Previous Issue
Volume 13, May
 
 

Antioxidants, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 123 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
20 pages, 7797 KiB  
Article
Administration of Bicarbonate Protects Mitochondria, Rescues Retinal Ganglion Cells, and Ameliorates Visual Dysfunction Caused by Oxidative Stress
by Tonking Bastola, Guy A. Perkins, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Saeyeon Ju, Keun-Young Kim, Ziyao Shen, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Robert N. Weinreb and Won-Kyu Ju
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060743 (registering DOI) - 19 Jun 2024
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a key factor causing mitochondrial dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is involved in mitochondrial protection, promoting RGC survival. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a key [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a key factor causing mitochondrial dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is involved in mitochondrial protection, promoting RGC survival. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a key regulator of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, which is known to protect mitochondria and promote RGC survival. However, the precise molecular mechanisms connecting the sAC-mediated signaling pathway with mitochondrial protection in RGCs against oxidative stress are not well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that sAC plays a critical role in protecting RGC mitochondria from oxidative stress. Using mouse models of oxidative stress induced by ischemic injury and paraquat administration, we found that administration of bicarbonate, as an activator of sAC, protected RGCs, blocked AMP-activated protein kinase activation, inhibited glial activation, and improved visual function. Moreover, we found that this is the result of preserving mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission), promoting mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis, and preventing metabolic stress and apoptotic cell death. Notably, the administration of bicarbonate ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in RGCs by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, preserving mitochondrial structure, and increasing ATP production in oxidatively stressed RGCs. These findings suggest that activating sAC enhances the mitochondrial structure and function in RGCs to counter oxidative stress, consequently promoting RGC protection. We propose that modulation of the sAC-mediated signaling pathway has therapeutic potential acting on RGC mitochondria for treating glaucoma and other retinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and the Central Nervous System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2619 KiB  
Review
“Edible Beauty”: The Evolution of Environmentally Friendly Cosmetics and Packaging
by Irene Dini
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060742 (registering DOI) - 19 Jun 2024
Abstract
The cosmetics industry plays a significant role in the global economy and consumer lifestyles. Its dynamic and adaptable characteristics make it a key player worldwide. The cosmetics industry generates enormous profits globally, injecting billions of dollars into the world’s economy each year. The [...] Read more.
The cosmetics industry plays a significant role in the global economy and consumer lifestyles. Its dynamic and adaptable characteristics make it a key player worldwide. The cosmetics industry generates enormous profits globally, injecting billions of dollars into the world’s economy each year. The industry’s marketing efforts, product launches, and trends influence consumer behavior and perceptions of beauty, contributing to cultural dialogues and societal norms. This study, conducted with a rigorous bibliometric and systematic literature review, offers a comprehensive overview of recent progress in edible cosmetics. The “skincare you can eat” is an innovative branch of cosmetics that employs food co-products and by-products to create edible skincare and hair products and edible packaging materials to advance human well-being and sustainability while honoring the ecological boundaries of our planet. Nutrients and antioxidants derived from organic waste are used in cosmetics and packaging. Some doubts remain about the capacity of edible packaging to be attractive to consumers and offer a reasonable shelf life for cosmetics, and also about safety. It is desirable for the authorities to guarantee consumer health through carefully regulating labeling requirements and good manufacturing practices for cosmetics and edible packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cosmetics—2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1629 KiB  
Review
Induction of Nitric Oxide and Its Role in Facial Nerve Regeneration According to the Method of Facial Nerve Injury
by Yeon Ju Oh, Dong Keon Yon, Yong Sung Choi, Jinseok Lee, Joon Hyung Yeo, Sung Soo Kim, Jae Min Lee and Seung Geun Yeo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060741 (registering DOI) - 19 Jun 2024
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule in cell communication that also plays an important role in many biological processes. Given the dual role of NO in nerve degeneration and regeneration after facial nerve injury, we sought to delve deeper into its role [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule in cell communication that also plays an important role in many biological processes. Given the dual role of NO in nerve degeneration and regeneration after facial nerve injury, we sought to delve deeper into its role through a systematic literature review. A comprehensive review of the literature employing SCOPUS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases was conducted to evaluate the induction and role of NO in neurodegeneration and regeneration after facial nerve injury. From the 20 papers ultimately reviewed, the central findings were that neuronal nitric oxide synthase(nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increased or decreased depending on the method of facial nerve damage, damaged area, harvested area, and animal age, and were correlated with degeneration and regeneration of the facial nerve. Research conducted on rats and mice demonstrated that NO, nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS play significant roles in nerve regeneration and degeneration. However, the relationship between nerve damage and NO could not be defined by a simple causal relationship. Instead, the involvement of NOS depends on the type of nerve cell, source of NO, timing, and location of expression, age of the target animal, and proximity of the damage location to the brainstem. Consequently, nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS expression levels and functions may vary significantly. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
Black Goji Berry (Lycium ruthenicum) Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Enhances Inhibitory Activity against Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV and Key Steps of Lipid Digestion and Absorption
by Kritmongkhon Kamonsuwan, Vernabelle Balmori, Marisa Marnpae, Charoonsri Chusak, Thavaree Thilavech, Suvimol Charoensiddhi, Scott Smid and Sirichai Adisakwattana
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060740 (registering DOI) - 19 Jun 2024
Abstract
With the global increase in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, there is an urgent need to explore dietary interventions targeting the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and lipid digestion and absorption. This study investigated how Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) affects various aspects of black goji [...] Read more.
With the global increase in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, there is an urgent need to explore dietary interventions targeting the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and lipid digestion and absorption. This study investigated how Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) affects various aspects of black goji berry (BGB) (Lycium ruthenicum Murr.) juice, including changes in physicochemical and functional properties, as well as microbiological and sensory attributes. Throughout the fermentation process with 2.5–10% (w/v) BGB, significantly improved probiotic viability, lactic acid production, and decreased sugar content. While total flavonoids increase, anthocyanins decrease, with no discernible change in antioxidant activities. Metabolite profiling reveals elevated phenolic compounds post-fermentation. Regarding the inhibition of lipid digestion and absorption, fermented BGB exhibits improved bile acid binding, and disrupted cholesterol micellization by approximately threefold compared to non-fermented BGB, while also increasing pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Furthermore, a decrease in cholesterol uptake was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with fermented BGB (0.5 mg/mL), with a maximum reduction of 16.94%. Fermented BGB also shows more potent DPP-IV inhibition. Sensory attributes are significantly improved in fermented BGB samples. These findings highlight the potential of BGB as a bioactive resource and a promising non-dairy carrier for LGG, enhancing its anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Foods and Food Microorganisms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7043 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Oxidative Stress in Human Spermatozoa Induces Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore: Effect on Mitochondrial Function, Sperm Motility and Induction of Cell Death
by Anita Bravo, Raúl Sánchez, Fabiola Zambrano and Pamela Uribe
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060739 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) and disrupted antioxidant defense mechanisms play a pivotal role in the etiology of male infertility. The alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis are the main activators for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) and disrupted antioxidant defense mechanisms play a pivotal role in the etiology of male infertility. The alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis are the main activators for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The mPTP opening is one of the main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in spermatozoa. This alteration in mitochondrial function adversely affects energy supply, sperm motility, and fertilizing capacity and contributes to the development of male infertility. In human spermatozoa, the mPTP opening has been associated with ionomycin-induced endogenous oxidative stress and peroxynitrite-induced nitrosative stress; however, the effect of exogenous oxidative stress on mPTP opening in sperm has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on mPTP opening, mitochondrial function, motility, and cell death markers in human spermatozoa. Human spermatozoa were incubated with 3 mmol/L of H2O2 for 60 min, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, mPTP opening, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP levels, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation, viability, and sperm motility were evaluated. H2O2-induced exogenous oxidative stress caused increased intracellular Ca2+, leading to subsequent mPTP opening and alteration of mitochondrial function, characterized by ΔΨm dissipation, decreased ATP levels, increased mROS production, and the subsequent alteration of sperm motility. Furthermore, H2O2-induced opening of mPTP was associated with the expression of apoptotic cell death markers including PS externalization and DNA fragmentation. These results highlight the role of exogenous oxidative stress in causing mitochondrial dysfunction, deterioration of sperm motility, and an increase in apoptotic cell death markers, including PS externalization and DNA fragmentation, through the mPTP opening. This study yielded new knowledge regarding the effects of this type of stress on mitochondrial function and specifically on mPTP opening, factors that can contribute to the development of male infertility, considering that the role of mPTP in mitochondrial dysfunction in human sperm is not completely elucidated. Therefore, these findings are relevant to understanding male infertility and may provide an in vitro model for further research aimed at improving human sperm quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Identification of Phenolic Compounds Present in Three Speedwell (Veronica L.) Species and Their Antioxidant Potential
by Ivana Vrca, Stjepan Orhanović, Ivana Pezelj, Karolina Sušić, Valerija Dunkić, Dario Kremer and Marija Nazlić
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060738 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Extracts from Veronica species (speedwells) are known for the various biological activities they show, such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Also, the plants from this genus are known as medicinal plants used in traditional medicine worldwide. Phenolic compounds are specialized metabolites [...] Read more.
Extracts from Veronica species (speedwells) are known for the various biological activities they show, such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Also, the plants from this genus are known as medicinal plants used in traditional medicine worldwide. Phenolic compounds are specialized metabolites that contribute to biological activity the most. Therefore, the aim of this research is identification and quantification of phenolic compounds present in three Veronica species (Veronica anagallis-aquatica L., Veronica persica Poir., and Veronica polita Fr.) using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity with two methods: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Also, standards for compounds that were detected in the highest amount in all species were also tested for antioxidant activity. Three different solvents (pure methanol, 80% ethanol, and water) were used for the extraction of phenolic components and their comparison in order to test their antioxidant activity as a final goal. The main compounds present in the tested Veronica extracts were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, and apigenin. V. anagallis-aquatica contained the highest amount of phenolic components in comparison with the two other tested species, V. persica and V. polita. Caffeic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity in both studied methods with an IC50 value for DPPH activity of 1.99 µg/mL. For the plant extracts, in general, methanolic/ethanolic extracts showed higher activity than water extracts in both methods which was expected, as organic solutions extract more phenolic compounds. This research points to the potential application of extracts of different Veronica species for antioxidant activity. Full article
16 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
The Interactive Effects of the Anti-Sea Lice Pesticide Azamethiphos and Temperature on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Responses in the Oyster Ostrea chilensis
by Jaime A. Montory, Victor M. Cubillos, Oscar R. Chaparro, Paulina Gebauer, Matthew R. Lee, Eduardo Ramírez-Kuschel, Francisco Paredes-Molina, Valentina Lara-Sandoval, Juan P. Cumillaf, Luis P. Salas-Yanquin and Joseline A. Büchner-Miranda
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060737 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Azamethiphos is used in the salmon industry to treat sea lice and is subsequently discharged into the sea, which may affect non-target species (NTS). A rise in seawater temperature could enhance the sensitivity of NTS. Thus, in the present investigation, the combined effects [...] Read more.
Azamethiphos is used in the salmon industry to treat sea lice and is subsequently discharged into the sea, which may affect non-target species (NTS). A rise in seawater temperature could enhance the sensitivity of NTS. Thus, in the present investigation, the combined effects of azamethiphos (0 µg L−1, 15 µg L−1 and 100 µg L−1) and temperature (12 °C and 15 °C) was assessed over time (7 days) in the gonads and gills of the oyster Ostrea chilensis, assessing its oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls) and total antioxidant capacity. Our results indicated that in gonads and gills, lipid peroxidation levels increased over time during exposure to both pesticide concentrations. Protein carbonyl levels in gills increased significantly in all experimental treatments; however, in gonads, only pesticide concentration and exposure time effected a significant increase in protein damage. In both, gill and gonad temperature did not influence oxidative damage levels. Total antioxidant capacity in gonads was influenced only by temperature treatment, whereas in the gills, neither temperature nor azamethiphos concentration influenced defensive responses. In conclusion, our results indicated the time of pesticide exposure (both concentrations) had a greater influence than temperature on the cellular damage in this oyster. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Metabolism in Ecophysiology and Evolution, 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
Responses of Digestive, Antioxidant, Immunological and Metabolic Enzymes in the Intestines and Liver of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) under the Biofloc Model
by Yuqin Jin, Shunlong Meng, Huimin Xu, Chao Song, Limin Fan, Liping Qiu and Dandan Li
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060736 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 347
Abstract
To investigate the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, liver antioxidant enzymes, immunological enzymes, and glucometabolic enzymes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) under the biofloc model, an experiment was conducted in 300-liter glass tanks. The experiment comprised a control group, which was [...] Read more.
To investigate the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, liver antioxidant enzymes, immunological enzymes, and glucometabolic enzymes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) under the biofloc model, an experiment was conducted in 300-liter glass tanks. The experiment comprised a control group, which was fed a basal diet, and a biofloc group, where glucose was added to maintain a C/N ratio of 15. Each group had three parallel setups, with a stocking density of 20 fish per tank. The experiment ran for 60 days, employing a zero-water exchange aquaculture model. The results showed that at the end of the culture period, there were no significant differences between the initial weight, final weight, WGR, SGR, and SR of the biofloc group and the control group of largemouth bass (p > 0.05), whereas the lower FCR and the higher PER in the biofloc group were significant (p < 0.05); intestinal α-amylase, trypsin, and lipase activities of largemouth bass in the biofloc group were significantly increased by 37.20%, 64.11%, and 51.69%, respectively, compared with the control group (p < 0.05); liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and total antioxidant capacity of largemouth bass in the biofloc group were significantly increased by 49.26%, 46.87%, and 98.94% (p < 0.05), while the malondialdehyde content was significantly reduced by 19.91% (p < 0.05); liver lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase activities of largemouth bass in the biofloc group were significantly increased by 62.66%, 41.22%, and 29.66%, respectively (p < 0.05); liver glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate kinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glycogen synthase activities were significantly increased by 46.29%, 99.33%, 32.54%, and 26.89%, respectively (p < 0.05). The study showed that the biofloc model of culturing largemouth bass can not only enhance digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, and immune response but can also promote the process of glucose metabolism and reduce feeding costs. This study provides data support for healthy culturing of largemouth bass in future production, provides a theoretical reference for optimizing the biofloc technology culture model, and is crucial for promoting the healthy and green development of aquaculture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4542 KiB  
Article
Active DNA Demethylase, TET1, Increases Oxidative Phosphorylation and Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells to Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor
by Lin-Yu Chen, Yao-An Shen, Ling-Hui Chu, Po-Hsuan Su, Hui-Chen Wang, Yu-Chun Weng, Shiou-Fu Lin, Kuo-Chang Wen, Phui-Ly Liew and Hung-Cheng Lai
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060735 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a methylcytosine dioxygenase involved in active DNA demethylation. In our previous study, we demonstrated that TET1 reprogrammed the ovarian cancer epigenome, increased stem properties, and activated various regulatory networks, including metabolic networks. However, the role of TET1 in [...] Read more.
Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a methylcytosine dioxygenase involved in active DNA demethylation. In our previous study, we demonstrated that TET1 reprogrammed the ovarian cancer epigenome, increased stem properties, and activated various regulatory networks, including metabolic networks. However, the role of TET1 in cancer metabolism remains poorly understood. Herein, we uncovered a demethylated metabolic gene network, especially oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Contrary to the concept of the Warburg effect in cancer cells, TET1 increased energy production mainly using OXPHOS rather than using glycolysis. Notably, TET1 increased the mitochondrial mass and DNA copy number. TET1 also activated mitochondrial biogenesis genes and adenosine triphosphate production. However, the reactive oxygen species levels were surprisingly decreased. In addition, TET1 increased the basal and maximal respiratory capacities. In an analysis of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites, TET1 increased the levels of α-ketoglutarate, which is a coenzyme of TET1 dioxygenase and may provide a positive feedback loop to modify the epigenomic landscape. TET1 also increased the mitochondrial complex I activity. Moreover, the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, which had synergistic effects with the casein kinase 2 inhibitor, affected ovarian cancer growth. Altogether, TET1-reprogrammed ovarian cancer stem cells shifted the energy source to OXPHOS, which suggested that metabolic intervention might be a novel strategy for ovarian cancer treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
From Personal Care to Coastal Concerns: Investigating Polyethylene Glycol Impact on Mussel’s Antioxidant, Physiological, and Cellular Responses
by Cristiana Roberta Multisanti, Giorgia Zicarelli, Alessia Caferro, Mariacristina Filice, Caterina Faggio, Irene Vazzana, Jana Blahova, Pavla Lakdawala, Maria Carmela Cerra, Sandra Imbrogno and Federica Impellitteri
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060734 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) containing persistent and potentially hazardous substances have garnered attention for their ubiquitous presence in natural environments. This study investigated the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a common PPCP component, on Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were subjected to [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) containing persistent and potentially hazardous substances have garnered attention for their ubiquitous presence in natural environments. This study investigated the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a common PPCP component, on Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were subjected to two PEG concentrations (E1: 0.1 mg/L and E2: 10 mg/L) over 14 days. Oxidative stress markers in both gills and digestive glands were evaluated; cytotoxicity assays were performed on haemolymph and digestive gland cells. Additionally, cell volume regulation (RVD assay) was investigated to assess physiological PEG-induced alterations. In the gills, PEG reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) at E1. In the digestive gland, only LPO was influenced, while SOD activity and oxidatively modified proteins (OMPs) were unaltered. A significant decrease in cell viability was observed, particularly at E2. Additionally, the RVD assay revealed disruptions in the cells subjected to E2. These findings underscore the effects of PEG exposure on M. galloprovincialis. They are open to further investigations to clarify the environmental implications of PPCPs and the possibility of exploring safer alternatives. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6280 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic Oxidative Stress Effects of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps’ Components on Cattle Spermatozoa
by Rodrigo Rivera-Concha, Marion León, Aurora Prado-Sanhueza, Raúl Sánchez, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Pamela Uribe and Fabiola Zambrano
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060733 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Bovine spermatozoa are highly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS), and it is known to affect their cellular functions. The main leukocyte producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian semen are polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). PMN activation can result in the formation of neutrophil [...] Read more.
Bovine spermatozoa are highly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS), and it is known to affect their cellular functions. The main leukocyte producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian semen are polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). PMN activation can result in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which have been shown to affect the motility and function of spermatozoa. However, OS effects on bull spermatozoa derived from individual NETs components have not been investigated. The hypothesis of this study was that specific NETs components might generate OS on bull spermatozoa. Bovine sperm cells were incubated with five NETs-associated molecules, including 30 μg/mL histone 2A (H2A), neutrophil elastase (NE), 1 μg/mL myeloperoxidase (MPO), cathepsin G (Cat-G), and cathelicidin LL37 (LL-37), for a time course ranging from 15 to 240 min. Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the coincubation of bovine PMN and sperm cells. Within 15 min, H2A, NE, and LL-37 caused membrane disruption, while MPO and Cat-G caused OS on bull spermatozoa after 1 h of coincubation. NET formation was observed within 15 min of coincubation in co-cultures of bovine PMN/sperm cells. This study is the first to report on the role of cytotoxic OS effects caused by NETs-derived components in bovine sperm in vitro. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1719 KiB  
Article
Induction of Semaphorin 3A by Resveratrol and Pinostilbene via Activation of the AHR-NRF2 Axis in Human Keratinocytes
by Gaku Tsuji, Ayako Yumine, Koji Kawamura, Masaki Takemura and Takeshi Nakahara
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060732 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), a nerve-repellent factor produced by keratinocytes, has an inhibitory effect on nerve extension to the epidermis. Epidermal innervation is involved in pruritus in inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and dry skin. We previously reported that tapinarof, a [...] Read more.
Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), a nerve-repellent factor produced by keratinocytes, has an inhibitory effect on nerve extension to the epidermis. Epidermal innervation is involved in pruritus in inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and dry skin. We previously reported that tapinarof, a stilbene molecule, upregulates SEMA3A in human keratinocytes. We also showed that this mechanism is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) axis. Since some stilbenes activate AHR and NRF2, we attempted to identify other stilbenes that upregulate SEMA3A. We analyzed normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) treated with 11 types of stilbenes and examined SEMA3A expression. We found that resveratrol and pinostilbene, antioxidant polyphenols, upregulated SEMA3A and increased nuclear AHR and NRF2 expression. In addition, AHR knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection abolished the NRF2 nuclear expression. Furthermore, AHR and NRF2 knockdown by siRNA transfection abrogated resveratrol- and pinostilbene-induced SEMA3A upregulation. Finally, we confirmed that resveratrol and pinostilbene increased SEMA3A promoter activity through NRF2 binding using ChIP-qPCR analysis. These results suggest that resveratrol and pinostilbene upregulate SEMA3A via the AHR–NRF2 axis in human keratinocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants for Skin Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

29 pages, 1227 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress as a Target for Non-Pharmacological Intervention in MAFLD: Could There Be a Role for EVOO?
by Aurelio Seidita, Alessandra Cusimano, Alessandra Giuliano, Maria Meli, Antonio Carroccio, Maurizio Soresi and Lydia Giannitrapani
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060731 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a central role in most chronic liver diseases and, in particular, in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), the new definition of an old condition known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The mechanisms leading to hepatocellular fat accumulation in [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a central role in most chronic liver diseases and, in particular, in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), the new definition of an old condition known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The mechanisms leading to hepatocellular fat accumulation in genetically predisposed individuals who adopt a sedentary lifestyle and consume an obesogenic diet progress through mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, which amplifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and influence the release of chronic inflammation and liver damage biomarkers, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. This close pathogenetic link has been a key stimulus in the search for therapeutic approaches targeting oxidative stress to treat steatosis, and a number of clinical trials have been conducted to date on subjects with NAFLD using drugs as well as supplements or nutraceutical products. Vitamin E, Vitamin D, and Silybin are the most studied substances, but several non-pharmacological approaches have also been explored, especially lifestyle and diet modifications. Among the dietary approaches, the Mediterranean Diet (MD) seems to be the most reliable for affecting liver steatosis, probably with the added value of the presence of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a healthy food with a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, and variable concentrations of phenols (oleocanthal) and phenolic alcohols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT) and tyrosol (Tyr). In this review, we focus on non-pharmacological interventions in MAFLD treatment that target oxidative stress and, in particular, on the role of EVOO as one of the main antioxidant components of the MD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Oxidative Stress in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2171 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid in a Rat Preclinical Model of Preeclampsia: Focus on Maternal Signs, Fetal Growth and Placental Function
by Gabriela Barrientos, Mariano L. Schuman, Maria S. Landa, Elizabeth Robello, Claudio Incardona, Melanie L. Conrad, Monica Galleano and Silvia I. García
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060730 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Chronic hypertension is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. We previously demonstrated that pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) display a spontaneous PE-like phenotype with distinct placental, fetal, and maternal features. Here, we hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Chronic hypertension is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. We previously demonstrated that pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) display a spontaneous PE-like phenotype with distinct placental, fetal, and maternal features. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation with alpha lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, during early pregnancy could ameliorate the PE phenotype in this model. To test this hypothesis, timed pregnancies were established using 10 to 12-week-old SHRSP females (n = 19–16/group), which were assigned to two treatment groups: ALA (injected intraperitoneally with 25 mg/kg body weight ALA on gestation day (GD1, GD8, and GD12) or control, receiving saline following the same protocol. Our analysis of maternal signs showed that ALA prevented the pregnancy-dependent maternal blood pressure rise (GD14 blood pressure control 169.3 ± 19.4 mmHg vs. 146.1 ± 13.4 mmHg, p = 0.0001) and ameliorated renal function, as noted by the increased creatinine clearance and improved glomerular histology in treated dams. Treatment also improved the fetal growth restriction (FGR) phenotype, leading to increased fetal weights (ALA 2.19 ± 0.5 g vs. control 1.98 ± 0.3 g, p = 0.0074) and decreased cephalization indexes, indicating a more symmetric fetal growth pattern. This was associated with improved placental efficiency, decreased oxidative stress marker expression on GD14, and serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) levels on GD20. In conclusion, ALA supplementation mitigated maternal signs and improved placental function and fetal growth in SHRSP pregnancies, emerging as a promising therapy in pregnancies at high risk for PE. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

25 pages, 3042 KiB  
Review
Liver Cell Mitophagy in Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease and Liver Fibrosis
by Jiaxin Chen, Linge Jian, Yangkun Guo, Chengwei Tang, Zhiyin Huang and Jinhang Gao
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060729 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) affects approximately one-third of the global population. MASLD and its advanced-stage liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the leading causes of liver failure and liver-related death worldwide. Mitochondria are crucial organelles in liver cells for energy generation and [...] Read more.
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) affects approximately one-third of the global population. MASLD and its advanced-stage liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the leading causes of liver failure and liver-related death worldwide. Mitochondria are crucial organelles in liver cells for energy generation and the oxidative metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction in liver cells has been shown to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of MASLD and liver fibrosis. Mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy, removes and recycles impaired mitochondria. Although significant advances have been made in understanding mitophagy in liver diseases, adequate summaries concerning the contribution of liver cell mitophagy to MASLD and liver fibrosis are lacking. This review will clarify the mechanism of liver cell mitophagy in the development of MASLD and liver fibrosis, including in hepatocytes, macrophages, hepatic stellate cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In addition, therapeutic strategies or compounds related to hepatic mitophagy are also summarized. In conclusion, mitophagy-related therapeutic strategies or compounds might be translational for the clinical treatment of MASLD and liver fibrosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1491 KiB  
Article
Chemical Compositions and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Sawdust and Resin-Rich Bark from Azorean Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae)
by Ana Lima, Filipe Arruda, Tanner Wortham, Alexandre Janeiro, Tânia Rodrigues, José Baptista and Elisabete Lima
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060728 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), forest operations and wood industry generate large amounts of Cryptomeria japonica biomass residues (CJBR), which can be used to produce valuable essential oils (EOs). In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of EOs from [...] Read more.
In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), forest operations and wood industry generate large amounts of Cryptomeria japonica biomass residues (CJBR), which can be used to produce valuable essential oils (EOs). In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of EOs from Azorean C. japonica sawdust (CJS) and resin-rich bark (CJRRB). The CJS and CJRRB EOs, obtained via hydrodistillation, showed different yield values (0.27% vs. 0.80% v/w, dry weight) and also different chemical profiles, as assessed using GC/MS. A total of 64 and 85 components were identified in CJS and CJRRB EOs, representing 95.7% and 96.9% of the total composition, respectively. The major components in CJS EO were oxygenated sesquiterpenes (mainly α+β-eudesmol, 1-epicubenol, and cubebol), while in CJRRB EO, the major components were monoterpene hydrocarbons, including α-pinene, δ-3-carene, and limonene (66.6% vs. 6.4% for oxygenated sesquiterpenes and 0% vs. 64% for monoterpene hydrocarbons, respectively). Antioxidant activity was estimated using (i) two radical-based assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and (ii) a lipid model assay, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity (BCBA). Both CJS and CJRRB EOs exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, and their DPPH, ABTS, and BCBA EC50 values were 1107 vs. 1275 µg/mL, 260 vs. 498 µg/mL, and 1764 vs. 662 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that both EOs were able to exert antioxidant activity via different mechanisms of action. Therefore, Azorean CJS and CJRRB may be sustainable sources for antioxidant compounds. This study expands the chemical and biological knowledge of CJBR EOs and, consequently, adds more value to the C. japonica EO industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Biological Activities of Hesperidin-Related Compounds with Different Solubility
by Hyo-Joon Kim, Sun-Hyung Lee, Sun-Ki Hong, Bog-Im Gil and Kyung-Ae Lee
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060727 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
The biological activities of hesperidin-related compounds, such as hesperetin laurate (HTL), hesperetin (HT), hesperidin (HD), and hesperidin glucoside (HDG), were investigated in vitro. The compounds showed different hydrophobicities, and the octanol–water partition coefficient log P were 7.28 ± 0.06 for HTL, 2.59 ± [...] Read more.
The biological activities of hesperidin-related compounds, such as hesperetin laurate (HTL), hesperetin (HT), hesperidin (HD), and hesperidin glucoside (HDG), were investigated in vitro. The compounds showed different hydrophobicities, and the octanol–water partition coefficient log P were 7.28 ± 0.06 for HTL, 2.59 ± 0.04 for HT, 2.13 ± 0.03 for HD, and −3.45 ± 0.06 for HDG, respectively. In the DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching assay to determine antioxidant capacity, all compounds tested showed antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner, although to varying degrees. HTL and HT showed similarly high activities compared to HD or HDG. HD and HDG did not show a significant difference despite the difference in solubility between the two. Cytotoxicity was high; in the order of hydrophobicity—HTL > HT > HD > HDL in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. All compounds tested showed reducing effects on cellular inflammatory mediators and cytokines induced by UV irradiation. However, HTL and HT effectively reduced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels compared to HD and HDG. The inhibitory effects of hesperidin-related compounds on skin-resident microorganisms were evaluated by measuring minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HTL showed the highest inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Cutibacterium acnes, Candida albicans, and Malassezia furfur, followed by HT, while HD and HDF showed little effect. In conclusion, the hydrophobicity of hesperidin-related compounds was estimated to be important for biological activity in vitro, as was the presence or absence of the sugar moiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
27 pages, 4963 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Activity of Halodule uninervis Ethanolic Extract against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
by Nadine Wehbe, Adnan Badran, Serine Baydoun, Ali Al-Sawalmih, Marc Maresca, Elias Baydoun and Joelle Edward Mesmar
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060726 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Natural remedies have been indispensable to traditional medicine practices for generations, offering therapeutic solutions for various ailments. In modern times, these natural products continue to play a pivotal role in the discovery of new drugs, especially for cancer treatment. The marine ecosystem offers [...] Read more.
Natural remedies have been indispensable to traditional medicine practices for generations, offering therapeutic solutions for various ailments. In modern times, these natural products continue to play a pivotal role in the discovery of new drugs, especially for cancer treatment. The marine ecosystem offers a wide range of plants with potential anticancer activities due to their distinct biochemical diversity and adaptation to extreme situations. The seagrass Halodule uninervis is rich in diverse bioactive metabolites that bestow the plant with various pharmacological properties. However, its anticancer activity against invasive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still poorly investigated. In the present study, the phytochemical composition of an ethanolic extract of H. uninervis (HUE) was screened, and its antioxidant potential was evaluated. Moreover, the anticancer potential of HUE against MDA-MB-231 cells was investigated along with the possible underlying mechanisms of action. Our results showed that HUE is rich in diverse phytochemicals that are known for their antioxidant and anticancer effects. In MDA-MB-231 cells, HUE targeted the hallmarks of cancer, including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. The HUE-mediated anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects were associated with the downregulation of the proto-oncogenic STAT3 signaling pathway. Taken together, H. uninervis could serve as a valuable source for developing novel drugs targeting TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 13287 KiB  
Article
Dopamine D2 Receptor Activation Blocks GluA2/ROS Positive Feedback Loop to Alienate Chronic-Migraine-Associated Pain Sensitization
by Wei Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ming Lei, Dunke Zhang, Guangcheng Qin, Jiying Zhou, Lichun Ji and Lixue Chen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060725 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder without effective therapeutic medicine. AMPA receptors have been proven to be essential to pathological pain and headaches, but the related regulatory mechanisms in chronic migraine have not yet been explored. In this study, we found that the [...] Read more.
Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder without effective therapeutic medicine. AMPA receptors have been proven to be essential to pathological pain and headaches, but the related regulatory mechanisms in chronic migraine have not yet been explored. In this study, we found that the level of surface GluA2 was reduced in chronic migraine rats. Tat-GluR23Y (a GluA2 endocytosis inhibitor) reduced calcium inward flow and weakened synaptic structures, thus alleviating migraine-like pain sensitization. In addition, the inhibition of GluA2 endocytosis reduced the calcium influx and alleviated mitochondrial calcium overload and ROS generation in primary neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that ROS can induce allodynia and GluA2 endocytosis in rats, thus promoting migraine-like pain sensitization. In our previous study, the dopamine D2 receptor was identified as a potential target in the treatment of chronic migraine, and here we found that dopamine D2 receptor activation suppressed chronic-migraine-related pain sensitization through blocking the GluA2/ROS positive feedback loop in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, ligustrazine, a core component of ligusticum chuanxiong, was shown to target the dopamine D2 receptor, thereby alleviating ROS production and abnormal nociception in CM rats. This study provides valuable insight into the treatment of chronic migraine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1459 KiB  
Article
Changes in Faecal Microbiota Profile and Plasma Biomarkers following the Administration of an Antioxidant Oleuropein-Rich Leaf Extract in a Rat Model Mimicking Colorectal Cancer
by Sofia Chioccioli, Gabriele Rocchetti, Jessica Ruzzolini, Silvia Urciuoli, Francesco Vitali, Gianluca Bartolucci, Marco Pallecchi, Giovanna Caderni, Carlotta De Filippo, Chiara Nediani and Luigi Lucini
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060724 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Oleuropein (OLE), a phenolic compound particularly abundant in the olive leaves, has been reported to have beneficial activities against colorectal cancer (CRC). In vitro studies suggested that these latter could be due to a modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Aiming to evaluate if [...] Read more.
Oleuropein (OLE), a phenolic compound particularly abundant in the olive leaves, has been reported to have beneficial activities against colorectal cancer (CRC). In vitro studies suggested that these latter could be due to a modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Aiming to evaluate if OLE could affect the intestinal microbiota and the plasma metabolome, an antioxidant oleuropein-rich leaf extract (ORLE) was administered for one week to PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apcam1137), a genetic model mimicking CRC. ORLE treatment significantly modulated the gut microbiota composition. Plasma metabolomic profiles revealed a significant predictive ability for amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and aldehydes. Pathway analysis revealed a significant decrease in phosphatidylcholine accumulation (LogFC = −1.67) in PIRC rats. These results suggest a significant effect of ORLE administration on faecal microbiota profiles and plasma metabolomes, thereby offering new omics-based insights into its protective role in CRC progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Status in Tumor Progression)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4122 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Damage Associated with Seeding Surgery for Pearl Culture in the Winged Pearl Oyster Pteria sterna
by Andrés Granados-Amores, Ángel I. Campa-Córdova, Héctor Acosta-Salmón, Carlos Angulo, Tania Zenteno-Savín, Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo and Pedro E. Saucedo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060723 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
To evaluate the antioxidant activity and oxidative damage by relaxing, wounding, and seeding of a saibo of different origin on Pteria sterna hosts, five oyster treatments were included: (1) relaxed (REL) but neither wounded nor seeded; (2) relaxed and wounded (WOU) but not [...] Read more.
To evaluate the antioxidant activity and oxidative damage by relaxing, wounding, and seeding of a saibo of different origin on Pteria sterna hosts, five oyster treatments were included: (1) relaxed (REL) but neither wounded nor seeded; (2) relaxed and wounded (WOU) but not seeded; (3) relaxed, wounded, and seeded with an allograft (ALL); (4) relaxed, wounded, and seeded with an autograft (AUT); and (5) unrelaxed, unwounded, and unseeded as control (CTR). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) activity were quantified between 3 and 24 h post-seeding. Compared to the CTR oysters, which did not suffer oxidative stress, SOD activity significantly decreased in the gonad and digestive gland in all treatments and decreased in mantle tissue in AUT oysters; this indicates that the entire process of preparing oysters for pearl culture (relaxing, wounding, and seeding) generates oxidative stress in the host. CAT was not a sensitive enzyme for measuring the short-term response of oysters to the wounding–seeding processes but rather a more prolonged or chronic stress. Similar to SOD, the lowest GPx and TBARS activity in seeded oysters evidenced their susceptibility to oxidative stress and damage, particularly in the WOU treatment. Evidence from this study indicates that SOD is a more sensitive enzyme for measuring the short-term response of the host oyster to the wounding and seeding of a saibo. It is also clear that the host undergoes stress at all stages of the pearl culture process, mostly during gonad wounding and regardless of the origin of saibo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Benefits in Aquaculture 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3145 KiB  
Article
Supplementation of Mangiferin to a High-Starch Diet Alleviates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation Potentially through Modulating Cholesterol Metabolism in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
by Yutong Zheng, Qisheng Lu, Jingyue Cao, Yulong Liu, Haokun Liu, Junyan Jin, Zhimin Zhang, Yunxia Yang, Xiaoming Zhu, Dong Han and Shouqi Xie
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060722 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Starch is a common source of carbohydrates in aqua feed. High-starch diet can cause hepatic injury and lipid accumulation in fish. Mangiferin (MGF) can regulate lipid metabolism and protect the liver, but there is limited research on its effects in fish. In the [...] Read more.
Starch is a common source of carbohydrates in aqua feed. High-starch diet can cause hepatic injury and lipid accumulation in fish. Mangiferin (MGF) can regulate lipid metabolism and protect the liver, but there is limited research on its effects in fish. In the present study, we investigated whether MGF could ameliorate high-starch-induced hepatic damage and lipid accumulation in channel catfish. The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fed one of four experimental diets for eight weeks: a control diet (NCD), a high-starch diet (HCD), an HCD supplemented with 100 mg/kg MGF (100 MGF), and an HCD supplemented with 500 mg/kg MGF (500 MGF). The results demonstrated that the weight gain rate (WGR) (p = 0.031), specific growth rate (SGR) (p = 0.039), and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (p = 0.040) of the 500 MGF group were significantly higher than those of the NCD group. MGF supplementation alleviated liver damage and improved antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared to those of the HCD group (p = 0.000). In addition, dietary MGF significantly reduced plasma glucose (GLU) (p = 0.000), triglyceride (TG) (p= 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (p = 0.000) levels. It is noteworthy that MGF significantly reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels (p = 0.000) and liver TC levels (p = 0.005) of channel catfish. Dietary MGF improves cholesterol homeostasis by decreasing the expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport (hmgcr, sqle, srebf2, sp1, and ldlr) and increasing the expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol catabolism (cyp7a1). Among them, the largest fold decrease in squalene epoxidase (sqle) expression levels was observed in the 100 MGF or 500 MGF groups compared with the HCD group, with a significant decrease of 3.64-fold or 2.20-fold (p = 0.008). And the 100 MGF or 500 MGF group had significantly decreased (by 1.67-fold or 1.94-fold) Sqle protein levels compared to those of the HCD group (p = 0.000). In primary channel catfish hepatocytes, MGF significantly down-regulated the expression of sqle (p = 0.030) and reduced cholesterol levels (p = 0.000). In NCTC 1469 cells, MGF significantly down-regulated the expression of sqle (p = 0.000) and reduced cholesterol levels (p = 0.024). In conclusion, MGF effectively inhibits sqle expression and reduces cholesterol accumulation. The current study shows how MGF supplementation regulates the metabolism and accumulation of cholesterol in channel catfish, providing a theoretical basis for the use of MGF as a dietary supplement in aquaculture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4670 KiB  
Article
Nutraceutical Potential of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) Hull: Phytochemicals, Antioxidant Activity, and Liver Protection
by Yu-Chen Huang, Chun-Liang Tung, Shang-Tse Ho, Wei-Sung Li, Shiming Li, Yu-Tang Tung and Jyh-Horng Wu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060721 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a traditional Taiwanese crop enriched with phenolic compounds and betalain pigments, is associated with various health benefits, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. This study analysed the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of extracts from both the hull and [...] Read more.
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a traditional Taiwanese crop enriched with phenolic compounds and betalain pigments, is associated with various health benefits, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. This study analysed the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of extracts from both the hull and kernel of Djulis. The hull extract, which contained higher levels of flavonoids and exhibited superior antioxidant activity compared to the kernel extract, was selected for further in vivo studies. These experiments showed that oral administration of the Djulis hull crude extract significantly mitigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reducing plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and enhancing liver levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). Additionally, the extract demonstrated potential in inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, a critical signalling pathway in inflammation and apoptosis, offering insights into its protective mechanisms. These findings underscore Djulis hull’s potential as a functional food ingredient for ALI prevention and propose a valuable application for agricultural by-products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Oxidised Albumin Levels in Plasma and Skeletal Muscle as Biomarkers of Disease Progression and Treatment Efficacy in Dystrophic mdx Mice
by Jessica R. Terrill, Angelo Patrick R. Bautista, Irene Tsioutsias, Miranda D. Grounds and Peter G. Arthur
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060720 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Redox modifications to the plasma protein albumin have the potential to be used as biomarkers of disease progression and treatment efficacy in pathologies associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. One such pathology is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal childhood disease characterised by [...] Read more.
Redox modifications to the plasma protein albumin have the potential to be used as biomarkers of disease progression and treatment efficacy in pathologies associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. One such pathology is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal childhood disease characterised by severe muscle wasting. We have previously shown in the mdx mouse model of DMD that plasma albumin thiol oxidation is increased; therefore, the first aim of this paper was to establish that albumin thiol oxidation in plasma reflects levels within mdx muscle tissue. We therefore developed a method to measure tissue albumin thiol oxidation. We show that albumin thiol oxidation was increased in both mdx muscle and plasma, with levels correlated with measures of dystropathology. In dystrophic muscle, albumin content was associated with areas of myonecrosis. The second aim was to test the ability of plasma thiol oxidation to track acute changes in dystropathology: we therefore subjected mdx mice to a single treadmill exercise session (known to increase myonecrosis) and took serial blood samples. This acute exercise caused a transient increase in total plasma albumin oxidation and measures of dystropathology. Together, these data support the use of plasma albumin thiol oxidation as a biomarker to track active myonecrosis in DMD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2864 KiB  
Article
Persulfidome of Sweet Pepper Fruits during Ripening: The Case Study of Leucine Aminopeptidase That Is Positively Modulated by H2S
by María A. Muñoz-Vargas, Salvador González-Gordo, Angeles Aroca, Luis C. Romero, Cecilia Gotor, José M. Palma and Francisco J. Corpas
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060719 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Protein persulfidation is a thiol-based oxidative posttranslational modification (oxiPTM) that involves the modification of susceptible cysteine thiol groups present in peptides and proteins through hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thus affecting their function. Using sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits as a [...] Read more.
Protein persulfidation is a thiol-based oxidative posttranslational modification (oxiPTM) that involves the modification of susceptible cysteine thiol groups present in peptides and proteins through hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thus affecting their function. Using sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits as a model material at different stages of ripening (immature green and ripe red), endogenous persulfidated proteins (persulfidome) were labeled using the dimedone switch method and identified using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS). A total of 891 persulfidated proteins were found in pepper fruits, either immature green or ripe red. Among these, 370 proteins were exclusively present in green pepper, 237 proteins were exclusively present in red pepper, and 284 proteins were shared between both stages of ripening. A comparative analysis of the pepper persulfidome with that described in Arabidopsis leaves allowed the identification of 25% of common proteins. Among these proteins, glutathione reductase (GR) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were selected to evaluate the effect of persulfidation using an in vitro approach. GR activity was unaffected, whereas LAP activity increased by 3-fold after persulfidation. Furthermore, this effect was reverted through treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT). To our knowledge, this is the first persulfidome described in fruits, which opens new avenues to study H2S metabolism. Additionally, the results obtained lead us to hypothesize that LAP could be involved in glutathione (GSH) recycling in pepper fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in Biological Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Essential Oil Emulsion from Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) Leaves: Exploration of Its Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties for Possible Application as a Natural Food Preservative
by Maria Merlino, Concetta Condurso, Fabrizio Cincotta, Luca Nalbone, Graziella Ziino and Antonella Verzera
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060718 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 309
Abstract
This study explored, for the first time, the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of a caper leaf essential oil (EO) emulsion for possible food applications as a natural preservative. The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of [...] Read more.
This study explored, for the first time, the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of a caper leaf essential oil (EO) emulsion for possible food applications as a natural preservative. The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Capparis spinosa growing wild in the Aeolian Archipelago (Sicily, Italy) and exhibited a pungent, sulphurous odour. The volatile fraction of the emulsion, analysed by SPME-GC-MS, consisted of over 100 compounds and was dominated by compounds with recognised antibacterial and antioxidant properties, namely dimethyl tetrasulfide (18.41%), dimethyl trisulfide (12.58%), methyl isothiocyanate (7.97%), and terpinen-4-ol (6.76%). The emulsion was effective against all bacterial strains tested (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens), with L. monocytogenes exhibiting the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 0.02 mg/mL) while E. coli had the highest (MIC = 0.06 mg/mL). The emulsion had a good DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging activity that was dose-dependent and equal to 42.98% at the 0.08 mg/mL level with an IC50 value of 0.099 mg/mL. Based on the results, the caper leaf EO emulsion has the potential to be proposed as a natural alternative to chemical preservatives in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodologies for Improving Antioxidant Properties and Absorption)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
The Role of Ergothioneine in Red Blood Cell Biology: A Review and Perspective
by Tiffany A. Thomas, Richard O. Francis, James C. Zimring, Joseph P. Kao, Travis Nemkov and Steven L. Spitalnik
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060717 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Oxidative stress can damage tissues and cells, and their resilience or susceptibility depends on the robustness of their antioxidant mechanisms. The latter include small molecules, proteins, and enzymes, which are linked together in metabolic pathways. Red blood cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress can damage tissues and cells, and their resilience or susceptibility depends on the robustness of their antioxidant mechanisms. The latter include small molecules, proteins, and enzymes, which are linked together in metabolic pathways. Red blood cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress due to their large number of hemoglobin molecules, which can undergo auto-oxidation. This yields reactive oxygen species that participate in Fenton chemistry, ultimately damaging their membranes and cytosolic constituents. Fortunately, red blood cells contain robust antioxidant systems to enable them to circulate and perform their physiological functions, particularly delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. Nonetheless, if red blood cells have insufficient antioxidant reserves (e.g., due to genetics, diet, disease, or toxin exposure), this can induce hemolysis in vivo or enhance susceptibility to a “storage lesion” in vitro, when blood donations are refrigerator-stored for transfusion purposes. Ergothioneine, a small molecule not synthesized by mammals, is obtained only through the diet. It is absorbed from the gut and enters cells using a highly specific transporter (i.e., SLC22A4). Certain cells and tissues, particularly red blood cells, contain high ergothioneine levels. Although no deficiency-related disease has been identified, evidence suggests ergothioneine may be a beneficial “nutraceutical.” Given the requirements of red blood cells to resist oxidative stress and their high ergothioneine content, this review discusses ergothioneine’s potential importance in protecting these cells and identifies knowledge gaps regarding its relevance in enhancing red blood cell circulatory, storage, and transfusion quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood Cells and Redox Homeostasis in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Electrical Pulse Stimulation Protects C2C12 Myotubes against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cytotoxicity via Nrf2/Antioxidant Pathway
by Sarah Pribil Pardun, Anjali Bhat, Cody P. Anderson, Michael F. Allen, Will Bruening, Joel Jacob, Ved Vasishtha Pendyala, Li Yu, Taylor Bruett, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Song-Young Park, Irving H. Zucker and Lie Gao
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060716 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Skeletal muscle contraction evokes numerous biochemical alterations that underpin exercise benefits. This present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism for electrical pulse stimulation (EPS)-induced antioxidant adaptation in C2C12 myotubes. We found that EPS significantly upregulated Nrf2 and a broad array of downstream antioxidant [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle contraction evokes numerous biochemical alterations that underpin exercise benefits. This present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism for electrical pulse stimulation (EPS)-induced antioxidant adaptation in C2C12 myotubes. We found that EPS significantly upregulated Nrf2 and a broad array of downstream antioxidant enzymes involved in multiple antioxidant systems. These effects were completely abolished by pretreatment with a ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine. MitoSOX-Red, CM-H2DCFDA, and EPR spectroscopy revealed a significantly higher ROS level in mitochondria and cytosol in EPS cells compared to non-stimulated cells. Seahorse and Oroboros revealed that EPS significantly increased the maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, along with an upregulated protein expression of mitochondrial complexes I/V, mitofusin-1, and mitochondrial fission factor. A post-stimulation time-course experiment demonstrated that upregulated NQO1 and GSTA2 last at least 24 h following the cessation of EPS, whereas elevated ROS declines immediately. These findings suggest an antioxidant preconditioning effect in the EPS cells. A cell viability study suggested that the EPS cells displayed 11- and 36-fold higher survival rates compared to the control cells in response to 2 and 4 mM H2O2 treatment, respectively. In summary, we found that EPS upregulated a large group of antioxidant enzymes in C2C12 myotubes via a contraction-mitochondrial-ROS-Nrf2 pathway. This antioxidant adaptation protects cells against oxidative stress-associated cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Response in Skeletal Muscle)
18 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
β-Cyclocitral from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Exerts Anti-Aging Effects on Yeasts and Mammalian Cells via Telomere Protection, Antioxidative Stress, and Autophagy Activation
by Jiaheng Shan, Jianxia Mo, Chenyue An, Lan Xiang and Jianhua Qi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060715 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
We used a replicative lifespan (RLS) experiment of K6001 yeast to screen for anti-aging compounds within lavender extract (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), leading to the discovery of β-cyclocitral (CYC) as a potential anti-aging compound. Concurrently, the chronological lifespan (CLS) of YOM36 yeast [...] Read more.
We used a replicative lifespan (RLS) experiment of K6001 yeast to screen for anti-aging compounds within lavender extract (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), leading to the discovery of β-cyclocitral (CYC) as a potential anti-aging compound. Concurrently, the chronological lifespan (CLS) of YOM36 yeast and mammalian cells confirmed the anti-aging effect of CYC. This molecule extended the yeast lifespan and inhibited etoposide (ETO)-induced cell senescence. To understand the mechanism of CYC, we analyzed its effects on telomeres, oxidative stress, and autophagy. CYC administration resulted in notable increases in the telomerase content, telomere length, and the expression of the telomeric shelterin protein components telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and repressor activator protein 1 (RAP1). More interestingly, CYC reversed H2O2-induced telomere damage and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. Moreover, CYC improved the survival rate of BY4741 yeast under oxidative stress induced by 6.2 mM H2O2, increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity while reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, CYC enhanced autophagic flux and free green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the YOM38-GFP-ATG8 yeast strain. However, CYC did not extend the RLS of K6001 yeast mutants, such as Δsod1, Δsod2, Δcat, Δgpx, Δatg2, and Δatg32, which lack antioxidant enzymes or autophagy-related genes. These findings reveal that CYC acts as an anti-aging agent by modifying telomeres, oxidative stress, and autophagy. It is a promising compound with potential anti-aging effects and warrants further study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 24222 KiB  
Article
Nuciferine Protects Cochlear Hair Cells from Ferroptosis through Inhibiting NCOA4-Mediated Ferritinophagy
by Xian Gao, Huanyu Mao, Liping Zhao, Xiang Li, Yaqi Liao, Wenyan Li, Huawei Li and Yan Chen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060714 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, it can cause severe side effects, such as bilateral and irreversible hearing loss, which significantly impacts quality of life. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of programmed cell death, has been [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, it can cause severe side effects, such as bilateral and irreversible hearing loss, which significantly impacts quality of life. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of programmed cell death, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of nuciferine, a natural active ingredient isolated from lotus species, on the ferroptosis of cochlear hair cells. Firstly, our results demonstrated that nuciferine can protect hair cells against RSL3-induced and cisplatin-induced damage. Secondly, nuciferine treatment reduced ferrous iron (Fe2+) overload in cochlear hair cells via inhibiting NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy. Inhibition of ferritinophagy by knocking down Ncoa4 alleviated cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Importantly, nuciferine treatment mitigated cochlear hair cell loss and damage to ribbon synapse, and improved mouse hearing function in an acute cisplatin-induced hearing loss model. Our findings highlight the role of NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and provide evidence for nuciferine as a promising protective agent for treating cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Hearing Loss)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop