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Adm. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2019) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Studying the variability of entrepreneurial attitudes and beliefs using a cross-national framework is important as it allows identifying where attempts to increase entrepreneurial spirit and activity should focus as well as provides a reference structure that can be useful for new policy creation in each. This paper studies the differences of three personality variables: Perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and entrepreneurial motivations between four different countries, as well the causal relationship with entrepreneurial intention within each. We used a sample of university students from Argentina, Chile, Panama, and Spain. We used regression and ANOVA as statistical methods for our analyses. Results showed variability in all attitudes between countries, with Panama rating the highest in most, while Spain was the lowest. Future policies and each country’s situation are [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
How to Carry out the Transition towards a More Circular Tourist Activity in the Hotel Sector. The Role of Innovation
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020047 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Tourism causes important environmental impacts and can generate great pressure on local resources, such as land, water, energy and food, generating large amounts of waste, as well as problems of congestion, noise and air pollution. The circular economy is presented as an alternative [...] Read more.
Tourism causes important environmental impacts and can generate great pressure on local resources, such as land, water, energy and food, generating large amounts of waste, as well as problems of congestion, noise and air pollution. The circular economy is presented as an alternative model to the linear model, which recognizes the fundamental role of the environment, its functions and the interaction between the environment and the economic system. The hotel sector and the tourism sector in general, have been criticized for not adequately addressing environmental problems and global warming. In order to carry out the transition to a circular economy (CE), it is essential to innovate in business models, designing a circular business model. The objective of this work is to design guidelines on possible actions and opportunities that allow us to carry out a successful transition towards a circular model in hotel companies, as well as to design a model for this transition in a tourism destination, analyzing the roles of the different agents in this transition. Findings identified the main opportunities and benefits of this transition in the hotel sector and describes a three-axis model to carry out this transition in a tourism destination, identifying the roles of public administrations and DMOs, resident population and the tourism sector. Future research implications are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Destination Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Planning Project Stakeholder Engagement from a Sustainable Development Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020046 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. As the role that projects play in sustainable development is still developing, the integration of the concepts of sustainability into project management is an important trend in project management today. However, despite [...] Read more.
Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. As the role that projects play in sustainable development is still developing, the integration of the concepts of sustainability into project management is an important trend in project management today. However, despite the conceptual understanding of this integration, the literature still provides little practical guidance on how to apply sustainability to project management. This article aims to contribute to the integration of sustainable development and project stakeholder management by developing practical tools and frameworks that enable project managers to identify stakeholders, assess stakeholders, and plan stakeholder engagement activities with a consideration of sustainable development. The study takes a pragmatic design science approach in developing these tools and frameworks. The resulting frameworks build upon the concepts of sustainable development and form an elaboration of the documented practices of project stakeholder management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development and Project Stakeholder Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Strengthening Tourists’ Engagement in Guided Hiking and Trekking
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020045 - 21 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Many providers in adventure travel promote organised hiking and trekking tours. Such guided tours shall be engaging for the tourists and evoke positive attitudes towards enjoying nature. We present the Trekking Engagement Profile as a tool to evaluate engagement factors of such guided [...] Read more.
Many providers in adventure travel promote organised hiking and trekking tours. Such guided tours shall be engaging for the tourists and evoke positive attitudes towards enjoying nature. We present the Trekking Engagement Profile as a tool to evaluate engagement factors of such guided tours, based on engagement research performed in a different domain, namely evaluating engagement in museums and science centres. This tool shall strengthen the guides’ soft skills and enable them to increase engagement during an ongoing arrangement. For instance, the Trekking Engagement Profile can be applied when tourists indicate that the quality of a guided tour is not entirely to their liking. We show the viability of using the Trekking Engagement Profile in a small study with guides and participants of trekking tours offered by the Norwegian Trekking Association. Further, we offer guidance and charts to promote its practical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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Open AccessArticle
International Branch Campuses as an Entry Mode to the Foreign Education Market
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020044 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Higher education institutions (HEIs), especially latecomer institutions, continue to regard exporting education services by creating a commercial presence in a foreign country with caution. The purpose of this paper is to investigate ways of creating and managing international branch campuses (IBCs) and to [...] Read more.
Higher education institutions (HEIs), especially latecomer institutions, continue to regard exporting education services by creating a commercial presence in a foreign country with caution. The purpose of this paper is to investigate ways of creating and managing international branch campuses (IBCs) and to elaborate recommendations for universities on establishing a branch campus as an entry into the foreign education market. In order to reach this aim, we analyse the trends of IBC development in higher education in the last 30 years, compare the theory and concepts of service export in business and in higher education and, finally, conduct a case study on seven IBCs globally. The analysis shows clear synergy between business theory and higher education (HE); however, no obvious coherence is discovered between the IBC establishment practices and the traditional Uppsala internationalisation model used in international business practices. This research continues by verifying the coherence of IBCs with the revisited Uppsala model based on the relationships and market commitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle
Unraveling Green Information Technology Systems as a Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Game-Changer
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020043 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Green information technology systems (Green ITS) are proposed as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and other environmental impacts while supporting ecological sustainable development. The Green ITS concept combines both Green information technology (IT) and Green information system (IS) applications. The [...] Read more.
Green information technology systems (Green ITS) are proposed as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and other environmental impacts while supporting ecological sustainable development. The Green ITS concept combines both Green information technology (IT) and Green information system (IS) applications. The Green ITS concept has the potential to combat the carbon emission problem globally, beyond simply Green IT, because it combines management, organizational, and technology dimensions of climate change mitigation and adaptation, especially if supported by global policy. Examples include life cycle assessment software for measuring GHG emissions, and software for monitoring GHG emissions. Previous studies on environmental burdens such as GHGs, water and air pollution, energy losses and other forms of waste alongside socio-economic dependent variables including renewable resources and climate change policies are reviewed and synthesized. The research analysis conjointly points to the usage of renewable resources such as solar and wind as a critical strategy to scale back GHG emissions and enhance green growth. Empirical evidence shows that developed countries can reduce their carbon emissions while developing countries can utilize carbon emission-free technologies as they aspire to achieve development. The two significant benefits of the Green ITS strategy are first, to provide the environmental benefits of reducing greenhouse emissions and other environmental impacts and second, to enhance global green growth, which supports achievement of ecological sustainable development. Green ITS tools support achievement of the UN SDG 7, 13 and 15, which emphasize clean energy, climate action and ecological sustainable development, respectively. Future research directions include the formulation of a strategy to combat GHGs and design of a system to monitor carbon emissions and other waste remotely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of the Geographical Textbooks in Grounding Negative Stereotypes of a Tourism Destination—The Case of Upper Silesian Conurbation in Poland
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020042 - 15 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Tourists’ decisions on selecting their destinations are driven by their imagination of available offers, rather than by the real offers. The special role of the image of tourism destination in the process of building a competitive position result, among other things, comes from [...] Read more.
Tourists’ decisions on selecting their destinations are driven by their imagination of available offers, rather than by the real offers. The special role of the image of tourism destination in the process of building a competitive position result, among other things, comes from the fact the image is a factor of competitiveness influenced by both intentional and accidental actions of entities, whom are active in a particular tourism destination as well as environmental elements, which are beyond the influence of these entities. The cities of the Upper Silesian Conurbation were for many years perceived as completely dominated by heavy industry. Nowadays, after significant changes in their economy and environment, local authorities are struggling to fight that negative perception. The aim of the paper is to examine if the negative image of the Conurbation is grounded by the textbooks for geography for secondary schools in Poland. The textbooks were studied using the content analysis as an example of important autonomous sources of information. Particular stress was put on analysis of the heading and pictures in the chapters on the Conurbation. The results prove that industrial image of the region is being grounded by the geography textbooks. It was discovered that the picture of Upper Silesian Conurbation that might be found in researched textbooks is almost identical with what was previously presented in the literature as tourists’ perception of the Conurbation. The results prove the role of the textbooks and the whole school education as factors shaping the image of particular places that people have also as adults. That role was neither researched nor clearly stated in the literature so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Destination Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Leap from Negative to Positive Bond. A Step towards Project Sustainability
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020041 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Departing from the normative formulation of stakeholder theory and building upon the current body of knowledge, this study aims to advance understandings on the benefits and challenges towards a more holistic approach to stakeholder management at the local level of major public infrastructure [...] Read more.
Departing from the normative formulation of stakeholder theory and building upon the current body of knowledge, this study aims to advance understandings on the benefits and challenges towards a more holistic approach to stakeholder management at the local level of major public infrastructure and construction projects (MPIC). Major construction projects, project managers, and the local community stakeholder are deemed to operate within a ‘negative bond’. This interaction is elucidated through the attribution theory lens, which shape the conceptual framework of the study. This paper illustrates that a broader inclusiveness of stakeholder views into managerial decisions can initiate to break this negative bond and shift it towards positive relationships. An organization’s conscious approach towards transparent communication with the local community stakeholder might help to shape a long-term perspective for better project benefits realization either at the national, regional, or local level. By ‘exceeding stakeholders needs and expectations’, project managers and local communities can better collaborate in order to achieve sustainable development over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development and Project Stakeholder Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Conditional Value at Risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange Based on the Extreme Value Theory Using GARCH Models
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020040 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
This paper attempted to calculate the market risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange by estimating the Conditional Value at Risk. Since the Conditional Value at Risk is a tail-related measure, Extreme Value Theory has been utilized to estimate the risk more accurately. Generalized [...] Read more.
This paper attempted to calculate the market risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange by estimating the Conditional Value at Risk. Since the Conditional Value at Risk is a tail-related measure, Extreme Value Theory has been utilized to estimate the risk more accurately. Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models were used to model the volatility-clustering feature, and to estimate the parameters of the model, the Maximum Likelihood method was applied. The results of the study showed that in the estimation of model parameters, assuming T-student distribution function gave better results than the Normal distribution function. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used for backtesting the Conditional Value at Risk model, and in the end, the performance of different models, in the estimation of this measure, was compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Information Clues and Emotional Intentions: A Case Study of the Regional Image of the Cultural and Creative Community
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020039 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
In order to capture the value of cultural creativity, this study explored regional cultural creativities with different creative forms to understand how people interpret and interact with various regional cultural creative images. This was done by analyzing the abstract (performance) type of cultural [...] Read more.
In order to capture the value of cultural creativity, this study explored regional cultural creativities with different creative forms to understand how people interpret and interact with various regional cultural creative images. This was done by analyzing the abstract (performance) type of cultural creativity and the figurative (commodity) type of cultural creativity, in order to understand how existing regional cultural creativities operate information threads in social media, and how the different forms of content may lead to different levels of participation and feedback. The Cloud Gate Dance Theater can be taken as an example of an abstract cultural creation (performance type), and Green-in-hand as an example of a figurative cultural creativity (commodity type). In this study, all user page content for the period 1 January 2011, to 31 December 2018, and the number of user comments for each post were analyzed, for a total of 4784 posts. Computer science, data mining, big data, and social network analysis were combined to verify the findings of the analyses. Through an application programming interface (API), data and information in social media is extracted. Then data filtering, storage, and analysis is performed with meaningful information extracted for interpretation and for use in text mining to explore the relationship with the public based on content attributes. This study first verifies that the regional image is consistent with the social image location. Second, the information cues results found that information cues could be organized into region personality through any direct or indirect contact. Third, emotional clues can evoke emotions and self-expression, which is seen as an important clue to region emotions. In addition, this study also provides a conceptual framework for understanding how different forms of information, in regards to social management of existing regional cultural creativities, leads to varying levels of participation. Understanding the form of information is a key factor in the acceptance of information by the public. It is a reminder for cultural and creative institutions of the importance of text and images, and of figurative and abstract information planning in social content. In order to improve the competitiveness of the destination, using content interaction through social media to create and enhance a strong brand image is important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Destination Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
‘Non-Routine Entrepreneurs’: Another Path of Realizing Entrepreneurial Intentions
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020038 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The paper seeks to introduce the definition and to specify the characteristic features of “non-routine entrepreneurs”. Using the notion of entrepreneurship by Shane and Venkataraman (2000), it explains “non-routine entrepreneurs” as persons driven primarily by the idea of exploring entrepreneurial opportunities, but less [...] Read more.
The paper seeks to introduce the definition and to specify the characteristic features of “non-routine entrepreneurs”. Using the notion of entrepreneurship by Shane and Venkataraman (2000), it explains “non-routine entrepreneurs” as persons driven primarily by the idea of exploring entrepreneurial opportunities, but less interested in being formally engaged in owing/managing a business or to claim additional incomes from it. The empirical base of the papers is two cases, labelled as a “patriot” and a “big tipster”, from a panel of entrepreneurs, self-employees and start-ups the author surveyed in Moscow in three annual waves (2013–2015, N = 13). The paper shows the differences between the “non-routine entrepreneurs” and already well investigated groups (latent entrepreneurs, informal entrepreneurs, hybrid entrepreneurs, freelancers) and examines the personal (human capital) and social (transitional shock) context of the evolution of entrepreneurial intentions and their motivation. The “non-routine-entrepreneurs” fill in the lack of evidence about entrepreneurially minded persons with non-monetary goals, or non-economic meaning of results from such activities. Thus, the paper contributes to the literature on the reason and the intentionality of entrepreneurship. It concludes that “non-routine entrepreneurship” might become the choice of many people in contemporary societies where the boundaries between different kinds of economic activities are blurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Intentions: Emerging Issues)
Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Intentions in Students from a Trans-National Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020037 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Studying the variability of entrepreneurial attitudes within different countries is important in order to identify where attempts to increase entrepreneurial spirit and activity should focus. This article analyzes differences within multiple countries, as well the causal relationship of three attitudinal variables, namely, perceived [...] Read more.
Studying the variability of entrepreneurial attitudes within different countries is important in order to identify where attempts to increase entrepreneurial spirit and activity should focus. This article analyzes differences within multiple countries, as well the causal relationship of three attitudinal variables, namely, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and entrepreneurial motivations with entrepreneurial intention. We used a cross-national framework and analyzed the relation of four different countries with a sample of 800 students from Argentina (200), Chile (200), Panama (200), and Spain (200). Results show variability in all attitudes between countries with Panama rating the highest in most and Spain rating the lowest. Motivations expressed for entrepreneurship are not statistically significant between most countries, which suggests the perception of entrepreneurship as an engine for personal goals is high and similar in all four countries. Regression analysis showed subjective norm’s effect is not statistically significant in Argentina nor Chile for intentions, and Panama’s intentions are highly driven by entrepreneurial motivations. These suggest policies and programs should tap on the fairly consistent entrepreneurial spirit to capitalize on student’s interest in entrepreneurship, and pull them into training programs to strengthen their competences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Entrepreneurship: Past, Present, and Future)
Open AccessArticle
Growth Intention and Growth in Small Accounting Firms
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020036 - 30 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Previous research has found that owner/manager growth intention is related to subsequent firm growth, but growth intention alone only explains about 4–5% of the variance in actual firm growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors in addition to growth intention [...] Read more.
Previous research has found that owner/manager growth intention is related to subsequent firm growth, but growth intention alone only explains about 4–5% of the variance in actual firm growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors in addition to growth intention that may help us to explain a higher proportion of the variance in firm growth. We selected three factors for our study: Entrepreneurial orientation, versatile human resources and labor productivity. We tested the hypotheses in a sample of small Norwegian accounting firms. The findings indicate that, after controlling for growth intention, versatile human resources and labor, productivity contributed to the explanation of the variance in sales and employment growth, while entrepreneurial orientation has no such additional effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Intentions: Emerging Issues)
Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Entrepreneurial Activity and Economic Competitiveness in European Union Countries: A Panel Data Approach
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020035 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
To increase competitiveness, a country has to outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, entrepreneurship, competition, and education. In this paper, we aim to test the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurial activity and the economic competitiveness for the European Union [...] Read more.
To increase competitiveness, a country has to outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, entrepreneurship, competition, and education. In this paper, we aim to test the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurial activity and the economic competitiveness for the European Union countries by using panel data estimation techniques. Our research considers a sample of 28 EU countries over the period 2011–2017. For the empirical investigation we apply panel data regression models. The results obtained show that business, macroeconomic environment and the quality of entrepreneurship are significant determinants of economic competitiveness of EU countries. Thus, we identify significant positive relations between innovation rate, inflation rate, FDI and economic competitiveness, and significant negative relations between expectations regarding job creation, tax rate, costs and competitiveness. Our study completes the literature by analyzing the relationship between the quality of entrepreneurship and the competitiveness of countries, for an extensive sample formed by all the 28 countries members of the European Union for a period of seven recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurship Education and Disability: An Experience at a Spanish University
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020034 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The European Commission considers the following groups of entrepreneurs: females, family businesses, liberal professions, migrants, and seniors. Disabled people are not included, and this paper could, therefore, open up a new field of research and an important issue to be considered among the [...] Read more.
The European Commission considers the following groups of entrepreneurs: females, family businesses, liberal professions, migrants, and seniors. Disabled people are not included, and this paper could, therefore, open up a new field of research and an important issue to be considered among the European Union’s social objectives. The University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) in Spain provides an entrepreneurship education course, “Entrepreneurship and disability,” for disabled students. It is the first time that a course with these characteristics has been taught at a Spanish University, which signifies that there is no similar research of this nature. Keeping in mind its originality, this study makes an important contribution to the field. The main objective is to analyze whether the motivation to start up a business differs between students with disabilities and those without. We analyzed “before” and “after” data in order to test the potential impact of entrepreneurship education on the students’ entrepreneurial attitude. An analysis of variance with several demographic variables has allowed us to prove that the education that students received, their business experience, and their field of study have significant effects. This statistical test showed no significant differences between disabled and non-disabled students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
Open AccessArticle
Psychological and Biographical Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention: Does the Learning Environment Act as a Mediator?
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020033 - 07 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
The aim of this research is to study the mediating role of the learning process in explaining the relationships between certain psychological and biographical characteristics and entrepreneurial intention. The findings suggest that the effect of psychological and biographical aspects on entrepreneurial intention depend [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to study the mediating role of the learning process in explaining the relationships between certain psychological and biographical characteristics and entrepreneurial intention. The findings suggest that the effect of psychological and biographical aspects on entrepreneurial intention depend on the extent to which students are able to take advantage of their personal capabilities in order to develop an effective learning process. Learning process factors (information about course guides, student effort and educational processes) mediate the relationships between specific psychological factors (achievement need, internal control and autonomy) and entrepreneurial intention. With regard to biographical factors, we find no mediating effect on entrepreneurial intention through the learning process. The present study provides a better understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, helping to fill the gap in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Critical Success Factors of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Saudi Arabia: Insights from Sustainability Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020032 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2675
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the critical success factors (CSFs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed using 28 factors/indicators identified from the previous researches. From 500 respondents, a total of 347 questionnaires were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore the critical success factors (CSFs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed using 28 factors/indicators identified from the previous researches. From 500 respondents, a total of 347 questionnaires were returned. By conducting exploratory factors analysis, these indicators were categorized into six factors, namely: Individual factors, business characteristics, management factors, business support, capital availability and business environment. Using IBM SPSS and AMOS, the results indicated that business support was the most critical factor that significantly affects the success of SMEs in Saudi Arabia, followed by individual factors, capital availability, and management factors. They also indicated that business characteristics and business environment factors had no significant impacts on the success of these enterprises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bond Mutual Funds vs. Bond Exchange Traded Funds: Evaluation of Risk Adjusted Performance
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020031 - 02 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Growing acceptance of passive bond exchange traded funds (ETFs) and actively managed bond mutual funds has exposed the need to find a divide between these two comparatively similar types of instrument. This paper provides a comparative analysis of actively managed bond funds and [...] Read more.
Growing acceptance of passive bond exchange traded funds (ETFs) and actively managed bond mutual funds has exposed the need to find a divide between these two comparatively similar types of instrument. This paper provides a comparative analysis of actively managed bond funds and passive bond ETFs in the context of multiple criteria. The research of risk-adjusted performance of a sampled group of bond funds and ETFs using the TOPSIS multi-criteria decision-making method revealed that actively managed bond funds have a modest advantage over passive bond ETFs. Moreover, the final findings indicate the funds’ performance dependability on portfolio composition by fixed income sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
Open AccessArticle
Women Founders in the Technology Industry: The Startup-Relatedness of the Decision to Become a Mother
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020030 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
This paper explores the decision to become a mother among women in the technology industry, particularly if there is an “optimal context” regarding startup development (business stage and size). Eighteen interviews were conducted with an international sample of women founders and analyzed using [...] Read more.
This paper explores the decision to become a mother among women in the technology industry, particularly if there is an “optimal context” regarding startup development (business stage and size). Eighteen interviews were conducted with an international sample of women founders and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Findings suggest two sources of “mumpreneurs” in technology ventures: (1) women who created a startup while young and childless, postponing maternity until the business is “stable”; and (2) mothers who created a technology venture as a strategy to gain higher levels of flexibility and autonomy than they experienced in the corporate world. The first group is highly work-role salient, while the second is highly family-role salient. The results of this work contribute to theory development by revealing the “startup-relatedness” of family decisions by women founders in the technology industry. I offer recommendations of how accelerators can improve mentorship for women in high-growth technology ventures and unleash women’s potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Business) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Impact Modeling as a Road Transport Crisis Management Support Tool
Adm. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9020029 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Crisis management must provide data to allow for real-time decision-making. Accurate data is especially needed to minimize the risk of critical infrastructure failure. Research into the possible impacts of critical infrastructure failure is a part of developing a functional and secure infrastructure for [...] Read more.
Crisis management must provide data to allow for real-time decision-making. Accurate data is especially needed to minimize the risk of critical infrastructure failure. Research into the possible impacts of critical infrastructure failure is a part of developing a functional and secure infrastructure for each nation state. Road transport is one such sector that has a significant impact on its functions. When this fails, there may be a cascading spread of impacts on the energy, health, and other sectors. In this regard, this paper focuses on the dynamic modeling of the impacts of critical road infrastructure failures. It proposes a dynamic modeling system based on a stochastic approach. Its essence is the macroscopic model-based comparative analysis of a road with a critical element and detour roads. The outputs of this system are planning documents that determine the impacts of functional parameter degradation on detour roads—not only applicable in decision-making concerning the selection of the optimal detour road, but also as a support mechanism in minimising possible risks. In this article we aim to expand the extent of knowledge in the Crisis management and critical infrastructure protection in the road transport sector fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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