open AccessReview

The Future of Influenza Vaccines: A Historical and Clinical Perspective

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030058
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
For centuries, the development of vaccines to prevent infectious disease was an empirical process. From smallpox variolation in Song dynasty China, through the polysaccharide capsule vaccines developed in the 1970s, vaccines were made either from the pathogen itself, treated in some way to render it attenuated or non-infectious, or from a closely related non-pathogenic strain. In recent decades, new scientific knowledge and technologies have enabled rational vaccine design in a way that was unimaginable before. However, vaccines optimal against some infectious diseases, influenza among them, have remained elusive. This review will highlight the challenges that influenza viruses pose for rational vaccine design. In particular, it will consider the clinically beneficial endpoints, beyond complete sterilizing immunity, that have been achieved with vaccines against other infectious diseases, as well as the barriers to achieving similar success against influenza. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; vaccine; transmission; morbidity; mortality; efficacy; effectiveness influenza; vaccine; transmission; morbidity; mortality; efficacy; effectiveness
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bouvier, N.M. The Future of Influenza Vaccines: A Historical and Clinical Perspective. Vaccines 2018, 6, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop