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Adm. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
‘Non-Routine Entrepreneurs’: Another Path of Realizing Entrepreneurial Intentions
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020038
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
The paper seeks to introduce the definition and to specify the characteristic features of “non-routine entrepreneurs”. Using the notion of entrepreneurship by Shane and Venkataraman (2000), it explains “non-routine entrepreneurs” as persons driven primarily by the idea of exploring entrepreneurial opportunities, but less [...] Read more.
The paper seeks to introduce the definition and to specify the characteristic features of “non-routine entrepreneurs”. Using the notion of entrepreneurship by Shane and Venkataraman (2000), it explains “non-routine entrepreneurs” as persons driven primarily by the idea of exploring entrepreneurial opportunities, but less interested in being formally engaged in owing/managing a business or to claim additional incomes from it. The empirical base of the papers is two cases, labelled as a “patriot” and a “big tipster”, from a panel of entrepreneurs, self-employees and start-ups the author surveyed in Moscow in three annual waves (2013–2015, N = 13). The paper shows the differences between the “non-routine entrepreneurs” and already well investigated groups (latent entrepreneurs, informal entrepreneurs, hybrid entrepreneurs, freelancers) and examines the personal (human capital) and social (transitional shock) context of the evolution of entrepreneurial intentions and their motivation. The “non-routine-entrepreneurs” fill in the lack of evidence about entrepreneurially minded persons with non-monetary goals, or non-economic meaning of results from such activities. Thus, the paper contributes to the literature on the reason and the intentionality of entrepreneurship. It concludes that “non-routine entrepreneurship” might become the choice of many people in contemporary societies where the boundaries between different kinds of economic activities are blurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Intentions: Emerging Issues)
Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Intentions in Students from a Trans-National Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020037
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Studying the variability of entrepreneurial attitudes within different countries is important in order to identify where attempts to increase entrepreneurial spirit and activity should focus. This article analyzes differences within multiple countries, as well the causal relationship of three attitudinal variables, namely, perceived [...] Read more.
Studying the variability of entrepreneurial attitudes within different countries is important in order to identify where attempts to increase entrepreneurial spirit and activity should focus. This article analyzes differences within multiple countries, as well the causal relationship of three attitudinal variables, namely, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and entrepreneurial motivations with entrepreneurial intention. We used a cross-national framework and analyzed the relation of four different countries with a sample of 800 students from Argentina (200), Chile (200), Panama (200), and Spain (200). Results show variability in all attitudes between countries with Panama rating the highest in most and Spain rating the lowest. Motivations expressed for entrepreneurship are not statistically significant between most countries, which suggests the perception of entrepreneurship as an engine for personal goals is high and similar in all four countries. Regression analysis showed subjective norm’s effect is not statistically significant in Argentina nor Chile for intentions, and Panama’s intentions are highly driven by entrepreneurial motivations. These suggest policies and programs should tap on the fairly consistent entrepreneurial spirit to capitalize on student’s interest in entrepreneurship, and pull them into training programs to strengthen their competences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Entrepreneurship: Past, Present, and Future)
Open AccessArticle
Growth Intention and Growth in Small Accounting Firms
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020036
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Previous research has found that owner/manager growth intention is related to subsequent firm growth, but growth intention alone only explains about 4–5% of the variance in actual firm growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors in addition to growth intention [...] Read more.
Previous research has found that owner/manager growth intention is related to subsequent firm growth, but growth intention alone only explains about 4–5% of the variance in actual firm growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors in addition to growth intention that may help us to explain a higher proportion of the variance in firm growth. We selected three factors for our study: Entrepreneurial orientation, versatile human resources and labor productivity. We tested the hypotheses in a sample of small Norwegian accounting firms. The findings indicate that, after controlling for growth intention, versatile human resources and labor, productivity contributed to the explanation of the variance in sales and employment growth, while entrepreneurial orientation has no such additional effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Intentions: Emerging Issues)
Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Entrepreneurial Activity and Economic Competitiveness in European Union Countries: A Panel Data Approach
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020035
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
To increase competitiveness, a country has to outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, entrepreneurship, competition, and education. In this paper, we aim to test the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurial activity and the economic competitiveness for the European Union [...] Read more.
To increase competitiveness, a country has to outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, entrepreneurship, competition, and education. In this paper, we aim to test the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurial activity and the economic competitiveness for the European Union countries by using panel data estimation techniques. Our research considers a sample of 28 EU countries over the period 2011–2017. For the empirical investigation we apply panel data regression models. The results obtained show that business, macroeconomic environment and the quality of entrepreneurship are significant determinants of economic competitiveness of EU countries. Thus, we identify significant positive relations between innovation rate, inflation rate, FDI and economic competitiveness, and significant negative relations between expectations regarding job creation, tax rate, costs and competitiveness. Our study completes the literature by analyzing the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurship and the competitiveness of countries, for an extensive sample formed by all the 28 countries members of the European Union for a period of seven recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurship Education and Disability: An Experience at a Spanish University
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020034
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
The European Commission considers the following groups of entrepreneurs: females, family businesses, liberal professions, migrants, and seniors. Disabled people are not included, and this paper could, therefore, open up a new field of research and an important issue to be considered among the [...] Read more.
The European Commission considers the following groups of entrepreneurs: females, family businesses, liberal professions, migrants, and seniors. Disabled people are not included, and this paper could, therefore, open up a new field of research and an important issue to be considered among the European Union’s social objectives. The University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) in Spain provides an entrepreneurship education course, “Entrepreneurship and disability,” for disabled students. It is the first time that a course with these characteristics has been taught at a Spanish University, which signifies that there is no similar research of this nature. Keeping in mind its originality, this study makes an important contribution to the field. The main objective is to analyze whether the motivation to start up a business differs between students with disabilities and those without. We analyzed “before” and “after” data in order to test the potential impact of entrepreneurship education on the students’ entrepreneurial attitude. An analysis of variance with several demographic variables has allowed us to prove that the education that students received, their business experience, and their field of study have significant effects. This statistical test showed no significant differences between disabled and non-disabled students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
Open AccessArticle
Psychological and Biographical Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention: Does the Learning Environment Act as a Mediator?
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020033
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this research is to study the mediating role of the learning process in explaining the relationships between certain psychological and biographical characteristics and entrepreneurial intention. The findings suggest that the effect of psychological and biographical aspects on entrepreneurial intention depend [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to study the mediating role of the learning process in explaining the relationships between certain psychological and biographical characteristics and entrepreneurial intention. The findings suggest that the effect of psychological and biographical aspects on entrepreneurial intention depend on the extent to which students are able to take advantage of their personal capabilities in order to develop an effective learning process. Learning process factors (information about course guides, student effort and educational processes) mediate the relationships between specific psychological factors (achievement need, internal control and autonomy) and entrepreneurial intention. With regard to biographical factors, we find no mediating effect on entrepreneurial intention through the learning process. The present study provides a better understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, helping to fill the gap in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Critical Success Factors of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Saudi Arabia: Insights from Sustainability Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020032
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the critical success factors (CSFs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed using 28 factors/indicators identified from the previous researches. From 500 respondents, a total of 347 questionnaires were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore the critical success factors (CSFs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed using 28 factors/indicators identified from the previous researches. From 500 respondents, a total of 347 questionnaires were returned. By conducting exploratory factors analysis, these indicators were categorized into six factors, namely: Individual factors, business characteristics, management factors, business support, capital availability and business environment. Using IBM SPSS and AMOS, the results indicated that business support was the most critical factor that significantly affects the success of SMEs in Saudi Arabia, followed by individual factors, capital availability, and management factors. They also indicated that business characteristics and business environment factors had no significant impacts on the success of these enterprises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bond Mutual Funds vs. Bond Exchange Traded Funds: Evaluation of Risk Adjusted Performance
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020031
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Growing acceptance of passive bond exchange traded funds (ETFs) and actively managed bond mutual funds has exposed the need to find a divide between these two comparatively similar types of instrument. This paper provides a comparative analysis of actively managed bond funds and [...] Read more.
Growing acceptance of passive bond exchange traded funds (ETFs) and actively managed bond mutual funds has exposed the need to find a divide between these two comparatively similar types of instrument. This paper provides a comparative analysis of actively managed bond funds and passive bond ETFs in the context of multiple criteria. The research of risk-adjusted performance of a sampled group of bond funds and ETFs using the TOPSIS multi-criteria decision-making method revealed that actively managed bond funds have a modest advantage over passive bond ETFs. Moreover, the final findings indicate the funds’ performance dependability on portfolio composition by fixed income sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
Open AccessArticle
Women Founders in the Technology Industry: The Startup-Relatedness of the Decision to Become a Mother
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020030
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper explores the decision to become a mother among women in the technology industry, particularly if there is an “optimal context” regarding startup development (business stage and size). Eighteen interviews were conducted with an international sample of women founders and analyzed using [...] Read more.
This paper explores the decision to become a mother among women in the technology industry, particularly if there is an “optimal context” regarding startup development (business stage and size). Eighteen interviews were conducted with an international sample of women founders and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Findings suggest two sources of “mumpreneurs” in technology ventures: (1) women who created a startup while young and childless, postponing maternity until the business is “stable”; and (2) mothers who created a technology venture as a strategy to gain higher levels of flexibility and autonomy than they experienced in the corporate world. The first group is highly work-role salient, while the second is highly family-role salient. The results of this work contribute to theory development by revealing the “startup-relatedness” of family decisions by women founders in the technology industry. I offer recommendations of how accelerators can improve mentorship for women in high-growth technology ventures and unleash women’s potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Business)
Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Impact Modeling as a Road Transport Crisis Management Support Tool
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020029
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Crisis management must provide data to allow for real-time decision-making. Accurate data is especially needed to minimize the risk of critical infrastructure failure. Research into the possible impacts of critical infrastructure failure is a part of developing a functional and secure infrastructure for [...] Read more.
Crisis management must provide data to allow for real-time decision-making. Accurate data is especially needed to minimize the risk of critical infrastructure failure. Research into the possible impacts of critical infrastructure failure is a part of developing a functional and secure infrastructure for each nation state. Road transport is one such sector that has a significant impact on its functions. When this fails, there may be a cascading spread of impacts on the energy, health, and other sectors. In this regard, this paper focuses on the dynamic modeling of the impacts of critical road infrastructure failures. It proposes a dynamic modeling system based on a stochastic approach. Its essence is the macroscopic model-based comparative analysis of a road with a critical element and detour roads. The outputs of this system are planning documents that determine the impacts of functional parameter degradation on detour roads—not only applicable in decision-making concerning the selection of the optimal detour road, but also as a support mechanism in minimising possible risks. In this article we aim to expand the extent of knowledge in the Crisis management and critical infrastructure protection in the road transport sector fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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